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Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b 1872; d Srinagar, 1955).

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of 1902–3 (see Delhi, §II), under George Watt. In 1909 he took up employment in Calcutta as principal of the Government School of Art and curator of the art section of the Indian Museum. In 1927 he retired from the Indian Educational Service to take up an appointment as secretary and curator of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta, where he remained until 1947. After this he lived on a houseboat on the Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.

Brown’s earliest publications included a contribution to the catalogue of the Delhi Exhibition and a descriptive guide to the Department of Industrial Art at Lahore Museum in ...

Article

Delia Kottmann

Italian village in Lazio, north of Rome, known for its church. The church of SS Anastasius and Nonnosus is all that remains of the 6th-century Benedictine monastery, which submitted to Cluny in ad 940. Apart from some re-used fragments, the architecture is Romanesque, with a Cosmati pavement in opus sectile as well as an ambo and ciborium. The church is famous for its wall paintings from the first quarter of the 12th century. The apse and its adjacent walls, showing the 24 elders, are influenced by Romano–Christian motifs. Christ in the middle of the conch is flanked by Peter and Paul in a Traditio legis depiction, with a procession of lambs below. Underneath, Maria Regina has to be reconstructed in the middle, between two conserved angels followed by female saints in a Byzantine manner. No Romano–Christian iconography seems to have influenced the vast apocalyptic cycle painted on the side walls of the transept. A band of prophets runs beneath the roof on all the walls of the transept. An inscription in the apse indicates three Roman painters....

Article

Olle Granath

(b São Paulo, Dec 28, 1928; d Stockholm, Nov 8, 1976).

Swedish painter. Following a childhood spent in Brazil, he moved to Sweden in 1939. He studied archaeology and the history of art, specializing in pre-Columbian manuscripts, and he showed an interest in the theatre. In the early 1950s he worked as a journalist, wrote plays and poems and in 1952 began to paint his first composite pictures. In 1953 Fahlström published a manifesto, Hipy Papy Bthuthdth Thuthda Bthuthdy: Manifesto for Concrete Poetry (Stockholm), which manipulates language irrespective of the meanings of words. He saw an unexploited wealth, both sensual and intellectual, in its phonetic materials and in the distortions that occur when letters are transposed. In the following years he worked mainly on a large painting entitled Ade-Ledic-Nander II (oil, 1955–7; Stockholm, Mod. Mus.), where little hieroglyphic signs are arranged in major, antagonistic groups. Next, he appropriated images from such comic strips as Krazy Kat (for illustration see Comic-strip art...

Article

Janina Zielińska

(b Tuligłowy, nr Lwów [now Lviv, Ukraine], July 30, 1853; d Habelschwerdt, Silesia [now Bystrzyca Kłodzka, Poland], July 9, 1929).

Polish painter. He studied (1869–71) at the Kraków School of Fine Arts before working as a draughtsman for the archaeologist Stanisław Krzyżanowski (1841–81) on excavations in the Ukraine, then for the architect Feliks G̨siorowski. With the latter’s support, Fałat was able to study architecture in Zurich and Munich, but he gave up his studies to work as a technical draughtsman in Zurich. He continued with his painting studies in Munich (1877–80) under Alexander Strähuber (1814–82) and Georg Raab (1821–85). Fałat’s early work shows the influence of the watercolourists Hubert von Herkomer and Ludwig Passini (1832–1903), and of Eduard Grützner (1846–1925). Fałat’s own watercolour work was soon acclaimed both by the large group of Polish painters in Munich and also by those at home. In 1882–6 Fałat lived in Warsaw painting realistic genre scenes and landscapes and contributing illustrations to Polish and German periodicals, such as the Viennese Secession journal ...

Article

Jim Barr and Mary Barr

(b Christchurch, July 12, 1939; d Waitangi, Feb 7, 1990).

New Zealand painter. After graduating in sculpture from the University of Canterbury in 1961, he began to paint seriously. He was involved professionally in archaeology, including recording early Maori rock drawings. In 1963 he travelled to Europe, returning to Christchurch in 1967. He extended his use of photographic sources for his work from the Old Masters to medical and often grotesque images, as in No! (Christchurch, NZ, McDougall A. G.). He moved to Auckland in 1973 and from then Polynesian culture and imagery dominated his work. From these sources he built up his distinctive symbolic vocabulary, for example in Too Late (1986; Rotorua, A. G.). In 1994 Fomison’s work toured throughout New Zealand in the exhibition Fomison: What Shall We Tell Them?

