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Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in 1249. Further excavations could shed much light on this history.

Highlights in the Algarve include remains at Milreu of a villa with elaborate mosaics that rank among the most substantial Roman sites in the region. The site further preserves foundations of a basilica, likely constructed in the 5th century, and traces of what may be a baptistery, perhaps added during the period of Byzantine occupation in the 6th and 7th centuries. The period of Islamic rule, from the 8th century through to the 13th, witnessed the construction of many fortifications, including examples at Aljezur, Loulé and Salir, which were mostly levelled by earthquakes. Silves, a city with origins in the Bronze Age, preserves a substantial concentration of relatively well-preserved Islamic monuments. These include a bridge, carved inscriptions, a castle, cistern and fortified walls, along which numerous ceramics have been excavated. Most extant medieval churches in Algarve date to the period after the Reconquest. These tend to be modest in design and small in scale, such as the 13th-century Vera Cruz de Marmelar, built over Visigothic or Mozarabic foundations. The relatively large cathedrals at Silves and at Faro preserve substantial portions dating to the 13th century, as well as fabric from subsequent medieval campaigns. Renaissance and Baroque churches and ecclesiastical furnishings can be found throughout Algarve....


Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....


(fl 1388; d after 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. Milanese writers from the humanist Uberto Decembrio (1350–1427) to Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo in the 16th century described Michelino as the greatest artist of his time. He was especially praised for his skill and prodigious talent in the naturalistic portrayal of animals and birds. Records of payments made in 1388 to a ‘Michelino pictore’ who painted scenes from the Life of St Augustine in the second cloister of the Augustinian convent of S Pietro in Ciel d’Oro, Pavia, are thought to be the earliest references to the artist. He was still resident in Pavia in 1404, when the Fabbrica (Cathedral Works) of Milan Cathedral decided to consult him as ‘the greatest in the arts of painting and design’. The frescoes in S Pietro in Ciel d’Oro and a panel by Michelino dated 1394 that was in S Mustiola, Pavia, in the 17th century have not survived, but two of the manuscripts with illumination firmly attributed to Michelino date from his time in Pavia: St Augustine’s ...


Libby Karlinger Escobedo

Illustrated manuscript (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, MS. 597/1424) of the Inferno by Dante Alighieri, probably made in Pisa c. 1345. Dante’s Inferno is the first part of his Divine Comedy, written sometime between 1308 and 1321, in which Dante himself, guided by the Roman poet Virgil, travels through the nine circles of Hell, encountering a variety of notable historical figures guilty of the various sins associated with each successive level. The many surviving manuscripts attest to the popularity of the text; more than 600 copies survive from the 14th century alone, including the Chantilly manuscript.

The Chantilly manuscript contains the Inferno as well as a Latin commentary on the text by Guido da Pisa. Most of the manuscript’s 55 miniatures accompany the commentary, though their iconography is drawn from the Inferno itself. The Chantilly manuscript is among the earliest illustrated copies of the Inferno and the only known illustrated copy of Guido da Pisa’s commentary. The manuscript includes the arms of the ...


Gabriele Bartz

[Jacobo; Jacobus]

(fl 1398–1404).

South Netherlandish painter. He came from Bruges and is known only through written sources, the earliest of which places him in Paris in 1398, when he dictated instructions on the production of colours to Johannes Alcherius. Alcherius reproduced Coene’s instructions, with information from other French and Italian painters, in a treatise of 1411. In 1399, on Alcherius’s recommendation, Coene was one of the three consultants summoned to Milan to advise on the construction of the cathedral (see Mason, §IV, 3, (iii)). In a surviving contract, Coene was required to produce a drawing of the cathedral, from the base to the tip. In 1407 it was recorded that Jacques Raponde, acting for the Burgundian dukes Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, had paid on Philip’s behalf the sum of 20 francs to Coene in 1404 for a Bible in Latin and French. Coene worked on this commission with ...


Maria Cristina Chiusa

[de Fesulis]

(fl c. 1393; d 1427).

Italian sculptor and architect, sometimes confused with Andrea (di Piero) Ferrucci (1465–1526), who was also known as Andrea da Fiesole. The only work that can definitely be attributed to the earlier of the two sculptors is the tomb of Bartolomeo da Saliceto (1412; ex-S Domenico, Bologna; Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), which is dated and signed opus Andreae de Fesulis. Saliceto was a reader in law at Bologna University, and the tomb sculpture represents him among his pupils. Motifs and facial types are borrowed directly from the tombs in the Bolognese tradition of Giovanni di Legnano (1383) by Pierpaolo dalle Masegne and of Carlo, Roberto, and Riccardo Saliceto (1403; both Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), a work indebted to Masegne, but despite this Andrea’s Tuscan origins remain apparent. Gnudi was of the opinion that Andrea da Fiesole was in Florence until c. 1410. However, Andrea subsequently moved away from the Tuscan Renaissance tradition towards a northern Gothic style, following his contact with Venetian–Emilian sculpture. This can be seen in the tomb of ...


