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Article

Catherine Lampert

(b Berlin, April 29, 1931).

British painter and printmaker of German birth. He was sent to England in 1939 and moved from school in Kent to London in 1947, where he began attending art classes at Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute and acting in fringe theatre. From 1947 to 1948 he studied at Borough Polytechnic under David Bomberg, whose teaching was especially valuable in its emphasis on risk and on seeking an organic, unified form. Auerbach continued in Bomberg’s evening life classes while at St Martin’s School of Art (1948–52). He considered his first original achievement to have been Summer Building Site (1952; Mrs P. Hill priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., p. 8), of a scene at Earls Court; this was rather geometric and painted in formal, prismatic colour, but much of his early work was thickly and laboriously impastoed in earth colours, as in Head of E. O. W. (1955...

Article

Nadine Pouillon

(b Château-Renault, Indre-et-Loire, April 24, 1873; d Montoire-sur-le-Loir, nr Vendôme, Aug 12, 1958).

French painter. Like many naive artists, he discovered his vocation for drawing and painting late in life. His work as a gardener in Touraine awakened his love of nature, and he educated himself by reading history and mythology and by travelling in central and western France. He was mobilized in World War I and was sent to Greece to take part in the Dardanelles campaign; on his return to France his drawing skills were recognized by the Army and he was put in charge of charting and rangefinding. It was this experience that encouraged him to become a painter in 1919.

Bauchant exhibited his work for the first time at the Salon d’Automne in 1921. His flower pictures were soon succeeded by subjects from history, such as Louis XI Having Mulberry Bushes Planted near Tours (1943; Paris, Pompidou), from mythology, as in Cleopatra, on her Way to Anthony (...

Article

Paulo J. V. Bruna

(b São Paulo, Aug 4, 1909; d nr Rio de Janeiro, June 4, 1994).

Brazilian landscape architect, painter and designer. He studied painting at a private school in Berlin from 1928 to 1929, and during this time he frequently went to the Botanical Gardens at Dahlem to study the collections of plants that were arranged in geographical groupings, providing useful lessons in botany and ecology. He thus learnt to appreciate many examples of Brazilian flora that were rarely used in Brazilian gardens, an experience that had a lasting effect on him. In 1930 he entered the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro to study painting; he also took a course in ecology at the Botanical Gardens in Rio. From 1934 to 1937 he was Director of Parks and Gardens at Recife, leaving when he established his own practice as a landscape architect in Rio de Janeiro. To this period belong the gardens of the Casa do Forte, where aquatic plants predominate, and the gardens he designed for the Praça Euclides da Cunha, where his studies of the ...

Article

Cornish  

Keith N. Morgan

American town and former artists’ colony in the state of New Hampshire. Situated on a line of hills near the eastern bank of the Connecticut River c. 160 km north-west of Boston, Cornish looks across to Windsor, VT, and Mt Ascutney. It was settled in 1763 as an agrarian community, but its population was rapidly reduced during the migration to the cities in the second half of the 19th century. From 1885 until around the time of World War I, Cornish was the summer home of a group of influential sculptors, painters, architects, gardeners, and writers. For this coherent group, the Cornish hills symbolized an ideal natural environment that reflected the classical images so important in their work. The sculptor who first spent a summer in Cornish in 1885, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, bought his summer residence there in 1891, and he was soon followed by the painters Henry Oliver Walker (...

Article

Francine-Claire Legrand

(b Laeken, nr Brussels, Aug 9, 1845; d Laeken, Feb 4, 1921).

Belgian painter, decorative artist and draughtsman. A gardener’s son, he was brought up in a quiet suburb of Brussels, bordering the Parc Royal. He studied under the decorative artist Charles Albert (1821–89) and then, between 1860 and 1867, took a course in decorative design at the Brussels Académie. In 1864 he joined the studio of Jean-François Portaels to learn the techniques of modelling, painting from life and history painting. Having won the Belgian Prix de Rome in 1870, he travelled to Italy, where he was inspired by the work of Mantegna. His early work treated the working lives of the Belgian poor in a social realist manner influenced by Charles de Groux: for example The Peasants (Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.)

