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Article

Kirstin Ringelberg

Two related art media, usually commercially distributed, featuring narratives presented in serial text-and-image format, in a Japanese context regarding language, aesthetic, storyline, and/or production. Manga, the print form, is published in weekly and monthly anthology books, with popular individual series sometimes published separately as their success waxes. Anime, the moving form, is found in television, film, and home video formats as well as online and is more globally known; one feature-length example, Spirited Away (Sen to Chihiro no kamikakushi; Studio Ghibli 2001, dir. Hayao Miyazaki), earned billions of dollars and major critical awards worldwide (e.g. Berlin International Film Festival Golden Bear for Best Film in 2002, British Academy Awards Best Animated Feature in 2003, and Academy Film Awards Best Film Not in the English Language in 2004).

With an enormous variety of visual and narrative styles, neither anime nor manga can be identified by a consistent theme or aesthetic, although certain genres and iconography predominate. Generally, a story is initially hand- or computer-drawn, then photographed for printing in book, film, or digital form. Most are serialized narratives having continued for decades, often across platforms; however, some ...

Article

J. Thomas Rimer

(b Kurume, Kyushu, 1882; d Fukuoka, Kyushu, 1911) Japanese painter. Although his family disapproved of his early interest in Western-style art (Yōga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iv)), he left home at 17 to pursue his studies in Tokyo, first with Koyama Shōtarō (1857–1916), a pupil of Antonio Fontanesi, an Italian painter who taught at the Kōbu Bijutsu Gakkō (Technical Art School) from 1877 to 1879, and then with Seiki Kuroda at the Tōkyō Bijutsu Gakkō (Tokyo Art School; now Tokyo University of Fine Arts and Music). Aoki finished his studies in 1904. A brilliant, rather eccentric young man, he showed precocious talent and while still a student exhibited his work with Kuroda’s prestigious association of Western-style painters, the Hakubakai (White Horse Society), established in 1896.

Aoki showed a strong literary bent, and his interest in Japanese, Christian and Indian mythology led him to develop a romantic style, often recalling the British Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. A number of his most important paintings dealing with mythological and related subjects, among them the ...

Article

(b Nagoya, July 6, 1936; d New York, NY, May 18, 2010).

Japanese painter, performance artist, and film maker, active in the USA. He studied medicine and mathematics at Tokyo University (1954–8) and art at the Musashino College of Art in Tokyo, holding his first one-man exhibition at the National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo in 1958 and contributing to the Yomiuri Independent exhibitions from 1958 to 1961. In 1960 he took part in the ‘anti-art’ activities of the Neo-Dadaism Organizers in Tokyo and produced his first Happenings and a series of sculptures entitled Boxes, which consisted of amorphous lumps of cotton wads hardened in cement; many of these were put in coffin-like boxes, though one entitled Foetus was laid on a blanket. In pointing to the sickness of contemporary society, these works caused a great scandal in Tokyo.

In 1961 Arakawa settled in New York, where soon afterwards he addressed himself to the idea of a work being ‘untitled’. In taking as his subject this apparent lack of subject, he emphasized the areas of the picture surface where the subject ‘ought to be’ by means of a few well-placed coloured framing marks, as in ...

Article

Aya Louisa McDonald

[Mokugo; Mokugyo]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], June 21, 1856; d Kyoto, Dec 16, 1907).

Japanese painter . He was the leading Western-style (Yōga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iv)) landscape painter of the Meiji period (1868–1912) and one of the founder-members of the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society, established 1889; later absorbed into the Taiheiyō Gakai [Pacific Painting Society]), the first association of Western-style painters in Japan. Asai was born into a samurai family retained by the Sakura clan. He was originally trained in Japanese bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) in the literati (Nanga or Bunjinga) style, but turned later to oil painting and at the age of 19 entered the Shōgidō, a private school of Western-style painting. The school had been opened in Tokyo the previous year by the artist Shinkurō Kunisawa (1847–77), who had studied painting under John Wilcolm in London.

When the government-sponsored Kōbu Bijutsu Gakkō (Technical Art School) was opened in Tokyo in ...