Robert G. Calkins

(fl 1380–1416).

Franco-Flemish draughtsman. He signed a sketchbook (Berlin, Staatsbib., lib. pict. A 74) consisting of studies of a variety of physiognomic types, occasional drawings of animals and a few more developed scenes of a pilgrimage, an innovative Man of Sorrows, an Annunciation and a Coronation of the Virgin. The stylistic, thematic and compositional similarities of some of these drawings, executed in grisaille on boxwood leaves, with manuscript illumination produced for Jean, Duc de Berry, especially those for the Hours of the Holy Ghost in the Très Belles Heures de Notre Dame (Paris, Bib. N., MS. nouv. acq. lat. 3093), suggest that Daliwe was employed at the Duc de Berry’s court c. 1380–1416. The drawings are thought to be trial sketches. They fall into four stylistic groups: one showing affinities with the style of Jacquemart de Hesdin and André Beauneveu; naturalistic studies related to the miniatures of the Livre de chasse (...


Kim W. Woods

[Rouppi; de Rouppy; Rupy]

(fl 1375–6; d 1438).

South Netherlandish sculptor. The name de Rouppy suggests that he was born in the village of Roupy, near Saint-Quentin in the region of Cambrai. He is first documented among the stone-carvers working on the spire of Cambrai Cathedral in 1375–6. In 1386–7 he was paid a salary of 15 francs a month by Jean, Duc de Berry, the first indication that he was in the Duc’s service at Bourges, apparently working with the sculptor André Beauneveu. In 1397 he was referred to as the Duc’s ‘varlet de chambre’, and in 1401–2 as the ‘imagier’ of the Duc, presumably succeeding Beauneveu, who had previously held the post and who died in 1401–3. He received presents from Jean de Berry in 1401 and 1413, and the collar of broom-cods (one of the Duc’s emblems) was bestowed on him by the Duc’s nephew, Charles VI, King of France, in 1403.

In 1449 Jean de Cambrai’s heirs were paid 300 livres for the alabaster effigy of the Duc de Berry that he had carved for the ...


M. Smeyers

[Esdin; Esdun; Hodin; Odin; Oudain]

(b ?Hesdin, Artois; fl 1384; d after 1413).

South Netherlandish illuminator, active in France. He was one of the Netherlandish artists who moved to France to work for the French royal family from the middle of the 14th century. By studying the work of Jean Pucelle and Italian painters he not only evolved his techniques of modelling and rendering of space but also modified the realism characteristic of Netherlandish painting to develop his own more refined style. On 28 November 1384 Jacquemart was paid for the first time by the administration of Jean, Duc de Berry (see Valois, House of family, §3). The payment concerned expenses that he and his wife had incurred in Bourges; he was also reimbursed for his clothing for the following winter months. Thereafter he was paid a regular salary by the Duc. In 1398, while he was working in the castle of Poitiers, he, his assistant Godefroy and his brother-in-law Jean Petit were accused of having stolen colours and patterns from Jean de Hollande, another painter in the service of the Duc de Berry. Jacquemart stayed temporarily in Bourges the following year....


J. Steyaert

(d Oct 8, 1439).

Netherlandish sculptor, active in France. He was the nephew and follower of Claus Sluter. From his arrival in Dijon in December 1396 he was principal assistant to his uncle on the monumental Calvary group, the Moses Well, commissioned by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, for the cloister of the Charterhouse in Champmol near Dijon. After Sluter’s death in 1406, de Werve was named ‘tailleur d’ymages et varlet de chambre’ to Duke John the Fearless, a position renewed under Philip the Good. Between 1406 and 1410 he completed the marble and alabaster tomb of Philip the Bold (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.) begun by Jean de Marville and Sluter. De Werve travelled to Savoy in 1408 at the request of Duke Amadeus VIII, possibly to work on the Sainte-Chapelle at Chambéry. He was in Paris in 1411–12 and was sent to Grenoble in 1436 in an (unsuccessful) attempt to find alabaster for the tombs of ...


Steven Bule

(b Siena, fl 1392; d ?Perugia, after July 27, 1434).

