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Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Kirstin Ringelberg

Two related art media, usually commercially distributed, featuring narratives presented in serial text-and-image format, in a Japanese context regarding language, aesthetic, storyline, and/or production. Manga, the print form, is published in weekly and monthly anthology books, with popular individual series sometimes published separately as their success waxes. Anime, the moving form, is found in television, film, and home video formats as well as online and is more globally known; one feature-length example, Spirited Away (Sen to Chihiro no kamikakushi; Studio Ghibli 2001, dir. Hayao Miyazaki), earned billions of dollars and major critical awards worldwide (e.g. Berlin International Film Festival Golden Bear for Best Film in 2002, British Academy Awards Best Animated Feature in 2003, and Academy Film Awards Best Film Not in the English Language in 2004).

With an enormous variety of visual and narrative styles, neither anime nor manga can be identified by a consistent theme or aesthetic, although certain genres and iconography predominate. Generally, a story is initially hand- or computer-drawn, then photographed for printing in book, film, or digital form. Most are serialized narratives having continued for decades, often across platforms; however, some ...

Article

Robert Buerglener

[motor car]

Architecture and the automobile have been intimately connected since the late 19th century. The attributes of cars required specific architectural solutions for manufacture, sales, and service. On a broader level, the overall built environment was forever changed by roadside structures designed to meet the needs of drivers.

Automobile factories evolved in tandem with mass production; modular form and open floor spaces provided flexibility in machine placement and possibilities for expansion as production needs changed. Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn, with his associate Ernest Wilby (1868–1957), set a new standard for 20th-century industrial buildings through innovative use of space and materials. For the Packard Company’s Building Number Ten (Detroit, 1905; enlarged 1909), Kahn used reinforced concrete to create modular bays, repeatable horizontally and vertically, with wide interior spans and large window surfaces. For Ford’s Highland Park factory (begun 1909; see fig.), Kahn designed a multi-building complex of reinforced concrete and steel-framed buildings that housed machinery strategically in the sequence of production. In Ford’s River Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, MI (...

Article

Aya Louisa McDonald

[Mokugo; Mokugyo]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], June 21, 1856; d Kyoto, Dec 16, 1907).

Japanese painter . He was the leading Western-style (Yōga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iv)) landscape painter of the Meiji period (1868–1912) and one of the founder-members of the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society, established 1889; later absorbed into the Taiheiyō Gakai [Pacific Painting Society]), the first association of Western-style painters in Japan. Asai was born into a samurai family retained by the Sakura clan. He was originally trained in Japanese bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) in the literati (Nanga or Bunjinga) style, but turned later to oil painting and at the age of 19 entered the Shōgidō, a private school of Western-style painting. The school had been opened in Tokyo the previous year by the artist Shinkurō Kunisawa (1847–77), who had studied painting under John Wilcolm in London.

When the government-sponsored Kōbu Bijutsu Gakkō (Technical Art School) was opened in Tokyo in ...

Article

Ralph Croizier

[Ch’i Pai-shih; zi Huang; hao Baishi Laoren, Baishi Shanweng]

(b Xiangtan, Hunan Province, 1863; d Beijing, 1957).

Chinese painter. He was probably the most popular painter in 20th-century China, esteemed alike by the conservative scholarly élite, the common citizens of China’s urban centres, foreign collectors and revolutionaries both artistic and political for his traditional paintings of birds, flowers, small animals and insects. The range of his appeal from the 1920s onwards derived from his character, his lifestyle and his image as a traditional, high-minded scholar–artist who remained aloof from corrupt politics and preserved cultural values during the politically and socially unsettled period after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Such an image may seem paradoxical given his humble social origins in rural Hunan Province and his early career as a carpenter; however, lowly beginnings and self-improvement through culture and learning were admirable according to Confucian standards, and by the end of Qi’s life the new Communist government had hailed him as an authentic ‘People’s Artist’....

Article

Angelika Steinmetz and Gordon Campbell

(b 1896; d 1965).

German potter who after an early career as a sculptor established a pottery workshop in Kandern. Initially he made pottery statuettes, and then cubist vases. In the 1940s he became interested in East Asian (especially Japanese) glazes, and c. 1950 became the first German potter to produce asymmetrical work with experimental viscous glazes and broken, irregular surface textures....

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Stephen Hill

(Margaret Lowthian)

(b Washington, Co. Durham, July 14, 1868; d Baghdad, 11/July 12, 1926).

