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Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(Rynning)

(b Fredrikstad, July 6, 1882; d Biri, June 9, 1961).

Norwegian architect. He was trained as a draughtsman at the Royal School of Design in Christiania (now Oslo) from 1899 to 1902, and as an architect at the Royal Polytechnic in Stockholm from 1904 to 1906. He worked as an assistant to Erik Lallerstedt in Stockholm (1906–7) and in partnership with Ole Sverre (1865–1932), in Christiania (1907–8), where he afterwards started his own practice. Some of his larger projects were carried out in collaboration with Magnus Poulsson, including his best-known works, the Telegraph building (1916–24) and the Town Hall (1916–51; see Oslo, fig.), both in Oslo. Like Poulsson, Arneberg was a major exponent of the National Romanticism that developed after Norway gained complete independence in 1905. His project for the Royal Hunting Lodge at Voksenkollen (second prize with Sverre, 1905) represented the first clear break with the then-dominant ‘Dragon style’ (...

Article

Marit Lange and Thea Miller

(b Holmestrand, Jan 21, 1845; d Oslo, March 25, 1932).

Norwegian painter . In the 1860s and early 1870s she took lessons in drawing and painting in Christiania (now Oslo) and also travelled extensively in Europe with her sister Agathe, a composer and pianist. She copied works in major museums and took occasional art lessons; she later considered this experience to have been of fundamental importance to her artistic development. Little Red Riding Hood (1872; Oslo, N.G.) is impressive in technique, and the early portrait of her sister, Agathe Backer-Grøndahl (1874; Holmestrand, Komm.), shows a refined colour scheme. At the age of nearly 30 Backer decided to train professionally as a painter and in 1874 went to Munich. She was never attached to a particular institution, but the influence of her friend the artist Eilif Peterssen was crucial to her development. In Munich she made a thorough study of perspective, which formed a secure basis for her later work. The work she did while in Munich reflects a study of the Old Masters in museums and is characterized by a preference for the historical subjects typical of the Munich school, as well as by an interest in the psychological portrait (e.g. ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(Thalian)

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Jan 5, 1892; d Oslo, June 7, 1930).

Norwegian architect . He was educated at the Royal School of Design in Christiania and at the Royal Polytechnic in Stockholm (1913–15), and was a postgraduate student at the Architectural Association School in London (1919–20). After extensive travels in Italy, France and England, he started his own practice in Christiania in 1921. In his short career Backer produced some of the finest neo-classical and Modernist buildings in Norway. The Villa Larsen in Oslo (1925) is a large house of plastered brick. It is remarkably faithful to Italian prototypes, especially the garden façade with its portico of giant columns in antis; the modernity of the building is detectable in the subtlety with which Backer altered the proportions of his models.

Backer revealed his historical insight with an impressive competition project (1925–6) for the new University at Blindern in Oslo, which had an air of hidden classicism. At the Restaurant Skansen (...

Article

Vincent Lombard, Donato Notarnicola and Jhemel Zioua

(b Paris, June 7, 1876; d Quebec, July 5, 1944).

French architect and monk. He was the son of an architect and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was a brilliant student and obtained his diploma in 1901. After a trip to Spain and Italy, where he produced some beautiful watercolours that earned him a special mention at the Salon in Paris (1901), he decided to become a monk and entered the Benedictine monastery at Solesmes, Sarthe. At this time, religious communities exiled from France needed many new buildings, and Bellot was sent to the Netherlands in 1906 to extend a monastery there. He learnt how to build in brick, a material he used for the rest of his life, and he also became acquainted with H. P. Berlage and Modernist Dutch architecture. Bellot worked in the Netherlands and on the Isle of Wight, England, until 1920, producing many fine yet low-cost buildings in brick. His inventiveness, allied to an admiration for medieval architecture and the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc, led him to develop a style that had neo-Gothic aspects, clearly expressing structure and giving an impression of lightness and balance as much as mass and weightiness, and he used brick to create both structure and decoration....

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....

Article

Veerle Poupeye

(b St Ann, 1917).

