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Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff

[Franciscus]

(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...

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[Florentin, Dominique ; Riconucci, Domenico]

(b ?Florence, c. 1506; d Paris, 1565).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist, painter, engraver and mosaicist, active in France . He is mentioned for the first time between 1537 and 1540 in the accounts of the château of Fontainebleau, working on mosaics with Jean Picard (Jean Le Roux, fl mid-16th century). Barbiere rose to prominence rapidly in the team of artists assembled by Francesco Primaticcio on the royal works at the château and worked also at Troyes, where he lived for periods during his career. It is not clear, however, if he went to Troyes as a young man and established his profession there before going on to Fontainebleau with other sculptors from Troyes, such as the Julyot family (fl 16th century) and Nicolas Cordonnier, or whether he went initially to Fontainebleau in the footsteps of his fellow Florentines Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio and then went on to Troyes, a long-established centre of sculpture production, with craftsmen he had met at Fontainebleau (...

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Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

(di Giacomo di Pace)

(b Cortine in Valdibiana Montaperti, 1484; d Siena, between Jan and May 1551).

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal maniera has facilitated almost unanimous agreement regarding the definition of his corpus and the principal areas of influence on it. However, some questions concerning the circumstances of his early career and the choices available to him remain unanswered. The more extreme forms of Beccafumi’s reckless experimentation underwent a critical reappraisal only in the later 20th century.

The primary sources of information concerning Beccafumi are Vasari’s biography (1568) and archival findings, mostly 19th century, relating to the artist. Vasari, although a direct acquaintance of Beccafumi in his last years and in a position to gather information from mutual friends, was, predictably, unreliable in regard to his early career. According to Vasari, Mecherino, the son of a poor farmer named Giacomo di Pace, became the protégé of ...

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Françoise Jestaz

(b Verona or Parma, c. 1500–05; d ?Kraków, Aug 26, 1565).

Italian engraver, goldsmith and medallist, active also in Poland. He is first recorded in 1526 in the entourage of Marcantonio Raimondi in Rome. There the printer and publisher Baviera introduced him to Rosso Fiorentino, whose allegory Fury he engraved (b. 58). Caraglio continued to collaborate with Rosso and engraved several suites, such as the Labours of Hercules (b. 44–9), Pagan Divinities in Niches (b. 24–43) and Loves of the Gods (b.9–23; two after Rosso and eighteen after Perino del Vaga). After the Sack of Rome (1527), Caraglio took refuge in Venice, where he made engravings after Titian (b. 3, 64). His presence is recorded there until 1537.

By 1539 Caraglio was in Poland, probably at the recommendation of his friend Pietro Aretino, who had contacts in the court of Bona Sforza (1494–1557), wife of Sigismund I, King of Poland. By ...

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

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(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...

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[il giovane]

(b Treviso, c. 1498; d Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1544).

Italian painter, draughtsman, sculptor and military engineer. He is first documented in 1523 in Bologna but had probably arrived there c. 1520. Between 1515 and 1520 he produced an engraving (initialled) of Susanna and the Elders and a series of drawings that were engraved by Francesco de Nanto, depicting scenes from the Life of Christ. A series of paintings, some of them initialled, were attributed to him by Coletti and this attribution is now generally accepted. The group includes two small canvases (transferred from panels that were initialled hirtv) representing Isaac Blessing Jacob and Hagar and the Angel (both Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), the monogrammed Sleeping Venus (c. 1520–29; Rome, Gal. Borghese), which contains an echo of Marcantonio Raimondi’s so-called Dream of Raphael (b. 274, 359), the initialled Female Nude (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), derived from a drawing by Raphael (London, BM) that was engraved by Raimondi (b...

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Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

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Marianne Grivel

(b ?Paris, c. 1519; d Paris, 1583).

French goldsmith, medallist, draughtsman and engraver. He was recorded as a journeyman goldsmith in Paris in 1546 and was appointed to the royal mint in January 1552. He was, however, removed in June that year. A number of medals, including one of Henry II (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Médailles), are attributed to him. He did not become an engraver until about 1557; his first dated prints, a series of 12 plates illustrating the Old Testament (Linzeler and Adhémar, nos 3–14) and two designs for hand mirrors (l & a 308–9), were made in 1561. He found his models in the work of such Italian artists of the Fontainebleau school as Rosso Fiorentino, Nicolò dell’Abate and especially Luca Penni, rather than in that of Francesco Primaticcio. The year 1569 seems to have marked the peak of Delaune’s Fontainebleau production, with about ten prints inspired by the Italian masters. As a Calvinist he left Paris at the time of the St Bartholomew’s Eve massacre on ...

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Antonio Manno

[Giovannantonio]

(b San Gimignano, 1533; d Naples, 1609).