English archaeologist and architectural historian. The first woman to achieve a first-class honours in modern history at Oxford University, she travelled widely in Europe, Japan and especially the Middle East in the 1890s, achieving fluency in a number of European languages as well as in Persian, Turkish and Arabic. She developed an interest in archaeology and architecture that was reflected in an authoritative set of articles on the Early Byzantine churches of Syria and southern Turkey, based on her travels in 1905. Her first major travel book, The Desert and the Sown, contains a mixture of travellers’ tales and archaeological information, as does her Amurath to Amurath. Between 1905 and 1914 she made archaeological studies of the Early Byzantine and Early Islamic monuments of Turkey, Syria and Mesopotamia (now Iraq). In 1905 and 1907 she surveyed Binbirkilise with Sir William Ramsay; their book, The Thousand and One Churches, remains the authoritative account of this important site. The architectural recording by survey and photography at Binbirkilise was carried out by Bell and is a lasting monument in its own right. Bell’s interest in Anatolia was inspired by Josef Strzygowski and his book ...

Article

(b New Orleans, LA, March 15, 1873; d New Orleans, 1949).

American photographer. Bellocq is known to have worked as a commercial photographer in New Orleans from 1895 to 1940 and to have photographed for local shipbuilders and in the Chinese sector of New Orleans, although none of this work apparently survives. His photography is known only through prints made by Lee Friedlander from the 89 gelatin dry plate negatives found after Bellocq’s death. These negatives date from c. 1912 and are sympathetic portraits of prostitutes of New Orleans and interior views of their workplaces. Known as the Storyville Portraits, 34 were shown by MOMA, New York, in a travelling exhibition in 1970–71. Bellocq’s life was the subject of Pretty Baby (1978), a film by Louis Malle.

E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits: Photographs from the New Orleans Red-light District, circa 1912 (exh. cat. by J. Szarkowski and L. Friedlander, New York, MOMA, 1970)G. Badger: ‘Viewed’, British Journal of Photography...

Article

Catherine Cooke

(Yevgen’yevich)

(b Zhitomir, 1875; d Gatchina, July 19, 1933).

Russian architect and teacher. After early training in Pskov, he studied (1901–10) at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, latterly in the studio of Leonty Benois. After a year in Odessa he was commissioned in 1911 by the developer Konstantin Rozenshtein to execute façades for residential buildings on the fashionable Bol’shoy Prospect (Petrograd Side), St Petersburg. His treatments at nos 77 (1912–13) and 75 (1913–15) are respectively Gothic and Renaissance classical in their detailing. These, and his elevations in freer classical mode for Gontskevich’s building (1912–15) at no. 102 of the same street, derive their strong identity from the grotesque treatment of stylistic detail that characterizes all Belogrud’s work. Other built works of this period included the Skating Rink complex (1912) in St Petersburg and the Municipal Theatre (1913), Saratov. During these years he was also a lively contributor to stylistic and professional debates in Russian architecture. In ...

Article

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

Article

Jason C. Kuo

Reviser Zaixin Hong

[Huang Pin-hung, ming Zhi, zi Pucun /Po-chun]

(b Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, Jan 27, 1865; d Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Mar 25, 1955).

Chinese scholar, epigraphist, and painter. Huang Binhong was a visionary known for his world view on Chinese art, original art writings, and modern expressionist style. Drawing on a lifelong study of old masters (lingu) and close observation of nature (xiesheng) through extensive travels around the country, he transformed traditional Chinese landscape painting in the 20th century. In 1953, both he and Qi Baishi were honored by the Communist government as the “Excellent Painter of the Chinese People” and the “Artist of the Chinese People” respectively, and from then on referred to as Huang of the South and Qi of the North.

Born into a merchant family from Shexian, Anhui Province, Huang passed the entry level of the civil service examination but ended that career path at the age of 29. While running the family enterprise, he cultivated his passion for landscape painting and ancient seals. By the time he left Shexian for Shanghai in ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Margaret Medley

(b Ash, Kent, July 28, 1844; d London, Dec 18, 1908).

English art historian. Trained in medicine, he became interested in the history of Chinese ceramics during his years as physician to the British embassy in Beijing (1868–1900). In 1891 he drafted a translation (pubd 1910) of Zhu Yan’s Tao shuo (‘Description of Chinese pottery and porcelain’, 1774), the first comprehensive account of Chinese ceramics written for connoisseurs by a Chinese critic. Bushell’s greatest achievement was his catalogue of the William T. Walters Collection in Baltimore, sumptuously published in ten folio volumes in 1896; its text, published as a single volume in 1899, is the earliest systematic study in English of Chinese ceramics in which the subject is treated chronologically and in which particular aspects such as reign marks, forms, technical matters and decorative motifs are considered separately. Bushell also translated a handwritten copy of Xiang Yuanbian’s Lidai mingci tupu (‘Illustrated description of the celebrated porcelain of different dynasties’, ...