Article

Midori Yoshimoto

(Aiko)

(b Norwalk, CA, Jan 24, 1926; d San Francisco, CA, Aug 5, 2013).

American sculptor, painter and draftsman. Asawa was born the fourth of seven children to Japanese immigrants and her childhood on a thriving truck farm formed her work ethic. During World War II, the Asawas were separated into different internment camps. At the Rohwer Relocation Center in Arkansas, Ruth was able to learn drawing from interned Japanese–American illustrators. In 1943 a scholarship allowed her to leave the camp to study at Milwaukee State Teachers College. However, when she realized that she could never find a teaching position in Wisconsin because of her Japanese ancestry, she headed to Black Mountain College in North Carolina in 1946. The Black Mountain College community, including illustrious teachers such as Albers family, §1 and R(ichard) Buckminster Fuller, nurtured Asawa’s artistic foundation and philosophy. There she started on looped-wire sculpture after discovering the basket crocheting technique in Mexico in 1947. Upon graduation, she married her classmate, the architect Albert Lanier (...

Article

El Hadji Sy

(b Agniam Thiodaye Matam, July 11, 1945).

Senegalese painter. Primarily an autodidact, he also learnt engraving at the Institut National des Arts du Senegal, Dakar, in 1975. His early work was often rendered in china ink, but he later worked mainly with oil or acrylic paint. In the 1980s and 1990s his canvases focused on the world of Fulani cow herders, as seen in Vache (1988; Frankfurt am Main, Friedrich Axt priv. col.). Ba employs a palette of subtle, earth-tone hues to suggest the arid Sahelian landscape, populating these scenes with stylized cows and herders. His painting is often appreciated by collectors for its visual affinity with ancient rock art. He was considered for membership of the Ecole de Dakar and participated in the government-sponsored exhibition Art contemporain du Senegal, which traveled internationally from 1974 to 1982.

Contemporary Art of Senegal/Art Contemporain du Senegal (exh.cat., Hamilton, Ont., A.G., 1979) F. Axt and El Hadji M. B. Sy...

Article

Ralph Croizier

[Ch’i Pai-shih; zi Huang; hao Baishi Laoren, Baishi Shanweng]

(b Xiangtan, Hunan Province, 1863; d Beijing, 1957).

Chinese painter. He was probably the most popular painter in 20th-century China, esteemed alike by the conservative scholarly élite, the common citizens of China’s urban centres, foreign collectors and revolutionaries both artistic and political for his traditional paintings of birds, flowers, small animals and insects. The range of his appeal from the 1920s onwards derived from his character, his lifestyle and his image as a traditional, high-minded scholar–artist who remained aloof from corrupt politics and preserved cultural values during the politically and socially unsettled period after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Such an image may seem paradoxical given his humble social origins in rural Hunan Province and his early career as a carpenter; however, lowly beginnings and self-improvement through culture and learning were admirable according to Confucian standards, and by the end of Qi’s life the new Communist government had hailed him as an authentic ‘People’s Artist’....

Article

Tamaki Maeda

[Fu Pao-shih; ming Fu Ruilin]

(b Xinyu, Jiangxi Province, Oct 5, 1904; d Nanjing, Sept 28, 1965).

Chinese painter, seal carver, and art historian. He was one of the foremost painters of guohua (literally “national painting”), who worked in the traditional medium of painting in East Asia, namely, ink and color on paper or silk. His work helped transform literati painting, an age-old artistic pursuit of the elite scholarly class, to an idiom of expression in tune with the aesthetic and social values of modern era.

Born into a humble family, Fu received a modest education in Nanchang. He later studied at the Imperial School of Fine Arts in Japan, and in 1935 became a faculty member at the National Central University in Nanjing. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Fu fled to the hinterland, where he developed his mature style of painting—semi-abstract landscapes often combined with human elements—and earned considerable repute through exhibitions and publications. After the Communist takeover of China in 1949, Fu produced paintings inspired by poems by Mao Zedong and the Red Army, as well as those emphasizing the beauty of the land in China. He continued to serve in important positions in the art world, most notably, director of the Jiangsu Provincial Chinese Painting Institute....

