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Gabriel P. Weisberg

French family of painters. Jean-Antoine Bail (b Chasseley, Rhône, 8 April 1830; d Nesle-la-Vallée, 20 Oct 1919) was largely self-taught, but he received some training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon before showing the intimate, monochromatic Artist’s Studio (Saint-Etienne, Mus. A. & Indust.) at the Salon there in 1854. He subsequently showed works at the Paris Salon, beginning in 1861 with The Cherries (untraced), and he exhibited at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français, Paris, until 1898. He was recognized by contemporary critics as the artist who best exemplified the realist tradition in provincial themes. He used models who posed in his studio on the Ile St Louis for his paintings of cooks and maids, and many of his interior scenes, with their intimate figural groupings and close attention to detail, display an awareness of Chardin and Dutch 17th-century painting. Sensitive portraits such as the ...


Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Grüneberg, June 28, 1865; d Dresden, Feb 1, 1910).

German writer and publisher. From 1892 to 1894 he edited the Freie Bühne (later renamed Neue deutsche Rundschau), the Berlin-based magazine that acted as the chief mouthpiece of literary naturalism. He took up the cause of modernist painting in his very first publication, A. Böcklin (1891), a text introducing 15 heliographs of the artist’s work, and this was followed by publications on Fritz von Uhde (1893; 1908) and on Hans Thoma (1904). In 1894, with Julius Meier-Graefe, Bierbaum founded Pan, which was to become the leading avant-garde journal of the period in Germany, notable for its typography and for the inventive integration of text and illustration. There were also reproductions of paintings, drawings and sculpture, and the list of contributors included Franz von Stuck, Thoma, von Uhde, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Max Klinger, Arnold Böcklin, Paul Signac, Georges Seurat, Félix Vallotton, ...


Mariantonietta Picone Petrusa

(b Naples, Feb 23, 1835; d Naples, Sept 21, 1920).

Italian painter. He came from a family of artists of Catalan origin and was taught by his grandfather Giuseppe (1766–1850) and his great-uncle Antonio before enrolling at the Naples Accademia di Belle Arti in 1853. He studied under Gabriele Smargiassi (1798–1882), an exponent of traditional, composed, Romantic landscape, but was soon impressed by the plein-air landscape painting of Giacinto Gigante and by the work of the landscape painters of the Scuola di Posilippo, Alessandro La Volpe (?1820–87) and Vincenzo Franceschini (1812–85). Between 1854 and 1855 Cammarano entered the studio of Nicola Palizzi and devoted more time to studies from the live model and of landscape en plein air, with stays on Capri and at Cava Campobasso. This led to a break with Smargiassi, but Cammarano continued to attend evening life classes at the Accademia and to take part in competitions. Early works, such as ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Turin, March 1, 1869; d Rome, June 8, 1959).

Italian sculptor, teacher, composer and musician. He studied sculpture from 1880 at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, under Odoardo Tabacchi, and initially adhered to the traditions of Naturalism, with Romantic and Renaissance influences. He later turned to Realism, making no concessions to the more avant-garde artistic tendencies of the 20th century. He established his reputation with a series of portraits of society personalities, including Emily Doria-Pamphili (marble, h. 570 mm, 1904; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili; copies, Rome, G.N.A. Mod. and Mus. Canonica) and Donna Franca Florio (marble, h. 1050 mm, c. 1903–4; Rome, Mus. Canonica), and also members of the British royal family, such as Edward VII (marble, h. 570 mm, 1903; London, Buckingham Pal., Royal Col.). His vast output includes many works with symbolic or sacred subject-matter, as well as numerous funereal and commemorative monuments. These include the model (plaster, h. 330 mm) and statue (marble, h. 3.28 m) of ...


Valérie M. C. Bajou

[Durand, Charles-Emile-Auguste]

(b Lille, July 4, 1837; d Paris, 1917).

French painter. He came from a humble background and by the age of 11 was taking lessons at the Académie in Lille from the sculptor Augustin-Phidias Cadet de Beaupré (b 1800) who taught him to sketch. At 15 he began a two-year apprenticeship in the studio of one of David’s former pupils, François Souchon (1787–1857), whose name he still referred to several years later when he exhibited at the Salon. In 1853 he moved to Paris. He copied in the Louvre where he must have met Henri Fantin-Latour, then taking life classes at the Académie Suisse (1859–60). He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1859. His first period in Paris, from 1853 to 1862 (interspersed with visits to Lille, where he received portrait commissions and an annuity in 1861), shows the influence of Gustave Courbet, whose After Dinner at Ornans...


Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...


Elizabeth Johns


(b Philadelphia, PA, July 25, 1844; d Philadelphia, June 25, 1916).

American painter, sculptor and photographer. He was a portrait painter who chose most of his sitters and represented them in powerful but often unflattering physical and psychological terms. Although unsuccessful throughout much of his career, since the 1930s he has been regarded as one of the greatest American painters of his era.

His father Benjamin Eakins (1818–99), the son of a Scottish–Irish immigrant weaver, was a writing master and amateur artist who encouraged Thomas Eakins’s developing talent. Eakins attended the Central High School in Philadelphia, which stressed skills in drawing as well as a democratic respect for disciplined achievement. He developed an interest in human anatomy and began visiting anatomical clinics. After studying from 1862 at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where instruction was minimal, Eakins went to Paris to enrol at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in the studio of Jean-Léon Gérôme. From 1866 to the end of ...


Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Kätteryd, Skåne, Dec 17, 1842; d Helsingborg, Nov 8, 1934).

Swedish painter. He came from a very poor background and trained initially as an artisan painter. He received his first artistic education at the Handicraft Association’s school in Göteborg in the mid-1860s. In 1867 he was awarded a scholarship to visit the Exposition Universelle in Paris. He studied further at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Léon Bonnat, remaining in Paris for over 30 years. Like Gustaf Cederström Forsberg sought to renew Swedish history painting by investing it with techniques borrowed from French Realism. Another essential feature of his painting was the great social and moral commitment seen in such contemporary subjects as the Family of Acrobats before the Circus Director (1878; Göteborg, Kstmus.), which attacked child labour.

Forsberg’s biggest success was with the powerful A Hero’s Death (1888; Stockholm, Nmus.), which was awarded a first-class gold medal at the Paris Salon of 1888. The subject derived from Forsberg’s experiences in Paris during the Franco-Prussian War (...


D. Cardyn-Oomen

(Henri Marie)

(b Brussels, Aug 26, 1856; d Schaarbeek, Jan 27, 1940).

Belgian painter and draughtsman. He studied briefly under Charle-Albert before attending the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, where he became a pupil of Jules Vankeirsbilck (1833–96) and Ernest Slingeneyer (1820–94), also working in the studio of Jean-François Portaels. In 1878 he went to Italy with the sculptor Julien Dillens; he stayed there for over a year, making numerous studies after the artists of the Quattrocento. In 1878 he made his début at the Triennial Salon in Brussels and became a member of the group of Realist painters known as Essor, L’. The very early work still shows the influence of E. Wauters (1846–1933), with whom he collaborated on the Panorama of Cairo (untraced).

In 1882 Fréderic was awarded his first medal at the Triennial Salon in Brussels for the triptych Chalk Sellers (Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.). The objective, realistic style and the smooth painting technique are characteristic of his work; also typical is the elaboration of one theme over several large canvases. The bleak and melancholy atmosphere of the expanding suburbs inspired him to paint tramps and a series of ...


Joanne Culler Paradise

(b Paris, June 1, 1855; d Paris, April 4, 1926).

French critic, writer and administrator. Although his formal education stopped short of a lycée degree, in his youth he steeped himself in the positivist, socialist and Romantic currents of the day. In the early 1880s he met his mentors: Georges Clemenceau (1841–1929), who preached evolutionary, socialist politics; and Emile Zola and Edmond de Goncourt, who inculcated in him their Naturalist literary theories. Geffroy also formed close friendships with Claude Monet, Auguste Rodin, J.-F. Raffaëlli, Félix Bracquemond and Eugène Carrière, all of whom helped to shape his aesthetic views.

As a journalist covering art, literature and politics from the 1880s to about 1907, Geffroy was an important witness to the cultural life of the early Third Republic. His chief endeavour was the art criticism that he wrote, in the 1880s, for Clemenceau’s newspaper La Justice and, from 1893, for Le Journal. About a third of his output for these and other periodicals was collected in ...


S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman Hamdi; Hamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...


Helen A. Cooper

(b Boston, MA, Feb 24, 1836; d Prout’s Neck, ME, Sept 29, 1910).

