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Article

Anne Pastori Zumbach

(b Lausanne, Aug 18, 1872; d Lausanne, Oct 11, 1957).

Swiss draughtsman, painter and illustrator. He began his career as an apprentice banker but abandoned this to study music and languages in Dresden, and then painting at the South Kensington School of Art, London (1895). In 1896 he went to Paris where he took courses in anatomy and became the pupil of Luc Olivier Merson and possibly of Whistler. In 1897 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts but continued to frequent Merson’s studio. At the end of 1899, after a short stay in Bavaria, Auberjonois went to Florence, where he passed several months studying and copying the paintings of the Old Masters and painting the Tuscan landscape. Returning to Paris in 1901, he began to work independently, exhibiting for the first time at the Salon in Paris and at the Exposition Nationale Suisse des Beaux-Arts in Vevey. From 1901 to World War I he lived alternately in Paris and in Switzerland....

Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

(b Amarante, Sept 16, 1872; d Oporto, March 31, 1930).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman and illustrator. He was brought up in an orphanage in Oporto, where he attended the drawing class of the Escola de Belas-Artes; there he was a pupil of António Soares dos Reis and then studied painting from 1890 to 1896. In 1897 he went to Paris with a grant from the Marquês de Praia e Monforte. From 1897 to 1899 he attended the Académie Julian, where he was a pupil of Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant. The Parisian fin-de-siècle ambience helped form his style. The influence of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Eugène Carrière and the Symbolism of Edvard Munch were important in his work. In his first major painting, the triptych Life (1899–1901; Vila Nova de Famalicão, Fund. Cupertino de Miranda), Carneiro developed his personal vision of Symbolism on the theme of hope, love and saudade (longing or nostalgia), inspired by Puvis de Chavannes and with the crisp, sweet drawing and pale colours of that artist....

Article

Scott Wilcox

(b Dickleburgh, Norfolk, Aug 10, 1800; d London, July 24, 1868).

English painter and illustrator. From the age of 14 Cattermole worked with his brother Richard (?1795–1858) for the antiquarian John Britton, producing architectural drawings. This training equipped him with a repertory of accurate architectural backgrounds, and from the later 1820s his work shifted from delineations of historic buildings to imaginative depictions in watercolour of episodes from literature and history and genre subjects with historical settings. He became the foremost historical watercolour painter, recreating the medieval, Elizabethan and 17th-century past. The intimate history pictures of Richard Parkes Bonington were undoubtedly influential, while Cattermole’s bold and loose handling of watercolour owed much to David Cox, an admirer of his work. As an illustrator, his works included The Great Civil War of Charles I and Parliament (written by his brother Richard and published in two volumes in 1841 and 1855) and Evenings at Haddon Hall (1846). He also contributed illustrations to some of the novels of his friend ...

Article

(b Danzig [now Gdańsk], Jan 22, 1873; d Frankfurt am Main, Dec 23, 1942).

German painter, illustrator, designer, teacher and architect. He studied painting at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Dresden (1891–6), under Leon Pohle (1841–1908), Georg-Herman Freye (1844–1921) and F. W. Pauwels (1830–1904). After producing monumental altarpieces and murals he took up book illustration and poster design. By 1899 he was actively involved in the Dresden craft workshops, with designs for furniture, commercial art and wallpaper. He was recognized widely for the quality of his posters and typography. He took part successfully in the Deutsche Kunstausstellung (Dresden, Städt. Ausstellungshalle) in 1899 and the Heim und Herd exhibition (1899–1900), Dresden. In 1903 he moved from Dresden to the artists’ colony at Matildenhöhe, near Darmstadt, designing furniture for the Blaues Haus. His typographic work on the catalogues for the exhibitions of 1904 and 1905 of the Darmstadt artists (see Darmstadt) and his posters and advertisements for Bad Nauheim in ...

Article

Paul Nicholls

(b Milan, May 20, 1852; d Milan, Jan 23, 1917).

Italian painter, printmaker, illustrator and architect. Although he was the nephew of the painter Mauro Conconi (1815–60), he studied architecture at the Accademia di Brera and the Scuola Politecnica in Milan. His pictorially imaginative approach reflected the artistic ideals of the contemporary Italian writer Giuseppe Rovani. Despite having failed in his first competition, Conconi embarked in 1876 on an architectural project for Palazzo Marino, Milan, together with the architect Guido Pisani Dossi. Courtyard of the Palazzo Marino, an evocative etching conceived as part of the project (untraced; see Giolli, pl. xxxv), was shown in 1877 at the Brera exhibition in Milan and also at the Salon in Paris, through the architect Luca Beltrami, who was resident there at that time. After collaborating briefly in the construction of the Palazzo Turati in Milan, Conconi entered two competitions for public monuments: the first, in 1880, to commemorate the Milanese anti-Austrian uprising of ...

Article

Charlotte Moser

(b Utica, NY, Sept 26, 1862; d Florence, Oct 24, 1928).

American painter and illustrator. He first trained as an architectural draughtsman at the Academy of Design, Chicago (1878). After studying briefly at the Art Institute of Chicago, he went to New York, where he attended the Gotham School and the Art Students League (1886–8). By 1887 he was working as an illustrator for Century magazine. A realist landscape painter in the 19th-century academic tradition, he was influenced by the painters of the Hudson River school and particularly by the luminist, dream-like landscapes of George Inness.