Article

Ralph Croizier

Reviser Stephanie Su

[Hsü Pei-hung; Ju Peon]

(b Yixing, Jiangsu Province, Jul 19, 1895; d Beijing, Sept 26, 1953).

Chinese painter and art educator. The most acclaimed Western-trained artist in modern China, he influenced the development of 20th-century Chinese painting through his role as art teacher and administrator as well as his painting. Xu Beihong studied painting as a child with his father, a village teacher and painter. After his father’s death, Xu moved to Shanghai, the cultural and commercial center of modern China, in 1915 to support his family. There he earned a living by painting popular pictures of beautiful women for Shenmei Shuguan (the Aesthetic Bookstore), a commercial art company founded by Gao Jianfu, and concurrently enrolled as a student in the French department of Zhendan University. In 1916 his painting of Changjie [Cangjie], the legendary inventor of Chinese characters, won first prize at an art contest of Changsheng Mingzhi University in Shanghai, earning him an invitation from the school founder to live at Hardoon Garden. There he became acquainted with prominent artistic and cultural intellectuals such as as ...

Article

Jason C. Kuo

Reviser Zaixin Hong

[Huang Pin-hung, ming Zhi, zi Pucun /Po-chun]

(b Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, Jan 27, 1865; d Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Mar 25, 1955).

Chinese scholar, epigraphist, and painter. Huang Binhong was a visionary known for his world view on Chinese art, original art writings, and modern expressionist style. Drawing on a lifelong study of old masters (lingu) and close observation of nature (xiesheng) through extensive travels around the country, he transformed traditional Chinese landscape painting in the 20th century. In 1953, both he and Qi Baishi were honored by the Communist government as the “Excellent Painter of the Chinese People” and the “Artist of the Chinese People” respectively, and from then on referred to as Huang of the South and Qi of the North.

Born into a merchant family from Shexian, Anhui Province, Huang passed the entry level of the civil service examination but ended that career path at the age of 29. While running the family enterprise, he cultivated his passion for landscape painting and ancient seals. By the time he left Shexian for Shanghai in ...

Article

Susan Pares

[Pak Sŏ-bo]

(b1931).

Korean painter and teacher. He graduated in 1954 from the Fine Arts College, Hong’ik University, Seoul, and exhibited in Korea, East and South-east Asia, the USA, Europe and elsewhere. He is regarded as a leader of Korean modernism. Park has used a variety of techniques. Typical of his Art informel stage is Painting No. 1 (1957; oil on canvas, priv. col., see Young-na Kim, p. 177), where paint was splashed on to the canvas. In his ‘white’ paintings, thin layers of gesso were applied over a period of time, then graphite and gesso were applied alternately to build up a surface. In 1989 he began to use tak (mulberry bark paper), laid in three layers on canvas, sealed with gesso and overlaid with acrylic paint. Further sheets of paper, soaked in acrylic medium or Korean ink, were then laid, and the surface was manipulated with the fingers or an implement. In working or marking the surface Park’s intention was to help the medium to express itself by adding nothing more than a sign of his involvement, which he termed his ‘écriture’; one of his works is titled simply ...

Article

Mayching Kao

[Chen Fushan, Ch’en Fu-shan]

(b Panama, Nov 24, 1905; d 1995).

Chinese painter and art critic. Chan moved with his family to Hong Kong in 1910, becoming an active member of the Hong Kong arts scene in the 1920s. A self-taught artist of Western-style painting, Chan painted realistic watercolours of the local scenery. From the early 1960s he experimented with a variety of styles and techniques inspired by international avant-garde movements, ranging from geometric abstractions painted with a spray gun to configurations achieved by splashing and dribbling paint on canvas. In the 1970s Chan won critical acclaim for his dreamlike fantasy paintings populated with colourful creatures, both real and imaginary, and inspired by the hustle and bustle of Hong Kong life. Chan has been called the myth-maker of Hong Kong, and his complex iconography as well as his heterogeneous artistic origins are significant for the light they shed on the cultural history of Hong Kong.

Luis Chan: Fifty Years of Artistic Career...