Italian sculptor, architect, draughtsman, antiquarian, engineer and decorator. He began his career as a goldsmith and engraver. He arrived in Rome in 1548 and the next year entered the workshop of the sculptor and architect Raffaele da Montelupo, where he worked mostly on wall decorations for mausoleums. Around this time he carved a statue of Hope for the tomb of Giulio del Vecchio in SS Apostoli, Rome. Between 1552 and 1564 he was in close contact with Michelangelo, and he may have participated with Guglielmo della Porta in the reconstruction of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome. Della Porta and Dosio associated with the artistic circle around the Carafa family, for whom they may have planned a chapel. In 1561 Dosio was working as a sculptor and stuccoist for the patrician Torquato de’ Conti. Other sculptural work in Rome includes a funerary monument with posthumous portrait bust for the poet Annibal Caro...

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(b Nuremberg, bapt Oct 6, 1567; d Nuremberg, 1631 or later).

German goldsmith, engraver and medallist. The son of the goldsmith Paul Flindt I (fl 1567; d 1582), he became a master in Nuremberg in 1601, after a lengthy stay in Vienna. A variant of his pf monogram was pvn, for Paul Vlindt Norimbergensis. Apart from a few lead plaques, only one securely attributable piece of his goldsmith work is known, an embossed oval gold-plated silver tray with figural motifs (1606; Moscow, Patriarch’s Pal.). Although he maintained only a small workshop, Flindt exercised a major influence on the development of ornament in the goldsmith work of his time, especially through his serial engravings (over 200 sheets; 1592–1618; see 1985 exh. cat., nos 409–24, 461, 463–6) of all sorts of ornate pieces, garnished with ribbon- and band-ornament and rich figurative centres. These delicately shadowed, plastically modelled sheets, with their Mannerist motifs, created under the influence of Wenzel Jamnitzer, Jost Amman, Hendrick Goltzius and others, were taken by many goldsmiths as ‘classical’ models for their own work. It has been claimed that Flindt invented the embossing technique of copper-engraving, but this had already been practised before him, in Augsburg....

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(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...

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Henri Zerner

[Fr. Ecole de Fontainebleau]

Term that encompasses work in a wide variety of media, including painting, sculpture, stuccowork and printmaking, produced from the 1530s to the first decade of the 17th century in France (e.g. The Nymph of Fontainebleau). It evokes an unreal and poetic world of elegant, elongated figures, often in mythological settings, as well as incorporating rich, intricate ornamentation with a characteristic type of strapwork. The phrase was first used by Adam von Bartsch in Le Peintre-graveur (21 vols, Vienna, 1803–21), referring to a group of etchings and engravings, some of which were undoubtedly made at Fontainebleau in France (see Fontainebleau, §1). More generally, it designates the art made to decorate the château of Fontainebleau, built from 1528 by Francis I and his successors (see Valois, House of family, §14), and by extension it covers all works that reflect the art of Fontainebleau. The principal artists of the school were ...

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Jacques Thirion

(b c. 1510; d ?Bologna, c. 1565).

French sculptor, illustrator and architect. He was one of the great masters of relief sculpture. Through his collaboration with the architect Pierre Lescot he was involved in many major building projects, and in his refined relief sculptures, such as the carved panels for the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, he achieved a highly personal synthesis between the mannered style of the Fontainebleau school and a classicism derived from his study of antique sculpture. He illustrated with skilful and lively wood-engravings Jean Baptiste Martin I’s first complete French translation (Paris, 1547) of Vitruvius, De architectura: Architecture ou art de bien bastir, an edition that was to have considerable influence on the revival of the classical style in France.

Goujon was possibly of Norman origin, and the knowledge of the sculpture and architecture of anti-quity and the Italian Renaissance displayed in his works suggests that he spent time in Italy. He is first recorded at Rouen in ...

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Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

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Kristin Lohse Belkin

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Elisabeth Gurock

(b Strasbourg, 1573; d Brussels, 1645).

Flemish engraver, print publisher, sculptor and painter. His father, Jan van der Heyden (fl 1590; d before 1645), was a painter from Mechelen who left to settle in Strasbourg because of religious turmoil. Jacob trained in Brussels with Raphael Coxie (1540–1616), who was also from Mechelen; it seems probable, however, that Jacob continued to make his home in Strasbourg until 1635, subsequently moving to Brussels, where he worked until his death.

Van der Heyden’s extensive artistic activity extended over several genres. Among his documented paintings and sculptures were a painting of the Adoration of the Magi, listed in a Strasbourg catalogue of 1668, a Portrait of a Man with the Neck-chain of an Order (ex-Hollandt Col., Brunswick), and a gilt-bronze sculpture of Venus (all untraced). His principal work, however, lay in the domain of engraving and publishing. At the time when he founded his own publishing house, Strasbourg was a flourishing centre of graphic production. He published prints by numerous artists, including ...

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Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

In