From 1878 to 1879 Mellery stayed on the island of Marken, in the Netherlands, in order to illustrate a book by Charles De Coster, but the writer’s death in ...

Article

(b Swansea, Dec 11, 1889; d Ipswich, Feb 8, 1982).

Welsh painter and horticulturist. He was a self-taught painter but attended the académies libres in Paris as a young man. With his companion, the painter Arthur Lett-Haines (1894–1978), he was a member of the art communities of Newlyn in Cornwall (1919–20), Paris (1921–6) and London (1926–39). From 1926 to 1932 Morris took part in the Society (see 7 & 5 Society). Although he had experimented with abstraction c. 1922, he resigned from the society when it moved away from representation. Between 1937 and c. 1975 Morris and Lett-Haines directed the distinctly non-academic East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing; in 1940 the school was moved to Morris’s home at Benton End, Hadleigh, Suffolk, where he also cultivated a garden and bred irises.

Morris’s paintings combine a strong sense of colour with pictorial economy, often with unusual tactility. Conveyed with great immediacy, a painting’s principal motif is usually juxtaposed boldly with a contrasting background. His subjects include still-lifes and flower paintings, such as ...

Article

(b Boston, MA, March 26, 1888; d East Hampton, Long Island, NY, Oct 17, 1964).

American painter. He graduated from Yale University, New Haven, CT, in 1912 and from 1919 to 1921 attended a course in landscape design at Harvard Graduate School, Cambridge, MA. In September 1921 he arrived in Paris with his family and soon afterwards saw an exhibition at the Galerie Paul Rosenberg of works by Picasso, Braque, Matisse, and Gris, which inspired him to become a painter. Having no prior training, he took lessons with Natal’ya Goncharova until spring 1922. He soon became involved in the flamboyant lifestyle of Paris in the 1920s and his friends included Picasso, Léger, and Igor Stravinsky. By 1924 he was based at the Villa America in Antibes, and from 1923 to 1926 he exhibited annually at the Salon des Indépendants. Murphy’s output was very small and averaged only about two paintings a year during his short painting life from 1922 to 1929, some of which are lost. One of his most impressive early works is the large-scale ...

Article

Mariana Katzarova

[Pappasoff, Georges]

(b Yambol, Feb 2, 1894; d Vence, Alpes-Maritimes, April 23, 1972).

Bulgarian painter and writer, active in France. In 1913–14 he studied landscape gardening in Prague and Germany. At the beginning of his painting career he was strongly influenced by German Expressionism and, after having his first exhibition in Bulgaria at the Trapko Gallery, Sofia (1919), he arranged for a second one (1922) in Berlin. In 1923 he lived and exhibited in Geneva and from 1924 he moved permanently to France. He became a prominent artist in Paris and was, according to the French critic Jean-Paul Crespelle, one of the forerunners of Surrealism. His first works done in France are painted in a form of ‘geometric’ Surrealism composed of imaginary triangular shapes symbolizing the human body and its spiritual status. Gradually his works became more fully modelled and more colourfully intense as he began to move away from the expressionist tendencies of artists such as Paul Klee and Max Ernst. He experimented with the techniques of Cubism, Tachism and abstract art while at the same time retaining his colourful palette and keeping a reference to the figure. His paintings are done in series, each of which has a dominant theme (e.g. ...

Article

Keith N. Morgan

(b New York, Oct 16, 1861; d Cornish, NH, Sept 12, 1933).

American architect, garden designer, etcher, and painter. He was brought up in New York, where he began his artistic training in 1878 at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League. The following summer he was introduced to the recently revived art of etching, and he quickly achieved critical recognition for his work in this medium. He continued to etch for most of his life, concentrating on coastal scenes in which he strove to capture the atmospheric interaction of light, air, and water. In May 1882 Platt travelled to Paris to continue his training as a painter, working first independently and then after 1883 at the Académie Julian under Jules Lefebvre. Although he exhibited The Etcher (Boston, MA, St. Botolph’s Club) at the Paris Salon of 1885, Platt eventually rejected his figural training and turned back to his youthful interest in landscape. On his return to New York, he continued to exhibit his paintings and etchings, and in ...

