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Lisa Stone

(b Hamilton, AL, Dec 10, 1941; d Atlanta, GA, Nov 22, 1997).

American painter, printmaker, and collector. Brown was raised in Alabama, where his religious upbringing and interest in folk and material culture, comics aesthetics, and vernacular and Art Deco architecture were formative. He moved to Chicago in 1962 and earned a certificate in commercial design prior to studying at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC), where he gravitated to pre-Renaissance Italian art, Surrealism, artists Edward Hopper, Grant Wood, and Georgia O’Keeffe, and tribal art. Painter Ray Yoshida and art historian Whitney Halstead were seminal influences at SAIC. Both included folk, popular, and self-taught art within the scope of their teaching.

Brown earned his BFA (1968) and his MFA (1970) at SAIC. Works by Brown and fellow students were recognized by curator Don Baum, who organized spirited ‘Chicago School’ exhibitions at the Hyde Park Art Center (HPAC) from 1966 to 1971; Brown’s work was shown there with the group False Image (...


(b Warsaw, 1898; d Mexico, March 18, 1980).

American painter of Polish birth. She lived among the wealthy aristocracy in St Petersburg and fled with her husband from the Russian Revolution of 1917. In 1918 she arrived in Paris, where she studied briefly at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Montparnasse, before studying under Maurice Denis at the Académie Ranson, and then under André Lhote. Lhote’s theories of composition, his insistence on careful figure studies and the precise application of paint, often using pure colour, provided the groundwork for her own style of freely interpreted Synthetic Cubism. This rapidly became identified with Art Deco and with modernity of style and subject-matter. All her paintings were carefully composed. She made little attempt to create three-dimensional effects, but using hard, angular lines and shapes contrasted against rounded, soft forms, she created a highly stylized view of the world, in particular of the sophisticated society of Paris (e.g. Andromède, 1929...



(b Millemont, Seine-et-Oise, Nov 23, 1876; d La Seyne, Var, Aug 8, 1938).

French painter. He left school at the age of 11 and worked for an industrial engraver, studying drawing at night classes. He later entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and studied under Hubert Ponscarme. There he met Charles Despiau, and, to support himself financially, he worked in the studio of Alexandre Charpentier. He first exhibited in 1905 at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris with a number of works in pastels. The following year he travelled extensively around Italy with the American engraver Herbert Lespinasse (b 1884). In 1910 he won the Prix de l’Afrique Nord with a pastel and therefore spent the years from 1910 to 1912 at the Villa Abd El Tif in Algiers, travelling all over the country and absorbing the local culture. His work up to 1910 had been mainly of Parisian theatres and cafés, executed in pastels or occasionally in tempera on canvas. In Algiers he abandoned pastels and began to work in oils, producing a number of brilliantly coloured works such as ...


Anne Winter-Jensen

[Jules, John]

(b Lancy, May 20, 1877; d Paris, June 7, 1947).

French sculptor, metalworker, painter and designer, of Swiss birth. He trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris (in situ), while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. ‘Wisteria’ vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, ...



(b Amsterdam, May 26, 1878; d Dachau, April 2, 1945).

Dutch painter, designer and applied artist. He trained in design and decorative painting at the Quellinus school and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (National School of the Applied Arts) in Amsterdam from 1892 to 1899. He was assigned to assist with the decoration of the Dutch pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. A number of his designs for the pavilion were executed in batik, a Javanese technique that had been recently introduced in the Netherlands. In subsequent years Lebeau developed a very personal approach to batiking and within a short time became the leading Dutch artist in this field. His batiked screens in particular were widely acclaimed (examples in Assen, Prov. Mus. Drenthe) and are considered masterpieces of Dutch Jugendstil.

Lebeau is one of the most important representatives of the severe, geometrical trend in Dutch applied arts of the early 20th century. From 1903 he designed damask tablecloths and household linen for the ...


Dora Pérez-Tibi

Reviser Kristen E. Stewart

(b Paris, April 20, 1879; d Paris, April 28, 1944).

French costume designer, dress designer and painter. Despite paternal opposition to his precocious artistic gifts, Poiret attracted attention with his first fashion drawings for Mme Chéruit at the Maison Raudnitz, 21, Place Vendôme, Paris. From 1898 to 1900 he worked for Jacques(-Antoine) Doucet and distinguished himself by creating the famous costume ‘Aiglon’ (Fr.: ‘eaglet’; the nickname of Napoleon II; untraced) for Sarah Bernhardt. From 1901 he worked for the fashion house Worth, where he designed the Eastern-influenced cloak, ‘Confucius’ (1901–2; Paris, Mus. Mode & Cost.). Poiret opened his first fashion house in 1902 on the Rue Auber in Paris. There he produced innovative designs such as the kimono coat and the ‘Révérend’ (1905; Paris, Mus. Mode & Cost.) and enlarged his clientele of famous customers. In 1910 he opened new salons in a large 18th-century house, in the Avenue d’Antin, where he created his famous ‘hobble-skirted’ dresses, drawn in at the hem. Dubbed the ‘Prophet of Simplicity’ in a ...


Wojciech Włodarczyk

[Pol. Rytm; Stowarzyszenie Artystów Plastyków Rytm: Rhythm Association of Plastic Artists]

Polish group of artists that flourished between 1922 and 1932, although Rhythm exhibitions continued to be held after the group’s disbandment (11 held up to 1932 by the group itself). Members included the painters Wacław Borowski (1885–1950s), Eugeniusz Zak (1884–1926), Tadeusz Pruszkowski (1888–1942), Zofia Stryjeńska and Romuald Kamil Witkowski (1876–1950), the graphic artists Tadeusz Gronowski (b 1894) and Władysław Skoczylas (1883–1934) and the sculptors Henryk Kuna (1885–1945) and Edward Wittig. The Rhythm group had no clearly defined programme. It emerged after the disbanding of Revolt (Bunt) and the Formists, before the advent of colourism and the avant-garde groups, with the aim of organizing exhibitions of a high standard. The Rhythm artists favoured classicism and appreciated stylized drawing, rhythmic compositions and decorative effects. They represented the Polish Art Deco style, and they achieved their greatest success at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in ...


Susan Day

(b Bordeaux, July 14, 1875; d Paris, Aug 7, 1968).

French architect, designer and painter. He trained as an architect at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the workshop of Victor Laloux. During the period 1903–12 he collaborated with architect and designer Paul Huillard (1875–1966), building country houses, a château in Brussels and a series of town houses and blocks of flats for artists in the Montparnasse district, of which the most noteworthy are the three contiguous town houses in the Rue Cassini. They also designed furniture. A meeting with Paul Poiret led to a commission to design the couturier’s fashion house and to subsequent commissions from other couturiers, including Mme Paquin and Jean Patou. Following a visit with Poiret to Joseph Hoffmann in Vienna, Süe formed his own design group, the Atelier Français, in Paris in 1912, modelled on the Wiener Werkstätte, which aimed at the concept of complete design, from the building itself down to the cutlery. This was followed by the ...