American painter, illustrator and etcher. He was one of the two most admired American late 19th-century artists (the other being Thomas Eakins) and is considered to be the greatest pictorial poet of outdoor life in the USA and its greatest watercolourist (see fig.). Nominally a landscape painter, in a sense carrying on Hudson River school attitudes, Homer was an artist of power and individuality whose images are metaphors for the relationship of Man and Nature. A careful observer of visual reality, he was at the same time alive to the purely physical properties of pigment and colour, of line and form, and of the patterns they create. His work is characterized by bold, fluid brushwork, strong draughtsmanship and composition, and particularly by a lack of sentimentality.

Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer, a hardware importer, and Henrietta Benson Homer, a gifted amateur watercolourist. Brought up in Cambridge, MA, where he attended school, he had an active outdoor boyhood that left a lifelong liking for the country. An independent, strong-willed young man, he showed an early preference for art and was encouraged in his interest by both parents. Like a number of self-educated American artists, Homer was first known as an illustrator. At 19 he became an apprentice at the lithographic firm of ...


Bernadette Thomas

(b Antwerp, Jan 14, 1852; d Brussels, June 5, 1908).

Belgian sculptor. He began modelling in clay at the age of 11 and was a pupil at the Antwerp Academie under Nicaise De Keyser and Joseph Geefs (1808–85), although their academic teaching left no trace on his exuberant character. Instead he developed his natural gift for observation in the streets of Antwerp. His earliest works date from 1875 and were exhibited at the Salon in Brussels. Closely related to the work of Jérôme Duquesnoy (i), they are picturesque and graceful. In 1880 Lambeaux was in Paris, where the wretched life he led fed his romantic spirit. In 1882 he visited Italy, but the trip had no conclusive influence on his art. In 1883 he was a founder-member of Les XX, but he resigned after its first Salon in 1884 because he found the group’s ideas too avant-garde.

In 1887 one of Lambeaux’s most important works, the Brabo fountain, was erected in the Grote Markt in Antwerp. This monumental bronze group features Salvius Brabo, founder of Antwerp, at the apex, convincingly posed to suggest his running motion in the manner of Giambologna’s ...


Bettina Brand

(b Berlin, July 20, 1847; d Berlin, Feb 8, 1935).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and collector. He dominated the German art world from the 1890s to the 1930s. Although at first a highly controversial figure, after the turn of the century he was showered with honours. His Naturalist and Impressionist works have been consistently admired, despite being banned during the Nazi period. Liebermann’s approach was that of a liberal cosmopolitan, and his work is distinguished by its honesty and commitment to social reform. Influenced by Dutch and French painting, he led the modernist movement in Germany away from the literary art of the 19th century.

The son of a Jewish businessman from Berlin, Liebermann initially studied philosophy, but in 1866 he became a pupil of Carl Steffeck, who had given him occasional drawing tuition. In 1868–72 he studied under Ferdinand Wilhelm Pauwels (1830–1904), Charles Verlat and Paul Thumann (1834–1908) at the Kunsthochschule in Weimar. In 1871...


Aimo Reitala


(b Loviisa, Aug 20, 1841; d Göteborg, May 15, 1914).

Finnish painter. He received his initial art education at the School of Drawing in Turku between 1856 and 1861. He was prompted to take up a career as an artist by his admiration for Werner Holmberg, whose example he followed by studying in Düsseldorf. He was disappointed by the city’s Kunstakademie, however, where Holmberg’s instructor, Hans Fredrik Gude, no longer taught. Lindholm studied under Gude in Karlsuhe in 1865–6. He was inspired by the French landscape paintings he saw there to travel to Paris. He subsequently worked and studied in Paris from 1868 to 1870 and from 1873 to 1876 (in 1873–4 under the direction of Léon Bonnat). Lindholm became a fervent adherent of French art, particularly the Barbizon school, and of emphasizing colour. Charles-François Daubigny and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot were his most important influences.

The small landscapes that Lindholm painted in France in the first half of the 1870s were relatively modern for Finnish art. At the same time he also persisted with Realism for his larger portrayals of Finnish landscapes, as in ...


Jens Christian Jensen

(Friedrich Erdmann von)

(b Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland], Dec 8, 1815; d Berlin, Feb 9, 1905).

German painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, and teacher. He was the most important artist working in Berlin in the second half of the 19th century and in his later years was one of the most successful and respected artists in Germany. Living virtually all his life in Berlin, he executed numerous paintings and illustrations relating to events in Prussia’s recent history and was the foremost chronicler of the life of Frederick the Great (reg 1740–86). Through his portraits and industrial scenes and his more intimate studies of interiors and local religious events he became one of the greatest German proponents of Realism (see Realism, §3).