Jamaican painter and sculptor. A self-taught mystic and visionary, unknown until the late 1960s, he drew his artistic inspiration from a very personal interpretation of two Afro-Christian Jamaican cults, Rastafarianism and Revivalism. His imagery developed through meditation and techniques similar to the automatism of the Surrealists. The curious limestone formations found in Jamaica frequently served as a source of inspiration, as in Bush Have Ears (1976; Kingston, N.G.). He also made ritual objects, such as carved wooden staffs and decorated musical instruments. During the 1970s he worked in close collaboration with his son Clinton Brown (b 1954), who also received substantial critical acclaim.

V. Poupeye-Rammelaere: ‘The Rainbow Valley: The Life and Work of Brother Everald Brown’, Jamaica Journal, 21/2 (May–June 1988), pp. 2–14G. Mosquera: ‘Everald Brown’, Ante América (exh. cat. by G. Mosquera and others, Bogotá, Banco de la República, 1992), pp. 25–30V. Poupeye: Caribbean Art...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

Joan Hichberger

[née Thompson, Elizabeth Southerden]

(b Lausanne, Nov 3, 1846; d Gormanston, Ireland, Oct 2, 1933).

English painter. She was the elder daughter of Thomas James and Christiana (née Weller) Thompson, members of London’s literary and artistic circles and close friends of Charles Dickens. Both she and her sister (the poet and essayist Alice Meynell) were educated by their father. She spent much of her childhood in Italy, but the family returned to England in 1860 so that she could have professional tuition. She became a student in the elementary class at the Female School of Art, South Kensington, London, and, after a further interval of travel and residence on the Continent, obtained a place in the antique and life classes at the school in 1866. Her main rival for academic honours there was Kate Greenaway. In 1869 the family lived in Florence, where she studied drawing at the Accademia di Belle Arti with Giuseppe Bellucci (1827–82). Her first recorded painting was a religious work, ...

Article

Delia Kottmann

Italian village in Lazio, north of Rome, known for its church. The church of SS Anastasius and Nonnosus is all that remains of the 6th-century Benedictine monastery, which submitted to Cluny in ad 940. Apart from some re-used fragments, the architecture is Romanesque, with a Cosmati pavement in opus sectile as well as an ambo and ciborium. The church is famous for its wall paintings from the first quarter of the 12th century. The apse and its adjacent walls, showing the 24 elders, are influenced by Romano–Christian motifs. Christ in the middle of the conch is flanked by Peter and Paul in a Traditio legis depiction, with a procession of lambs below. Underneath, Maria Regina has to be reconstructed in the middle, between two conserved angels followed by female saints in a Byzantine manner. No Romano–Christian iconography seems to have influenced the vast apocalyptic cycle painted on the side walls of the transept. A band of prophets runs beneath the roof on all the walls of the transept. An inscription in the apse indicates three Roman painters....

Article

Gudrun Schmidt

German family of artists. The sculptor Emil Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 19 Nov 1800; d Bad Kreuznach, 4 Aug 1867) studied in Berlin under Christian Daniel Rauch. He taught art at Bonn University. At first he was more interested in painting, but then turned enthusiastically to sculpture. He settled in Bad Kreuznach in 1832. Much of his work comprises small genre scenes and figures taken from fairytales. He also modelled important figures from German history and the Reformation, such as Ulpich von Hutten and Philipp Melancthon, and characters from Shakespeare’s plays. His two sons, Carl Cauer (b Bonn, 14 Feb 1828; d Bad Kreuznach, 17 April 1885) and Robert Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 13 Feb 1831; d Kassel, 2 April 1893), both became successful sculptors. Carl was the most important member of the family. He trained with his father and then with ...

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Peter Stasny

(b Vienna, Oct 22, 1878; d Hamburg, July 30, 1960).

Austrian printmaker, painter, decorative artist and writer. He studied painting with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–9). From 1899 to 1900 he renovated the Patronatskirche of Emperor Francis Joseph in Radmer an dem Hasel, decorating it with frescoes. At the same time he received his first illustration commissions from the publishers Gerlach & Wiedling in Vienna. From 1900 he was a member of the Vienna Secession (see Secession, §3). In 1902 he became an assistant tutor in draughtsmanship at the Kunstgewerbeschule (now Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) in Vienna, and in 1905 he took over a class in painting and draughtsmanship, being one of Oskar Kokoschka’s first teachers.