Article

Ralph Croizier

Reviser Walter Davis

[Wu Ch’ang-shih; Wu Ch’ang-shuo; ming Jun, Junqing]

(b Anji, Zhejiang Province, 1844; d Shanghai, 1927).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and seal-carver. The most prominent figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he rejuvenated the genre of bird-and-flower painting, contributed to the internationalization of the Chinese art world, and helped lead a national revival of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy in the 1910s and 1920s. Although he initially aspired to become a scholar–official and passed the imperial civil service examinations at the county (xiucai) level, he later made his living as a professional artist, developing an international clientele and a reputation as a literati painter and calligrapher that continues to the present.

While pursuing a career in government service, Wu mastered the Confucian classics and studied poetry, epigraphy, and calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii)). Contact with such professional painters as Ren Yi in the cultural and commercial metropolis of Shanghai during the late 19th century opened up to Wu the possibility of a professional artist’s career. After a brief appointment as a county official in ...

Article

(Chinese Academy of Art)

Artists’ club formed in 1926 in San Francisco’s Chinatown. The club was composed of Guangdong immigrants in their late teens and early 20s. Its headquarters, which also served as a studio, teaching center, exhibition space and quite possibly a shared bedroom, was located in an upper room at 150 Wetmore Place, an alley on Chinatown’s western fringe. The exact membership is unknown—probably a dozen members at any given time—and its composition fluctuated greatly during its 15 or so years of existence. Its most famous members were Yun Gee, a co-founder and leader, and Eva Fong Chan (1897–1991), who was granted membership in the early 1930s and was the only woman known to belong. Unlike Fong, a former beauty queen who was a piano teacher married to a prominent Catholic businessman and privileged with an education, the young men were working-class and probably held the menial jobs reserved for most Chinese of their era, as servants, cooks, dishwashers and launderers....

Article

Mayching Kao

[Chou Lu-yün; Zhou Luyun]

(b Shanghai, Jiangsu Province, Jan 31, 1924; d July 1, 2011).

Chinese painter active in Hong Kong. Chou received a modern education, graduating from St John’s University in Shanghai in 1945. She left Shanghai in 1949 to settle in Hong Kong and a year later began to study Chinese painting with Zhao Shaoang (1905–98), a painter of the Lingnan school. She also became a student of Lui Shou-kwan, whose theories of New Ink Painting inspired her to move away from conventional Chinese styles and experiment with different media and techniques, to find her personal expression in the 1970s. Using forceful lines derived from the stone-drum inscriptions of the Warring States period (403–221 bc; see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (b)) and dense ink washes, she explored through her paintings the inner workings of the mind and its relationship to the mysteries of the universe. Her abstract paintings from the 1980s onwards exploded with cataclysmic energy derived as much from dense, textural strokes as from broad, slablike strokes of ink and colour. She is recognized as an original and innovative artist who crossed the boundaries between East and West....

Article

Mayching Kao

Reviser Fang-mei Chou

[Huang Junbi; zi Junweng; hao Baiyuntang]

(b Nanhai, Guangdong Province, Nov 12, 1898; d Taipei, Oct 29, 1991).

Chinese painter and art educator. Huang studied both Chinese and Western painting in his youth, but he came to concentrate on Chinese art, studying and copying the works of old masters in public and private collections, including his own. In his early days he excelled in emulating the style of Shixi, also known as Kuncan, and Shitao, also known as Daoji, both famous individualists in the early Qing. In 1921, through a recommendation from his Chinese art mentor Li Yaoping (1880–1938), he embarked upon an illustrious teaching career. He later held key positions in major art institutions, notably the National Central University from 1937 to 1948, and the National Normal University in Taipei, where he taught and served as Chairman for twenty years beginning in 1949. Huang, Zhang Daqian, and Pu Xinyu together were called the “Three Masters who Crossed the Strait” (duhai sanjia) for their achievements in promoting traditional Chinese painting in Taiwan after World War II. He maintained a lifelong friendship with Zhang Daqian, with whom he had traveled to Mt. Emei in Sichuan in 1939....

Article

Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Uksang, Kongnip; ho Shimjŏn, Pulburong, Purija, Purong]

(b Sunhŭng, 1861; d 1919).

