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Ursula Zeller


(b Berlin, July 26, 1893; d W. Berlin, July 6, 1959).

German painter, draughtsman, and illustrator. He is particularly valued for his caustic caricatures, in which he used the reed pen with notable success. Although his paintings are not quite as significant as his graphic art, a number of them are, nonetheless, major works. He grew up in the provincial town of Stolp, Pomerania (now Słupsk, Poland), where he attended the Oberrealschule, until he was expelled for disobedience. From 1909 to 1911 he attended the Akademie der Künste in Dresden, where he met Kurt Günther, Bernhard Kretschmar (1889–1972) and Franz Lenk (1898–1968). Under his teacher Richard Müller (1874–1954), Grosz painted and drew from plaster casts. At this time he was unaware of such avant-garde movements as Die Brücke, also active in Dresden. In 1912 he studied with Emil Orlik at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin. A year later he moved to the Académie Colarossi in Paris, where he learnt a free drawing style that swiftly reached the essence of a motif....


Ingrid Severin

(b Cologne, Nov 11, 1892; d Cologne, March 8, 1970).

German painter. He studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Cologne, and at the Kunstakademie (1910–14), Düsseldorf. From 1915 to 1917 he fought in World War I. Räderscheidt then studied to be an art teacher (1917–19), serving his probationary period at the Realgymnasium at Mülheim, Cologne. He married the artist Marta Hegemann (1894–1970) in 1918. After qualifying he began working as a freelance artist and became associated with Cologne Dada. However, with Wilhelm Fick (1893–1967), Franz Seiwert (1894–1933) and Heinrich Hoerle (1895–1935) he founded the Stupid group in 1920. With the painters Angelika Hoerle (1899–1923), Fick’s sister and Heinrich Hoerle’s wife, and Peter Abelen (1884–1962) he contributed to Live (Cologne, 1919), a volume of woodcuts of murdered socialists (e.g. Rosa Luxemburg, 1919; priv. col., see Herzog, no. 4). He changed the style of his work from Dada to Phantastischer Realismus between ...


Astrid Schmetterling

(b Miesbach, Upper Bavaria, Aug 21, 1894; d Keilberg, nr Aschaffenburg, Feb 25, 1982).

German painter, collagist, printmaker and photographer. He studied briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1913–14) and in 1913 began to make Expressionist woodcuts, which were published in magazines such as Die Aktion (Berlin), Die Weissen Blätter (Leipzig) and Sirius (Zurich). From 1915 to 1920 he lived in Zurich and Geneva, where he was associated with the Dada movement. He continued creating woodcuts but also made reliefs, paintings and collages from newspaper cuttings and other printed papers. At the same time he became interested in abstracting photography and using it in a more metaphoric way. In 1918, while living in Geneva, he created his first ‘schadographs’, such as Untitled (Fish; 1918; New York, MOMA), contact prints of collages and objects on photosensitive paper. Like Man Ray’s rayographs and Moholy-Nagy’s photograms, these cameraless photographs reproduced the negative image of the textures placed on them, creating a new form of representation....