In Autumn 1905 Czeschka joined the Wiener Werkstätte. Under their auspices he produced jewellery, fabrics, wallpaper, enamelled pictures and furniture, and repoussé work and glass windows for the Palais Stoclet, Brussels (...

Article

Annamaria Szőke

(b Budapest, July 4, 1928; d Budapest, May 22, 1986).

Hungarian architect, sculptor, conceptual and performance artist, teacher, theorist and film maker. He came from a Jewish–Christian family, many of whom were killed during World War II. In 1947 he began training as a sculptor at the College of Fine Arts in Budapest, but he left and continued his studies in the studio of Dezső Birman Bokros (1889–1965), before training as an architect from 1947 to 1951 at the Technical University in Budapest. During the 1950s and early 1960s he worked as an architect and began experimenting with painting and graphic art, as well as writing poems and short stories. During this period he became acquainted with such artists as Dezső Korniss, László Latner and, most importantly, Béla Kondor and Sándor Altorjai (1933–79), with whom he began a lifelong friendship. In 1959 and 1963 he also enrolled at the Budapest College of Theatre and Film Arts but was advised to leave both times....

Article

Edwin Lachnit

(b Saint Martin bei Lofer, Salzburg, Feb 14, 1887; d Vienna, Feb 13, 1930).

Austrian painter. He began his studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1906. As a protest against the conservatism of his professor, the German painter Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916), he left with some like-minded students in 1909 to establish the Neukunstgruppe, which exhibited for the first time in Vienna in the same year. A second exhibition in 1911 with the Hagenbund group was an important event for modern Austrian painting, but Faistauer himself was unable to gain public recognition. In the first period of his work he remained in the European tradition of colouristic painting with a strong affinity to Cézanne; he used colour in his landscapes and still-lifes to build the picture in a tectonic way, as in Still-life with Apples, Jug, Wine Bottle and Glass (c. 1912; Salzburg, Mus. Carolino-Augusteum). In his portraits he neglected individual, psychological characterization of his models, for example in ...

Article

Amy Widmayer

[Galliano-Guillen, Juan Carlos Antonio]

(b Gibraltar, Nov 28, 1960).

British fashion designer, active also in France. Half renegade, half romantic, as a designer for Christian Dior, Galliano deftly captured Dior’s essence, creating excessively elegant garments for the modern, youthful woman unafraid of breaking fashion rules (see fig.). Known for his extravagant catwalk shows, over-the-top couture collections and knack for blending street- and high fashion, Galliano’s outrageous adaptations of iconic Dior silhouettes, master tailoring skills and penchant for theatrics, combined with a keen business sense, have earned him the distinction of being one of the most influential designers of his generation.

Born into a family of modest means in Gibraltar and raised in gritty south London, Galliano was educated at the prestigious Central Saint Martin’s College of Art and Design, where he graduated with a first class honours degree in 1984. His final collection at Central Saint Martin’s, entitled ‘Les Incroyables’, was an irreverent nod to the tattered clothing of the French Revolutionaries, and showcased not only his flawless technical skill, but his astute attention to detail and his passion for historical research....

Article

Otto Breicha

(b Vienna, Sept 14, 1883; d Vienna, Nov 4, 1908).

Austrian painter and draughtsman. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) and Heinrich Lefler. Gerstl’s early and passionate interest in music led him in 1905 to frequent the circle around the composer Arnold Schoenberg. An unhappy romantic attachment to the latter’s first wife, Mathilde, was the cause of his suicide. Gerstl’s work included life-size portraits of friends and relatives, numerous self-portraits as well as a series of small-scale landscapes, which are among the most accessible of the works created by this sensitive, nervous and complex artist. Apart from a few examples, most of Gerstl’s drawings and sketches on paper disappeared after his death. Around 70 paintings exist. Gerstl’s main interest was in figure painting. Self-portrait Semi-nude before a Blue Background (1901–2; Vienna, priv. col., see 1983–4 exh. cat., no. 1) bears a startling similarity to Edvard Munch’s Puberty. This artistic and spiritual influence seemed to be impressively overcome, however, in the double portrait of the ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], May 10, 1876; d Oslo, Feb 20, 1959).