Italian sculptor and architect. First mentioned in 1392, he was paid for executing a frieze in Siena Cathedral in 1398. Between 1407 and 1425 he served as capomaestro of the workshop at Orvieto Cathedral. He made the octagonal cover for the baptismal font and also worked on the Cappella Nuova in the cathedral. Sano’s individual style is difficult to isolate, since he often worked in collaboration with other Sienese masters. On 10 November 1413 he contracted with Jacopo della Quercia to carve marble elements for the Fonte Gaia in Siena, and in 1416, while still documented as working on the Fonte Gaia, he was also working on the baptismal font in the Baptistery in Siena together with Nanni da Lucca and Giacomo di Corso (c. 1382–after 1427), colleagues with whom he seems to have collaborated on many projects. Sano is also documented in 1428 as one of many masters who assisted in the decoration of the Loggia di S Paolo in Siena. The precise nature of his contribution to these commissions, however, is not specified. As architect and engineer, Sano was involved with the construction of the façade of S Fortunato, Todi, during the early 1430s, and was also responsible for the building of canals and wells in Perugia in ...


Scot McKendrick

(fl Arras, 1395–1429).

Burgundian tapestry-weaver. He is notable as the only documented 14th- or 15th-century high-warp weaver whose part in the production of an extant tapestry is certain. The tapestries of SS Piat and Eleuthère (Tournai, Notre-Dame Cathedral) were made and finished at Arras by Feré in December 1402, according to a lost inscription woven above four scenes and now preserved only in a 17th-century copy by Canon Dufief (Brussels, Bib. Royale Albert 1er, MS. 13762, p. 82). The same inscription stated that Feré made this work for Toussaint Prier (d 1437), a canon of Tournai Cathedral, to which he donated the tapestries. It is not clear from the inscription whether Feré was personally responsible for all or part of the weaving or acted as the overseer of a workshop. The tapestry itself, however, appears in its simplicity of materials, scale, and design to conform with the documentary evidence for Feré’s life....


Roger Lehni

(d Strasbourg, Jan 10, 1372).

German architect. He was possibly the grandson of Erwin. The mason’s workshop of Strasbourg Cathedral appears to have been managed by Erwin’s descendants for at least half a century, initially by his son Johannes from 1318 to 1339. It is likely that Gerlach, who succeeded Johannes, also belonged to Erwin’s family. In 1338 he and other descendants of Erwin were among those who rendered the fabric accounts of the cathedral. Between 1341 and 1370 he represented the stonecutters in the City Council on many occasions. He was Master of the Works from c. 1340 to 1371, and various accomplishments of the workshop during this time can be attributed to him, including the St Catherine Chapel (c. 1340–49) and the left wing of the office of works, the Oeuvre Notre-Dame (1347). The third stage of the north-west tower, whose elevation recalls that of the St Catherine Chapel, was built from some time after ...


Franz Bischoff

(b Frankfurt am Main, c. 1360; d Frankfurt am Main, 1430/31).

German architect and sculptor. He was one of the most important architects of the generation following the Parler family. His work in Frankfurt and the middle Rhine Valley exerted a lasting influence on the Late Gothic architecture and architectural sculpture of the early 15th century, extending over a wide area. His style was influenced by the formal vocabulary of the Parlers, and he ranks as an important exponent of the Schöne Stil c. 1400. He was born into a respected family of stone masons: with his father, Johann, he occupies the second place among stone masons on a list of inhabitants of Frankfurt dated 1387. Presumably he trained in his father’s workshop, and as there is no evidence that he was in Frankfurt between 1387 and 1391 he may have gained wider experience through travel during those years. He probably visited the workshops in Nuremberg, Prague, Ulm, and Vienna, all closely associated with the Parlers. His eventual contact with the art of the Burgundian court is now considered less significant....


(d c. 1417–20).

Goldsmith, sculptor, and painter, probably of German origin. None of his works is known to have survived, but he is mentioned twice in mid-15th-century texts: in the second book of Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Commentarii and in the manuscript of the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Both texts relate that Gusmin died during the reign of Pope Martin (i.e. Martin V, reg 1417–31), in the year of the 438th Olympiad (i.e. between 1415 and 1420). He worked in the service of the Duke of Anjou, who was forced to destroy Gusmin’s greatest work, a golden altar, in order to provide cash for his ‘public needs’. Gusmin consequently retired to a hermitage where he led a saintly life, painting and teaching young artists. Although it is clear from his account that Ghiberti never knew the master or saw any of his original works, he stated that he had seen casts of his sculptures, which, he said, were as fine as the work of the ancient Greeks, although the figures were rather short. There have been numerous attempts to identify Gusmin with artists, both German and Italian, fitting the account of Ghiberti and the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Swarzenski first named Gusmin as the author of the alabaster Rimini altar (Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), but this has now been demonstrated to be of Netherlandish workmanship. Krautheimer proposed a convincing reconstruction of Gusmin’s career, suggesting that his Angevin patron was ...