Article

Ralph Croizier

Reviser Walter Davis

[Wu Ch’ang-shih; Wu Ch’ang-shuo; ming Jun, Junqing]

(b Anji, Zhejiang Province, 1844; d Shanghai, 1927).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and seal-carver. The most prominent figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he rejuvenated the genre of bird-and-flower painting, contributed to the internationalization of the Chinese art world, and helped lead a national revival of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy in the 1910s and 1920s. Although he initially aspired to become a scholar–official and passed the imperial civil service examinations at the county (xiucai) level, he later made his living as a professional artist, developing an international clientele and a reputation as a literati painter and calligrapher that continues to the present.

While pursuing a career in government service, Wu mastered the Confucian classics and studied poetry, epigraphy, and calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii)). Contact with such professional painters as Ren Yi in the cultural and commercial metropolis of Shanghai during the late 19th century opened up to Wu the possibility of a professional artist’s career. After a brief appointment as a county official in ...

Article

Junghee Lee

[Yi]

Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...

Article

Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Uksang, Kongnip; ho Shimjŏn, Pulburong, Purija, Purong]

(b Sunhŭng, 1861; d 1919).

Korean painter. He excelled in landscapes, figures, flowers and birds, as well as in many styles of calligraphy, and was among the very last court painters of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ; see Korea §XI 1.) at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910). In 1881 he was sent as a draughtsman to Tianjin in China with a group of men to learn the technique of producing modern weapons. In 1900 he painted the royal portrait of Kojong (reg 1864–1907). Perhaps as a reward for this assignment he was appointed magistrate of the county of Yangch’ŏn and T’ongjin in Kyŏnggi Province. In 1911 he and his contemporary Cho Sŏk-chin were the leading teachers at the Sŏhwa misulwŏn (Academy of Calligraphy and Painting), newly established in Seoul to train artists, among whom were Yi Sang-bŏm, Pyŏn Kwan-sik, No Su-hyŏn (1899–1978) and Kim Ŭn-ho. An and Cho were also closely involved in the Sŏhwa misulhoe (Calligraphy and Painting Arts Group). An thus became a bridge between the late Chosŏn and the modern period....

Article

Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...

Article

Hiroyuki Suzuki

(b London, Sept 28, 1852; d Tokyo, 1920).

English architect, active in Japan. He was articled to Roger Thomas Smith and then entered the office of William Burges. In 1876 he was awarded the Soane Medallion by the RIBA. In the next year he was appointed the first professor of architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering (now Tokyo University) in Japan, in which role he taught every aspect of architecture and building construction. During this period he was also active as an architect, designing such buildings as the Tokyo Imperial Museum (1877–80; now Tokyo National Museum) and a national banqueting house, Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion), for the Ministry of Public Works. After leaving his academic and governmental posts, Conder went into private practice and designed many residences, including the Iwasaki residence in Kayacho (1896; see Japan, §III, 5), the Shimazu residence (1915) and the Furukawa residence (1917). His style gradually changed from Gothic to more classical. He is often called the father of Western architecture in Japan, not only on account of his designs but also because of his role in establishing the Western method of architectural higher ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Tuan-fang; zi Wuqiao; hao Taozhai] [Tuan-fang; zi Wuqiao; hao Taozhai]

(b Fengrun, Hebei Province, 20 April 1861; d Zizhou [modern Zizhong], Sichuan Province, 27 Nov 1911). Chinese collector and high official. His Chinese ancestors, named Tao, moved to Manchuria in the Ming period (1368–1644), intermarried with the indigenous Manchu, accepted the clan name Tohoro and became part of the Manchu Plain White Banner, one of the four original military and administrative units of Manchuria. Duanfang’s family returned to China after the Manchu conquest of China and the establishment of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). He received his juren degree in 1882 and served in many high posts, including terms as governor and acting governor-general of various provinces. He was interested in education and modernization and was a patron to promising young men. He was killed by his own men in the 1911 uprising while attempting to return to Wuchang, Sichuan, to take up his post as acting governor-general....