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Article

James D. Kornwolf

(b Ramsgate, Oct 23, 1865; d Brighton, Feb 10, 1945).

English architect, interior designer, garden designer and writer . He was articled to Charles Davis (1827–1902), City Architect of Bath, from 1886 until 1889 but learnt little and was largely self-taught. In 1889 he started his own practice on the Isle of Man, where he built a number of buildings, including his own Red House, Douglas (1893). He was a leading member of the second-generation Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and was among the first to build on the simpler, more abstract and stylized designs of C. F. A. Voysey, a refinement of the ideas of William Morris, Philip Webb, R. Norman Shaw and others from the period 1860–90. From about 1890 until World War I, the Arts and Crafts Movement, as represented by Baillie Scott, Voysey, C. R. Ashbee, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Parker & Unwin and others, became the most important international force in architecture, interior design, landscape and urban planning. The work of these architects influenced Adolf Loos and Josef Hoffmann in Austria, Joseph Maria Olbrich and Peter Behrens in Germany, Eliel Saarinen and others in Scandinavia, and Frank Lloyd Wright, Irving Gill, Greene & Greene in the USA....

Article

Nadine Pouillon

(b Château-Renault, Indre-et-Loire, April 24, 1873; d Montoire-sur-le-Loir, nr Vendôme, Aug 12, 1958).

French painter. Like many naive artists, he discovered his vocation for drawing and painting late in life. His work as a gardener in Touraine awakened his love of nature, and he educated himself by reading history and mythology and by travelling in central and western France. He was mobilized in World War I and was sent to Greece to take part in the Dardanelles campaign; on his return to France his drawing skills were recognized by the Army and he was put in charge of charting and rangefinding. It was this experience that encouraged him to become a painter in 1919.

Bauchant exhibited his work for the first time at the Salon d’Automne in 1921. His flower pictures were soon succeeded by subjects from history, such as Louis XI Having Mulberry Bushes Planted near Tours (1943; Paris, Pompidou), from mythology, as in Cleopatra, on her Way to Anthony (...

Article

Brent Elliott

Garden in Gwynedd, Wales. It was laid out from 1874 by Edward Milner (1819–84) for Henry Davis Pochin, an industrial chemist, with further improvements undertaken in the early 20th century by Pochin’s descendants. Milner’s initial design confined Bodnant’s formal and architectural features—most notably a laburnum archway and beds of flowering shrubs—to the curtilage of the house, while an extensive lawn, artificial rockworks by James Pulham (c. 1820–98) and a conifer collection filled the rest of the grounds. Between 1905 and 1914 Pochin’s grandson, Henry Duncan McLaren, 2nd Baron Aberconway (1879–1953), carved the lawn into a series of five Italianate terraces of individual character (including one with a buttressed wall and formal water-lily pool) and a canal terrace. This last terrace was provided with trelliswork and an open-air stage backed by yew hedges, and it was further supplemented in 1938 by the Pin Mill, a small industrial building of ...

Article

Noël Annesley

[Christie, Manson & Woods]

Auction house founded in London by James Christie (1730–1803). After a few years spent in the navy, James Christie worked as an assistant to an auctioneer named Mr Annesley in Covent Garden, London. He left Annesley in 1763 to set up on his own and in 1766 established his firm at the print warehouse of Richard Dalton in Pall Mall, where the Royal Academy held its exhibitions in its early years. In 1770 he moved his premises next door to Schomberg House, Pall Mall, where Thomas Gainsborough lived. The first known catalogue is dated 5 December 1766; it includes little of value except for a picture by Aelbert Cuyp. Christie rapidly established himself as one of the foremost auctioneers, however, cultivating a circle of friends and advisers that included Gainsborough, Reynolds, Horace Walpole, David Garrick, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and Edmund Burke, and receiving many auction consignments from royalty and the nobility. During the French Revolution the firm did particularly well through the abundance of works then coming into Britain. Among the more notable early Christie sales were that of the former collection of Pope ...