Article

Janet Marstine

(b Woodstown, NJ, Nov 6, 1876; d New York, May 1, 1953).

American painter, illustrator, designer, playwright, and film director. He studied industrial design at the Spring Garden School in Philadelphia from 1888 to 1890. In 1893 he became an illustrator at the Philadelphia Press. Simultaneously he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he met Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and George Luks. Their style of urban realism prompted him to depict the bleak aspects of city life. In 1897 Shinn moved to New York and produced illustrations for several newspapers and magazines, for example Mark Twain (March 1900; see Perlman, p. 80), a frontispiece for The Critic. He also drew sketches for a novel by William Dean Howells on New York; although the novel was not published, Shinn’s drawings brought him national recognition.

Shinn’s work changed radically when, on a trip to Paris in 1901, he was inspired by the theatre scenes of Manet, Degas, and Jean-Louis Forain. He began to paint performers in action, from unusual vantage points, as in ...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Horconcitos, Chiriquí, Feb 11, 1927).

Panamanian painter, ceramicist, printmaker, tapestry designer and landscape architect. He studied both architecture and painting in Panama, holding his first exhibition in 1953; he then continued his studies in Madrid (1954–8) at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at the Escuela de Cerámica de la Moncloa and at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura. In 1959 he returned to Panama, where he began a long teaching career at the Universidad de Panamá. In the early 1960s Trujillo painted social satires, such as The Commissioners (1964; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.) with small monstrous figures in cavernous settings. Later his palette brightened as he turned to new subjects based on nature, including numerous still-lifes and semi-abstract paintings with botanical allusions, for example Still-life with Fruit (1975; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas).

Always a versatile and prolific artist, in the 1970s and 1980s he based his subjects both on his rich imagination and on his knowledge of Panama’s indigenous cultures. He made recurring reference to the patterns of pre-Columbian ceramics, natural and biomorphic forms, mythological and primitive figures, and Indian symbols and ceremonies, all treated as elements of an iconography strongly related to his Panamanian origin. Although generally classified as belonging to the return to figuration among Latin American artists, he ranged stylistically from realism to abstraction....

Article

Hervé Paindaveine

(b Brussels, Oct 18, 1883; d Montreux, Oct 12, 1929).

Belgian urban planner, landscape designer and painter. He was trained as a landscape designer by his father, Louis-Léopold Van der Swaelmen, and took an active part in the foundation of the Union Internationale des Villes during the Exposition Universelle et Internationale at Ghent (1913). There he met Patrick Geddes who had a deep influence on his ideas about urban planning. During World War I Van der Swaelmen was exiled in the Netherlands where he became close to H. P. Berlage; during this time he prepared for the reconstruction of his country by centralizing research and documentation in the Comité Néerlando-belge d’Art Civique, which he founded in 1916. In that year he also published his ideas as Préliminaires d’art civique, which was one of the first explicit theories on functionalist urban planning to be published in Belgium. Having returned there after the war, he organized modernist urban planners into the ...

Article

( Reijmert )

(b The Hague, Jan 12, 1860; d Santpoort, June 25, 1937).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and illustrator . He first trained as a landscape gardener in Amsterdam. In 1878–9, however, he received lessons in painting from the cattle painter Dirk van Lokhorst (1818–93) and he was working in Drenthe, Gelderland and North Brabant. During that time he also received tuition from the marine painter Jacob Eduard van Heemskerck van Beest (1828–94). Wenckebach lived and worked in Utrecht from 1880 to 1886, in Amsterdam until 1898 and thereafter in Santpoort.

Wenckebach’s preference was for traditional genres such as land-, river- and townscapes; in the latter, his drawings of views of old Amsterdam in particular are well known. In his style of painting and choice of subject-matter, he showed himself to be a late follower of the Hague school . Through a number of publishers he received many commissions as an illustrator and designer of books. In this field he collaborated on, among other things, the Verkade albums, a large series devoted to the history and nature of the Netherlands, and various children’s books. He is, however, particularly well known for his work for the ...