Tony Fomison: A Survey of his Paintings and Drawings from 1961 to 1979 (exh. cat. by J. Barr, Lower Hutt, NZ, Dowse A. G., 1979) L. Strongman...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Yeh Kung-ch’uo ; zi Yufu, Yuhu ; hao Xiaan, Juyuan ]

(b Panyu, Guangdong Province, 1881; d 1968).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, archaeologist, collector, poet and government official. He was born into a wealthy, scholarly family, received a classical education and as a youth of 16 founded a school in Guangzhou (Canton) and a publishing company in Shanghai; at 17 he enrolled in law school at the Imperial University in Beijing. His studies were interrupted two years later by the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, whereupon Ye moved to Wuchang, Hubei Province, and taught history, geography and modern languages for four years. In 1906 he began his official career as a specialist in railways and communications. After 1911, Ye held various positions in the Republican government and was instrumental in the establishment of Jiaotong University in Shanghai; he also served as director of classics for several years at Peking [Beijing] University. After the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), he gave up his government career and devoted himself to the arts and research, although he continued to serve on educational and cultural committees for the rest of his life. In particular, he became involved in the committee to organize the simplification of Chinese characters. In ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman Hamdi; Hamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...

Article

V. A. J. Slowe

(b London, July 28, 1866; d Near Sawrey, Cumbria, Dec 22, 1943).

English painter, draughtsman and writer. A lonely child, she sought solace in botany, zoology, mycology and archaeology, learning to observe and to record. In the 1880s and 1890s she systematically studied fungi, mosses, lichens, fossils and Roman antiquities; her watercolours of these, such as the collection in the National Art Library (London, V&A), combine broad washes with acutely observed detail in elegant compositions. Pets such as rabbits, mice and hedgehogs provided company and inspired stories to entertain her ex-governess’s children. She published The Tale of Peter Rabbit privately in December 1901 (R London, 1902) with her own illustrations. Publication gave her independence from the family wealth. She purchased Hill Top Farm, Near Sawrey (NT), and set her best-loved books in the vicinity (original drawings: Hawkshead, Beatrix Potter Gal.). From 1913 Beatrix Potter was occupied as a sheep farmer.

L. Linder: The Art of Beatrix Potter (London, 1955, rev. 1972)...

Article

Lisa Blackmore

(b Cali, Sept 2, 1955).

Colombian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and collage and installation artist. Roldán graduated in architecture from the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá in 1979, then moved to Paris to study art history at the Ecole du Louvre and La Sorbonne and modern engraving at Stanley W. Hayter’s Atelier 17.

Defying the use of signature themes or motifs, Roldán draws on a broad pool of references, from mythology to art history and literature, to create works that reflect on the transitory nature of life cycles, engaging with intimate processes of the passage of time and everyday detritus in order to create rich palimpsests and repurposed objects. His early paintings, such as Reflections (1989, 1990, and 1991), embraced abstraction, amorphous forms, bold color, and strong lines, that suggest the influence of the American abstract painters whose work he encountered after moving to Milwaukee, USA, in 1981. Quotidian experiences and recycled materials are recurrently present in such works as the time-based ...

Article

Herwig Todts

(b Antwerp, Oct 8, 1925).

Belgian painter. He studied history of art and archaeology at the Kunsthistorisch Institut in Antwerp (1949–53). Though self-taught as a painter, he received early encouragement from Georges Vantongerloo and Ossip Zadkine. He made his début in 1952 as a figurative painter in the tradition of Rik Slabbinck (b 1914) and other representatives of the Jeune Peinture Belge. He moved on to geometric abstraction and joined artists’ groups with the same ideals, such as Art Abstrait. He produced collages and reliefs with perspex fragments on canvas, followed by monochrome white paintings. In 1958 he was one of the co-founders of the group G-58 in Antwerp, which had close ties with the German Zero group. Subsequently he moved towards figurative assemblages, a technique that he continued to use. From 1961, the time of his first stay in New York, his work showed an unabashed reverence for space exploration as an attempt to explore and exploit the cosmos, as in ...