Article

Cornish  

Keith N. Morgan

American town and former artists’ colony in the state of New Hampshire. Situated on a line of hills near the eastern bank of the Connecticut River c. 160 km north-west of Boston, Cornish looks across to Windsor, VT, and Mt Ascutney. It was settled in 1763 as an agrarian community, but its population was rapidly reduced during the migration to the cities in the second half of the 19th century. From 1885 until around the time of World War I, Cornish was the summer home of a group of influential sculptors, painters, architects, gardeners, and writers. For this coherent group, the Cornish hills symbolized an ideal natural environment that reflected the classical images so important in their work. The sculptor who first spent a summer in Cornish in 1885, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, bought his summer residence there in 1891, and he was soon followed by the painters Henry Oliver Walker (...

Article

(b New York, June 19, 1872; d Bar Harbor, ME, Feb 27, 1959).

American landscape designer. Born into a well connected family, she was introduced to important European gardens by her aunt, Edith Wharton. Farrand studied horticulture with Charles Sprague Sargent (1841–1927) at the Arnold Arboretum in Boston, MA, and in 1895 began practising as a landscape designer in New York. In 1899 she became a founder-member of the American Society of Landscape Architects. The landscapes of Beatrix Farrand can be seen today with some degree of completeness in only two major gardens: Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC (1922–33), and the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Garden (1926–late 1930s) at The Eyrie, Seal Harbor, on Mount Desert Island, ME. The rest of her designs—around 200 gardens—have disappeared. Remnants of a few are being rediscovered, and with the aid of the documentation she gave to the University of California at Berkeley, it may be possible to restore them. By the 1980s, Farrand had almost been forgotten; however, a symposium at Dumbarton Oaks inspired new research and brought her back into public view....

Article

J. M. Richards

(b London, Jan 29, 1850; d Welwyn Garden City, Herts, May 1, 1928).

English social reformer, writer and shorthand-writer. He worked first as a clerk in the offices of various London merchants, stockbrokers and solicitors. In 1872 Howard emigrated to the USA where he worked as a shorthand-writer in the law courts, first in Nebraska then in Chicago. After returning to England (1877) he joined the firm of Gurney and Sons, official shorthand-writers to the Houses of Parliament, London, later becoming a partner in their successors, William Treadwell. Howard devoted his spare time to social reform, applying himself especially to problems of urban overcrowding and the depopulation of the countryside. His response was the idea of the economically self-sufficient satellite town, surrounded by agricultural land and limited to c. 30,000 inhabitants. In 1898 he published an influential book in support of his ideas: Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. It set out not only his concept of the garden city but also his proposals for financing and administering it. The garden city was to consist of rural-like residential neighbourhoods surrounding a central park, an extensive cultivable green belt to prevent urban encroachment, and facilities for shopping, cultural pursuits, community activities and recreation, the whole laid out concentrically and linked to a large town of no more than 58,000 inhabitants. No railways or highways would pass through the garden city. The scheme was anticipated by two years by that of the German political theorist ...

Article

Robert Williams

(b London, Nov 29, 1843; d Godalming, Surrey, Dec 8, 1932).

English garden designer and writer. Best remembered for her books on horticulture and the gardens she made with the architect Edwin Lutyens, she first trained (1861–3) as a painter at the Kensington School of Art, London, and (c. 1870) under Hercules Brabazon Brabazon. Private means allowed her to concentrate on learning one art or craft after another, from embroidery to stone-carving. In 1882 she began contributing horticultural articles to magazines and advising acquaintances on planting schemes. She met the young Lutyens in 1889 and introduced him to some of his first important clients. He designed Munstead Wood, Godalming, for her in 1896. True to her Arts and Crafts background, Jekyll promoted the cottage-garden style of old-fashioned flowers, informally planted; her opinions and expertise made her a household name. Her first book, Wood and Garden, illustrated with her own photographs, appeared in 1899. Her schemes for about 300 gardens are known (numerous plans, Berkeley, U. CA, Coll. Envmt. Des., Doc. Col.), of which about 100 involved ...