Korean painter. He excelled in landscapes, figures, flowers and birds, as well as in many styles of calligraphy, and was among the very last court painters of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ; see Korea §XI 1.) at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910). In 1881 he was sent as a draughtsman to Tianjin in China with a group of men to learn the technique of producing modern weapons. In 1900 he painted the royal portrait of Kojong (reg 1864–1907). Perhaps as a reward for this assignment he was appointed magistrate of the county of Yangch’ŏn and T’ongjin in Kyŏnggi Province. In 1911 he and his contemporary Cho Sŏk-chin were the leading teachers at the Sŏhwa misulwŏn (Academy of Calligraphy and Painting), newly established in Seoul to train artists, among whom were Yi Sang-bŏm, Pyŏn Kwan-sik, No Su-hyŏn (1899–1978) and Kim Ŭn-ho. An and Cho were also closely involved in the Sŏhwa misulhoe (Calligraphy and Painting Arts Group). An thus became a bridge between the late Chosŏn and the modern period....

Article

Yi Sŏng-mi

(b Pyŏngwŏn, South Pyŏng’an Province, 1916; d Seoul, Sept 6, 1956).

Korean painter . He worked mainly in Western styles and media. He was taught by Im Yong-ryŏn (b 1901), who painted in the Western style, at Osan School in Chŏngju, North Chŏlla Province. In 1937 he was admitted to the Department of Western Painting in the Bunka Gakuin (Culture Academy), Tokyo, where he was introduced to new trends in Western painting. In 1940 he exhibited his work at a show sponsored by the Association of Creative Artists (Bijutsu Sōsakuka Kyōkai) in Tokyo, for which he was given a special award. In that year he and other Korean artists established the Korean Association of New Artists (Chosǒn Sin-Misulga Hyǒphoe) and continued to exhibit through that organization. He married a Japanese woman in 1945 and settled in Wŏnsan, Kangwŏn Province. During the Korean War (1950–53) his wife and two children went to Japan while he fought in the South Korean army. He died in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chang Ta-ch’ien ; Chang Dai–chien ; hao Dafengtang]

(b Neijiang, Sichuan Province, May 10, 1899; d Taipei, April 2, 1983).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, collector and forger . From an artistic family, he began to paint under the tutelage of his mother, Ceng Yi, and did his first paid painting for the local fortune-teller when he was 12 years old. Zhang’s elder sister gave him his first lessons in the classics. At 15 he embarked on three years of schooling at the Qiujing Academy in Chongqing. In 1917 he went to Kyoto in Japan to join his elder brother Zhang Shanzi (1882–1940). Here, Daqian learnt the art of textile painting, and the brothers collaborated in painting tigers: Shanzi painted the animals and Daqian the surroundings. Shanzi kept a pet tiger in the house, using it as his artistic model. In 1919 Zhang returned to China, where he continued his studies in Shanghai with the scholar Ceng Xi. He also studied with the artist Li Ruiqing (1867–1920) and was exposed to Li’s calligraphy in seal script (...

Article

Yasuyoshi Saito

[Sugita, Hideo]

(b Miyazaki Prefect., April 28, 1911; d Tokyo, March 10, 1960).

Japanese photographer, painter, printmaker and critic. In 1925 he entered the department of yōga (Western-style painting) at the Japanese School of Art in Tokyo. In 1926 he began writing art criticism and in 1927 he left the School, going on in 1930 to study at the School of Oriental Photography, Tokyo. In 1934 he returned to Miyazaki and studied Esperanto, going back two years later to Tokyo; thereafter he rejected his real name of Hideo Sugita in favour of his pseudonym, which was suggested by Saburō Hasegawa. His first exhibition, a one-man show of photograms (Tokyo, 1936), was based on drawings that used photographic paper. His collection of photograms, Nemuri no riyū, was also published in 1936. In 1937 he was a founder-member of the Jiyū Bijutsuka Kyōkai (Independent Art Society) and in Osaka, of the Demokurāto Bijutsuka Kyōkai (Democratic Art Society); from then on he produced etchings, also making lithographs from ...