[Berchtold; Bertold]

(fl 1396; d Nuremberg, between 1430 and Nov 1432).

German painter. He is mentioned in civic registers, tax lists, and municipal accounts in Nuremberg for the first time in 1396, when he was accepted as a citizen and took the prescribed civic oath under the title of ‘painter’. The tax registers of the St Sebaldus district record that a ‘Ber[thold] painter’ was resident there. According to an entry in the Harnischbuch (Book of Armour) for 1408, ‘Berchtold painter’ had to provide a suit of armour as a conscript. In 1413 the artist’s name is given as ‘Berchtold Landauer’ for the first time. In 1421 Master Berthold is listed among the house-owners of the town. His marriage produced three sons, of whom the eldest, Marcus (d 1468), is included as ‘Marcus painter’ in the military recruitment list of 1429. The final record comes from 1432: Landauer’s name is mentioned in a letter by Sebald Schreyer, master of the church of St Sebaldus, dated 22 November, in which ‘the late Master Berchtold painter’ is remembered. He was probably buried in the tomb of the Landauer and Schreyer families in the east choir of St Sebaldus....


[Jan; Jehan]

(b ?Nijmegen c. 1365; d Dijon, March 12, 1415).

?North Netherlandish painter, active in Burgundy. He was the son of the heraldic artist Willem Maelwael and uncle of the Limbourg brothers. First recorded as a painter in 1382, he is then documented on 20 September 1396 for a commission to provide designs for textiles with decorative armorial bearings for Queen Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI, for which he received payment on 27 March 1397. By 5 August 1397 he was in Dijon, where he succeeded Jean de Beaumetz as court painter and Valet de Chambre to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Malouel was highly paid, and his annual pension was considerably more than that of Beaumetz or of the sculptor Claus Sluter. One of the first works Malouel produced for the Duke was a painting of the Apostles with St Anthony (untraced), paid for on 11 November 1398, which the Duke is known to have kept in his private oratory. On ...


Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....



Cecilia Frosinini

[Giuliano d’Arrigo]

(b Florence, c. 1367; d Florence, April 6, 1446).

Italian painter and designer. An extensively documented Florentine painter to whom no work can be securely attributed, he was greatly esteemed by his contemporaries. The chronicler Giovanni Cavalcanti considered him on a par with Gentile da Fabriano, Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti. Cosimo de’ Medici was one of his patrons and loaned him a considerable sum in gold florins when his daughter was married (Procacci, p. 20).

Pesello matriculated in the Florentine painters’ guild on 25 June 1385. He was consulted several times by the Cathedral Works’ committee about the construction of the cathedral dome, for which in 1419 he produced a model (untraced). In 1420 he was nominated to stand in for Brunelleschi in the event of his absence or resignation, and he made several other models for the cathedral authorities (Guasti). In 1430 he completed a painting of the Annunciation (untraced) left unfinished by Giovanni Toscani. He also produced works of an artisan nature. From ...


Keith Christiansen

[Giovanni di Francia; Giovanni di Pietro Charlier]

(fl Bologna, 1389; d Venice, by 1448).

Italian painter. With Niccolò di Pietro and Jacobello del Fiore, Zanino di Pietro was one of the major Venetian painters of the first quarter of the 15th century. His activity in Bologna, repeatedly documented between 1389 and 1406, was of crucial importance for the pungent narrative style and naturalistic details of his earliest signed painting, a folding Crucifixion triptych painted for the Franciscan convent of Fonte Colombo (Rieti, Mus. Civ.). The inscription describes the artist as h[ab]itator ve[n]eciis i[n] contrata sa[nc]te a[ppol]linaris, and it is therefore datable to c. 1405, when Zanino seems to have moved permanently to Venice. Whether the triptych reflects the work of Gentile da Fabriano, who was active in Venice by 1408, or whether Zanino was instrumental in transmitting an Emilian style to Gentile cannot be answered satisfactorily. Zanino’s subsequent paintings reveal the influence of both Gentile and Michelino da Besozzo, who was active in Venice by 1410. The most important are two polyptychs in the Museo Diocesano, Camerino, and the convent of the Beato Sante, Mombarroccio, both in the Marches, the iconostasis of Torcello Cathedral, and the fresco decoration of the tomb of the ...