Article

Robert E. Grese

(b Dybbøl, Denmark, Sept 13, 1860; d Ellison Bay, WI, Oct 1, 1951).

American landscape architect of Danish birth. He began building his reputation as a designer in 1888 when he delighted the Chicago public with his design for the American Garden in Union Park. With it he set the tone for a lifetime of creating natural parks and gardens. During a stormy career with Chicago’s West Parks, Jensen reshaped Union, Humboldt, Garfield, and Douglas parks. His work on Columbus Park (1916) is generally regarded as the best of his designs for Chicago’s West Parks System. During the same period he designed numerous residential gardens for the élite of Chicago and across the Midwest. He established close friendships with the architects of the Prairie school and occasionally collaborated with them on projects.

Throughout his career Jensen attempted to relate forms and materials to the surrounding native landscape. Designs were not intended to be copies of nature, but symbolic representations using colour, texture, sunlight and shadow, seasonal change, and careful manipulation of space to evoke a deep emotional response. He saw a value in plants then thought to be common weeds and used them in ecological patterns as found in the wild. His design of ...

Article

Botanic gardens situated on the banks of the River Thames at Kew, 12 km west of London. The gardens extend to 121 ha and combine the roles of a major scientific institution and a popular park. The nucleus of the present Kew Gardens was formed from the grounds of the White House (1730–35; destr. 1802), residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta, and the adjacent grounds of Richmond Lodge (destr. 1772), favourite residence of King George II and Queen Caroline.

In 1730 Frederick commissioned William Kent to renovate the White House and lay out its grounds. Augusta remained there after Frederick’s death (1751), and, under the guidance of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, established a small botanical garden (1759). The remaining grounds were embellished by William Chambers with buildings (1757–63) in various exotic styles, of which several survive, including the Pagoda (...

Article

Botanical gardens in Kennett Square, c. 50 km south-west of Philadelphia, PA. An Englishman, George Pierce, bought the estate in 1700 and in 1720 built a brick house (now a wing of the present house). From 1800 his descendants, the twin brothers Joshua Pierce (1766–1851) and Samuel Pierce (1766–1836), planted the estate with exotic trees, and the collection grew rapidly, including laurels, copper beeches, yews, European and American horse-chestnuts, Norway spruce, several varieties of magnolia, Japanese ginkgos, empress trees, and hollies, with evergreens predominating. In 1906 the property, known as Pierce’s Park, was bought by Pierre Samuel du Pont (1870–1954) primarily to save the arboretum. Du Pont built the present house and developed the estate, preserving and enhancing the original garden, planting in harmony with the existing scheme. He hired Ferruccio Vitale (1875–1933), a New York-based landscape architect, to design the gardens. Du Pont built the extensive conservatories and in ...

Article

Michael Bollé

(b Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland], Aug 18, 1835; d Berlin, July 1, 1909).

German garden designer. He was one of the most important landscape gardeners in 19th-century Berlin and one of the last representatives of the school of garden design represented by Peter Joseph Lenné and his pupil Gustav Meyer. Mächtig trained in the school of gardening at the Wildpark in Potsdam (1854–6), himself becoming in 1865 an instructor there. In 1870 he became court gardener at Sanssouci, Potsdam, and in 1875, City Inspector of Gardens in Berlin, the right-hand man of Meyer, whom he succeeded as Director of Gardens in 1877. Mächtig’s activity was confined to Berlin and its neighbourhood. Until 1888 he continued Meyer’s plan for the park at Treptow; one of his early works, in 1879, was a design, possibly never carried out, for a children’s playground in the old Sophia cemetery (Heinrich-Zille Park), with a flowerbed representing the ground-plan of a Baroque church. About 1880 he designed a monument to ...

Article

Martin Segger

(b Sapperton, New Westminster, BC, April 11, 1860; d Victoria, BC, Aug 8, 1929).