He was the son of Carl Erdmann Menzel (d 1832), the head of an educational institute in Breslau, who abandoned his profession in 1818 to establish a lithographic printing works. In 1827, at age 12, Adolph Menzel exhibited a drawing and in ...


Pierre Baudson

(b Etterbeek, Brussels, April 12, 1831; d Ixelles, Brussels, April 4, 1905).

Belgian sculptor, painter and draughtsman. He was directed towards an artistic career by his elder brother, the engraver Jean-Baptiste Meunier (1821–1900). He entered the Académie des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, in September 1845 and studied under the sculptor Louis Jehotte (1804–84) from 1848. In addition, in 1852 he attended the private studio of the sculptor Charles-Auguste Fraikin. Gradually he came to feel that sculpture, at least in the traditional form taught in Brussels, was incapable of providing an adequate vehicle for either exposition or expression. Still at the Academy, he transferred to painting, therefore, in 1853, and followed the courses given by François-Joseph Navez, studying in the evenings at the Saint-Luc studio, with Charles De Groux. He became friends with Louis Dubois, Félicien Rops and other rebellious young artists who were to found the Société Libre des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1868. With these, Meunier was part of the realist avant-garde, while seeking out a path of his own in painting. It has been said that De Groux had a decisive influence on Meunier. The latter partly denied this and insisted that he had felt the need very early to practise an art that was more devoted to the masses, to the people. His interest in everyday life, in the experience and condition of man, can already be discerned in the sketches and studies he made during his stays in the Trappist monastery of Westmalle, near Antwerp, between ...


Aurora Scotti Tosini

(b Alessandria, July 18, 1853; d Milan, Nov 7, 1919).

Italian painter. He received his first lessons in drawing in Alessandria, and in 1867 he travelled on a local study grant to Milan, where he was based for the rest of his life. He enrolled at the Accademia di Brera and from 1867 to 1876 studied drawing and painting there under Raffaele Casnedi and Giuseppe Bertini, whose influence is seen in both the subject-matter and technique of his early works. These include perspectival views, anecdotal genre scenes and history paintings. In the Dying Goethe (1880; Alessandria, Pin. Civ.) the theatrical setting, enriched by a sophisticated execution and a well-modulated use of colour, derives from the teaching of Casnedi and Bertini, while the historic–romantic quality of this painting also recalls the style of Francesco Hayez. In the years that followed, Morbelli began to concentrate more on themes such as labour and the life of the poor, influenced perhaps by Realist painters of the 1880s such as Achille D’Orsi, Francesco Paolo Michetti and Teofilo Patini. Morbelli’s ...


Mari Carmen Ramírez

(b Bayamón, June 17, 1833; d Cataño, May 17, 1917).

Puerto Rican painter. He studied from 1851 to 1853 at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid under Federico de Madrazo y Küntz and in Paris from 1858 to 1863 under Thomas Couture and Charles Gleyre at the Ecole Impériale et Spéciale de Dessin and at the Académie Suisse. There he met Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne and Armand Guillaumin, who together with Couture and the work of Courbet influenced his work towards Realism and Impressionism. His masterpiece The Wake (1893; Río Piedras, U. Puerto Rico, Mus. Antropol., Hist. & A.), with its penetrating insights into 19th-century Puerto Rican rural society, is a monumental tribute to the artistic tenets championed by Courbet.

Oller, however, cannot be characterized exclusively as a Realist or Impressionist. In the course of his prolific career he produced portraits, landscapes and still-lifes, adapting his style to the subject. In the Ponce Silk-Cotton Tree...


Evita Arapoglou and Tonia P. Giannoudaki

(b Tinos, 1834; d Athens, Nov 28, 1919).

Greek sculptor. While very young he assisted his architect father in the construction of the St Paul Monastery on Mt Athos, and he also collaborated with masons from Tinos on sculptural work in Constantinople (now Istanbul). In 1858 he began his studies in sculpture at the School of Fine Arts in Athens, first under Christian Heinrich Siegel (1808–83) and then under Georgios Fitalis, and continued them at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome (1864–9) with a scholarship from the Evangelistria Holy Foundation of Tinos. His Reaper (1870; Athens, Zappeion), which won first prize at the Academy of Rome, is an early example of a series of small decorative genre sculptures involving children. Often inspired by themes from everyday life, he was the first Greek sculptor who produced works with Realist tendencies. Man Breaking Wood (model 1871, marble 1900; Athens, Zappeion), for example, shows a dynamic architectural structure and almost exaggerated anatomical detail. His naturalistic statues and busts (e.g. ...