1-14 of 14 results  for:

  • 1900–2000 x
  • Painting and Drawing x
  • Conservation and Preservation x
Clear all

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...

Article

(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...

Article

V. P. Tsel’tner

[Mikhail]

(b Romanivka, nr Ternopil, Oct 30, 1882; d 1939).

Ukrainian painter, teacher, theorist and restorer. From 1899 to 1905 he studied as the Matejka Academy of Art in Kraków and from 1905 at the Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Munich and Vienna. He lived and worked in Paris from 1908 to 1911 and visited Italy in 1910–11. He then moved to Lemberg (now L’viv), where he restored medieval paintings, and from 1917 settled in Kiev. After the Russian Revolution he emerged as one of the major artists who called for the revival of the Ukrainian national artistic tradition, regarding monumental painting as the most appropriate form. His paintings combine such timeless motifs as labour, motherhood, and man’s relationship to the soil with an acute sense of the great dramas of his time and are produced in a highly distinctive continuation of the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style. He drew on the traditions of Byzantine mural painting, Italian early Renaissance art and the medieval art of Ukraine, as well as on the stylistic features of folk art. He was an outstanding teacher and theorist who defended his ideas vigorously and skilfully in public appearances, uniting around him a set of like-minded young artists and creating a tendency that became known as ‘Boychukism’. From ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Caravaggio, Aug 8, 1844; d Milan, Dec 7, 1918).

Italian restorer and painter. He studied painting and restoration under Giuseppe Bertini and Giuseppe Molteni at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, and, after Molteni’s death in 1867, inherited his studio at the Brera and his private clientele. Cavenaghi was closely associated with Giovanni Morelli and his circle, most notably the collectors Gian Giacomo Poldi-Pezzoli in Milan, Sir Austen Henry Layard and Prince Giuseppe Giovanelli in Venice, as well as Morelli’s pupils, Gustavo Frizzoni and Jean Paul Richter. From the early 1870s most of the important pictures from north Italian collections in need of conservation were sent to Cavenaghi. Among his most famous restorations were the frescoes by Francesco Francia and Lorenzo Costa (i) (rest. 1874) in S Cecilia, Bologna, Donato Bramante’s frescoes (Milan, Brera) formerly in the Casa Panigarola, Milan, and Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie; rest. 1908). As revealed in letters between Richter and Morelli, Cavenaghi’s studio became a laboratory for testing restoration techniques and for the re-attribution of paintings and was frequented by the most important international museum directors and connoisseurs. From ...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, July 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learnt to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...

Article

Achim Sommer

(b Euskirchen, April 22, 1924; d Cologne, April 5, 1987).

German collector and restorer. After World War II he trained as a restorer of paintings in Cologne, Munich and Vienna. He worked in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne from 1949 and took charge of the restoration department in 1963. He started his collection with paintings by Cologne painters such as Peter Abelen (1884–1962), Joseph Fassbender, Peter Herkenrath (1900–93) and Ludwig Egidius Ronig (1885–1959). Under the stimulus of avant-garde exhibitions in Cologne and Düsseldorf, a keen interest in current events in the world of art and his friendships with artists and gallery owners, Hahn widened the scope of his collection. His advice as a connoisseur of contemporary art was valued not only by his museum colleagues but also by collectors such as Peter Ludwig.

Hahn assembled a remarkably complete collection of works by many artists closely connected with Nouveau Réalisme, including Arman, Christo, César, Jean Tinguely, ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

G. A. Ol’

(Andreyevich)

(b St Petersburg, July 8, 1883; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Aug 27, 1958).

Russian architect, restorer, urban planner and painter. He studied at the Institute of Civil Engineering, St Petersburg, and during its closure, due to political reasons, worked in 1905–6 with the partnership of Gesellius, Lindgren & Saarinen in Helsinki. His early works reflect their northern Art Nouveau (Rus. modern) approach, notably in the country house (1907–8) of the writer Leonid Andreyev in Vammelsuu and the villa (1909) of D. Nikol’sky at Uusikirkko, both on the Karelian Isthmus. Ol’ graduated in 1910, after which the free compositional approach and expressive use of building materials that had characterized his early work gave way to the influence of Russian neo-classicism, for example in a number of private residences in St Petersburg. After the October Revolution (1917) he began to work on a broader range of projects. In Petrograd (later Leningrad; now St Petersburg) he designed large-scale industrial plants, such as the Red October Power Station and adjacent workers’ quarters (...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Lonno, nr Bergamo, 1887; d Bergamo, 1974).

Italian restorer. He was the most famous restorer in Italy in the first half of the 20th century, and his work was praised by both Bernard Berenson and Roberto Longhi. A competent but not great painter, Pellicioli based his restoration on the principle of rescuing the original work, but without ever overlooking the aesthetic quality of the painting. His extraordinary skill achieved results that always took careful account of the style, technique and conservation of the originals. In 1960 he restored Antonio Vivarini’s Praglia polyptych (Milan, Brera) and in 1948–9 the same artist’s Charity triptychs (Venice, Accad.). His work on Giovanni Bellini’s Milizia del Mar Virgin and Child (Venice, Accad.; rest. 1938–9) is exemplary for the way that he regained legibility in a painting with extensive small areas of missing paint.

Among the badly worn or damaged paintings restored by Pellicioli are Antonello da Messina’s Deposition (Venice, Correr; rest. ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Berlin, 1891; d London, 1973).

English restorer of German birth. He worked at the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, Berlin, from 1929 to 1933, then emigrated to England and from 1934 worked at the National Gallery, London. He believed that paintings needed to be cleaned completely in order to reveal the original tones of colour, which he regarded as an essential element in any great master’s message. The restorations he carried out on a number of major works evacuated from the National Gallery during World War II were put on show in the Exhibition of Cleaned Pictures, 1936–47, organized in 1947 by Sir Philip Hendy. This exhibition sparked a far-reaching debate, later known as the ‘cleaning controversy’, in which most art historians opposed the results achieved by the total removal of old varnish (see Conservation and restoration, §II).

Ruhemann expounded the theories he had developed during 20 years of research in his book, The Cleaning of Paintings...