Canadian architect. He was the son of a British Army Royal Engineer and is reputed to have been the first white child born in the city of New Westminster. He was the foremost domestic architect in British Columbia during the period 1890–1920 and established a building style and form that gave Victoria and parts of Vancouver a distinctive Canadian west-coast flavour. Maclure was a self-taught architect, although he briefly studied painting at the Spring Garden Institute, Philadelphia, PA, in 1884–5. He opened his first practice in New Westminster in 1889 and moved to Victoria in 1892, where he had an office. In 1905 a practice was established in Vancouver in partnership with Cecil Croker Fox (1879–1916), who had trained in London with C. F. A. Voysey. The office closed with Fox’s death at the Front in France in 1916. In 1920 the office reopened under Maclure’s former apprentice, ...

Article

Francine-Claire Legrand

(b Laeken, nr Brussels, Aug 9, 1845; d Laeken, Feb 4, 1921).

Belgian painter, decorative artist and draughtsman. A gardener’s son, he was brought up in a quiet suburb of Brussels, bordering the Parc Royal. He studied under the decorative artist Charles Albert (1821–89) and then, between 1860 and 1867, took a course in decorative design at the Brussels Académie. In 1864 he joined the studio of Jean-François Portaels to learn the techniques of modelling, painting from life and history painting. Having won the Belgian Prix de Rome in 1870, he travelled to Italy, where he was inspired by the work of Mantegna. His early work treated the working lives of the Belgian poor in a social realist manner influenced by Charles de Groux: for example The Peasants (Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.)

From 1878 to 1879 Mellery stayed on the island of Marken, in the Netherlands, in order to illustrate a book by Charles De Coster, but the writer’s death in ...

Article

Keith N. Morgan

(b New York, Oct 16, 1861; d Cornish, NH, Sept 12, 1933).

American architect, garden designer, etcher, and painter. He was brought up in New York, where he began his artistic training in 1878 at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League. The following summer he was introduced to the recently revived art of etching, and he quickly achieved critical recognition for his work in this medium. He continued to etch for most of his life, concentrating on coastal scenes in which he strove to capture the atmospheric interaction of light, air, and water. In May 1882 Platt travelled to Paris to continue his training as a painter, working first independently and then after 1883 at the Académie Julian under Jules Lefebvre. Although he exhibited The Etcher (Boston, MA, St. Botolph’s Club) at the Paris Salon of 1885, Platt eventually rejected his figural training and turned back to his youthful interest in landscape. On his return to New York, he continued to exhibit his paintings and etchings, and in ...

Article

Therese O’Malley

Term given to a regional style of landscape design in America. In 1915, Wilhelm Miller, a professor of Landscape Horticulture at the University of Illinois, defined a new American regional style in an article entitled “The Prairie Spirit in Landscape Gardening.” This seminal article described the work of Ossian Cole Simonds (1855–1931), Jens Jensen and Walter Burley Griffin (see Griffin family) as the main proponents of a Midwestern school that drew upon the Prairie school of architecture epitomized by Frank Lloyd Wright.

Simonds is credited with the innovation of transplanting native plants from the countryside to manmade landscapes as early as 1880, specifically at Graceland Cemetery in Chicago. The uses of native species as well as a spatial design in harmony with the regional landscape are cited by Miller as the defining elements of the new style. Simonds, in contrast to previous designers, considered flatness a Midwestern characteristic and a positive attribute, and he employed it to create the long view. Jensen was to build upon the ideas and techniques of Simonds’s work and integrate and publicize them as a theory of design. Although they borrowed forms and techniques for various naturalistic garden traditions, Miller insisted their work constituted a new style because it stressed the local flora of the Midwest and because their practices embraced the theme of the conservation of native scenery....

Article

Janet Marstine

(b Woodstown, NJ, Nov 6, 1876; d New York, May 1, 1953).