Norwegian architect, urban planner and writer. After preliminary training at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, he was educated as an architect in Berlin (1898), Stockholm (1900) and Champaign, IL (1906). He worked in the USA and in England until 1911, starting his own practice in Christiania in 1912. In 1918 he was appointed Director of the Municipal Housing Office of Christiania, and from 1926 to 1947 he acted as the city’s Chief Planning Officer. Hals began in a ‘romantic’ vein with his buildings for the English-inspired Ullevål Garden City (1915–22), Oslo, laid out by Paul Oscar Hoff (1875–1942), but he soon became an accomplished neo-classicist. Hegermanns plass (1919) is an octagonal open space surrounded by thinly plastered brick blocks of flats. Classical pilasters set off the corner angles, but National Romanticism is suggested by the steep roofs and the colonnettes between the arched openings. The neo-classicism of the two blocks of flats at Hans Nielsen Hauges gate 32 and 34 (...

Article

Cornelia Bauer

(b St Gall, Oct 1, 1858; d Lucerne, Jan 11, 1927).

Swiss architect. After studying architecture for two years (c. 1876–8) at the Hochschule, Stuttgart, under Adolf Gnauth and Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92), he travelled in Italy and France. From 1879 he worked primarily in St Gall, but he also worked elsewhere in Switzerland. He won a gold medal at the Vatican Exhibition (1887–8), and in 1888 he was made a Knight of St Gregory the Great by Pope Leo XIII. Hardegger was an eclectic architect, using all the traditional historicist styles. His designs were often asymmetrical and irregular in both plan and elevation, as in the church of St Martin (1908–10), Olten; they also incorporated painting and sculpture, for example in the Haus zum Bürgli (before 1890), at St Gall, and they emphasized regional traditions, as at the parish church of Göschenen (1898–9). Following the construction of the parish church at Gossau (...

Article

Trond Aslaksby

(Olaf Halvor)

(b Smedjebakken, Dalarne, July 8, 1857; d Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 10, 1913).

Norwegian painter. He was born into an enlightened but conservative family, his father being an engineer, occasional architect and writer of Nordic saga poetry, and he spent his childhood and youth in the rapidly expanding town of Drammen, 40 km from the capital Christiania. In 1873 he was admitted to the Kongelige Tegneskole in Christiania, where he studied under Peder C. Thurmann, a landscape artist trained in Düsseldorf. For more advanced training, Heyerdahl was obliged to go abroad, and in 1874 he enrolled at the Munich Akademie. He was encouraged by Professor Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) to give up landscape in favour of history painting and portraits (e.g. the artists Christian Skredsvig, 1876, and Eilif Peterssen, 1877; both Oslo, N.G.). In 1877, under the guidance of Professor Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829–95), Heyerdahl finished his most inventive and brilliant composition, the Expulsion from the Garden (Oslo, N.G.). Using over life-size figures, set in a barren tempestuous landscape, Heyerdahl skilfully contrasted the youthful rage of Adam with the resigned despair of Eve. This sombre work won him a third prize medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...

Article

Zdenko Rus

(b Klanjec, nr Zagreb, April 17, 1869; d Klanjec, July 4, 1939).

Croatian painter and teacher. He studied painting in Zagreb under Ferdo Quiquerez and from 1886 he attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, where he studied with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). In 1892 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich, under Wilhelm von Lindenschmidt (1829–95) and also took master classes with Ferdinand Keller (1842–1922) at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Karlsruhe. From 1895 he taught at the School of Arts and Crafts (now School for Applied Art and Design) in Zagreb and from 1908 to 1927 at the Art School (later Academy of Fine Arts) in the same city. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th he was the most important history painter working in Croatia and the most prolific. Attracted by Vlaho Bukovac’s Divisionist technique and his use of light, he adopted a palette of ...