American painter, illustrator, designer, playwright, and film director. He studied industrial design at the Spring Garden School in Philadelphia from 1888 to 1890. In 1893 he became an illustrator at the Philadelphia Press. Simultaneously he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he met Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and George Luks. Their style of urban realism prompted him to depict the bleak aspects of city life. In 1897 Shinn moved to New York and produced illustrations for several newspapers and magazines, for example Mark Twain (March 1900; see Perlman, p. 80), a frontispiece for The Critic. He also drew sketches for a novel by William Dean Howells on New York; although the novel was not published, Shinn’s drawings brought him national recognition.

Shinn’s work changed radically when, on a trip to Paris in 1901, he was inspired by the theatre scenes of Manet, Degas, and Jean-Louis Forain. He began to paint performers in action, from unusual vantage points, as in ...

Article

Robin Karson

(b Rochester, NY, June 7, 1885; d Rochester, NY, July 16, 1971).

American landscape architect. Steele spent his childhood in Pittsford, NY, in the farmhouse that had belonged to his grandparents. Early memories reveal a strong love of nature and an appreciation for landscape values that would guide his future designs. After high school, Steele entered Williams College, where he honed his acerbic wit and also made many close friends, some of whom became important clients. Against his parents’ wishes, he enrolled in the newly formed graduate program of landscape architecture at Harvard University in 1901.

Steele was not impressed by the “old maids” at Harvard, preferring instead Denman Ross, a painter and art theorist with whom he maintained a close personal and intellectual relationship for decades. After one year, he dropped out of the program to take a paid position in the office of Warren H. Manning, who assigned him to supervise development of several large projects. After a three-month grand tour (funded partly by Manning), Steele opened a Boston-based practice in ...

Article

Robert Williams

(b ?Yorks, Dec 25, 1865; d London, March 27, 1950).

British landscape designer, architect and writer. He was the nephew of the landscape designer William Brodrick Thomas (1811–98) and trained (1886–9) as an architect in the London office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906). The success that he and fellow architect Reginald Blomfield had with The Formal Garden in England (1892), a polemical history (illustrated in part by Thomas) that popularized the formal gardens of the 17th century and the early 18th, led to a number of large commissions in the 1890s, establishing him as one of the leading revivalists of the time. He was less busy during the Edwardian era, and his activities in Russia and elsewhere during World War I spelt the end of his career. Most of the dozen or so commissions for gardens that Thomas obtained were from new owners of Tudor manor houses bought cheaply during a glut in the country-house market; these owners required him to restore or enlarge their houses, and to complement them with sympathetically designed revivalist gardens inspired by English Renaissance and Baroque formal examples. His finest gardens of the 1890s are at Athelhampton, Dorset (...

Article

Mairead Dunlevy

Irish city and centre of glass production. The earliest Waterford glass factory was established in Gurteens, near Waterford, during the 1720s, and production included lead-glass drinking vessels with pedestal stems, garden glasses, vials, bottles and other green glassware. The factory was closed about 1739.

In 1783 the Waterford Glass House was established by the merchants George Penrose and William Penrose, who employed John Hill and other glassmakers from Stourbridge, England. In 1799 the factory was taken over by three partners, James Ramsey (d c. 1810), Jonathan Gatchell (1752–1823) and Ambrose Barcroft, who in 1802 extended the works and installed new machinery. In 1823 George Gatchell became manager, and the works remained in the family until it closed. The factory produced cut, engraved and moulded glass of excellent quality, and c. 1832 steam power was installed in the factory, which allowed an increase in production.

The outstanding qualities of Waterford glass are its clarity and the precise cutting. The typical early Waterford decanter is barrel-shaped, has three or four neck rings and a wide, flat, pouring lip. Stoppers of Waterford production are almost invariably mushroom-shaped with a rounded knop below the stopper neck. From the cut patterns on marked Waterford decanters it would seem that popular designs included the pillar and arch embellished with fine diamonds. The numerous drawings of Waterford designs (Dublin, N. Mus.) made between ...