Around 1900 Davies’s paintings became Symbolist in style, with the introduction of mystical nude figures in the landscape, as in Meeting in the Forest (1900; Montclair, NJ, A. Mus.) and Autumn—Enchanted Salutation (1907; Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.). Themes combining Classical figures and landscape, which evolved in a mythical classicist style reminiscent of the work of Puvis de Chavannes, typified Davies’s work throughout his career. Increasingly drawn to ancient art and Greco-Roman civilization, he eventually identified the archaic with modernism, for example in ...

Article

Silvia Lucchesi

[Marius Pictor]

(b Bologna, Sept 8, 1852; d Venice, March 18, 1924).

Italian painter, photographer, architect and illustrator. He trained initially as a musician and only later became a painter, studying (1872–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna under the history and portrait painter Antonio Puccinelli (1822–97). He made several short trips to Paris and London before moving to Rome where he became friends with Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), a plein-air painter, and joined the group founded by Nino Costa, In Arte Libertas (see Rome, §III, 7). He made his name in 1885 when he exhibited 18 paintings at the group’s first exhibition. In the 1880s he experimented with photography, and in certain cases photographs acted as preliminary stages for his paintings. In 1892 he settled definitively in Venice and two years later adopted the pseudonym ‘Marius Pictor’. His work expressed the romantic and literary climate of the fin-de-siècle, and his painting is linked with the work of such writers as Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe. De Maria’s work derives from flower painting and from the painting of Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps; brushstrokes are carefully built up, and rough, chalky colour is thickly applied. He was extremely skilful in his manipulation of colour and light to express the richness of his imagination. He liked to create evocative images and to represent the most fantastic and unusual aspects of nature, as in the famous painting the ...

Article

Myroslava M. Mudrak

[Krichevsky, Vasily]

(b Vorozhba, Kharkiv province, Jan 12, 1873; d Caracas, Venezuela, Nov 15, 1952).

Ukrainian architect, painter, illustrator and collector. He received no systematic artistic education and first became known because of his interest in Ukrainian folklore. His prizewinning design for the City Council building in Poltava (1900) formed the basis of a new style, founded on traditions of Ukrainian folk art, and initiated a movement in Ukrainian architecture. Among his other buildings are the People’s House in Lokhvitsa (1904) and the Shevchenko Memorial Museum in Kaniv (1931–4). As a painter, he was influenced by the French Impressionists. The pure, harmonious colours of his southern Ukrainian landscapes convey the lyrical atmosphere of his native land, and he took part in the annual exhibitions of the Union of Russian Watercolourists in St Petersburg (1899–1902) and in the exhibitions of Kiev painters (1910–13). Krychevsky was one of the founders of contemporary Ukrainian book design, reviving the technique of the woodcut and producing over 80 cover designs. He produced set and costume designs for 15 plays and operas in the Sadovs’ky Theatre in Kiev (...

Article

Sally Mills

(b Markesan, WI, Oct 1, 1860; d San Francisco, CA, Feb 19, 1945).

American painter, designer, and teacher. First trained by his architect father, he worked as a freelance illustrator before deciding in 1885 to study painting in Paris. He spent about 15 months at the Académie Julian and exhibited at three Salons before returning to California in 1889. He soon began teaching at the California School of Design (now the San Francisco Art Institute) and in 1896 was promoted to Director. During his 16-year tenure, Mathews reformed the curriculum in line with academic practice in Paris and New York and exerted a powerful influence over hundreds of students. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, Mathews left the school, aligning himself with artists, architects, and businessmen eager to rebuild San Francisco. With his wife (and former student), Lucia Kleinhans Mathews (1870–1955), and a partner, John Zeile, he embarked on several ventures: the magazine Philopolis (1906–16) emphasized art and city planning; the Philopolis Press (...

Article

Emily Braun

(b Sassari, Sardinia, May 12, 1885; d Milan, Aug 13, 1961).

Italian painter, sculptor, architect, stage designer and illustrator. He was brought up in Rome where his family moved in 1886. In 1902 Sironi enrolled in the Engineering Faculty of the University of Rome, but after a long illness abandoned his studies to devote himself to painting. In 1903 he attended the Scuola Libera del Nudo at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome and frequented the studio of Giacomo Balla. Following a short spell in Milan in 1905–6, he travelled to Paris in 1906 and shared a room with his close friend Umberto Boccioni. Several family and self-portraits painted in a divisionist technique (see Divisionism) date from this period. Sironi also visited Germany several times between 1908 and 1911, where he was exposed to contemporary Expressionist currents. He lived in Rome from 1909 until he moved to Milan in late 1914 or early 1915.

Sironi experimented with Futurism from ...

Article

Yvonne Janková

(b Prague, July 27, 1859; d Prague, Oct 8, 1939).

Bohemian architect, painter, illustrator and teacher. He studied with Josef Zítek at the Czech Technical University in Prague from 1875, and in 1881 he became Zítek’s assistant. Originally he had wanted to be a painter, and by this date he was already an outstanding illustrator. In 1884 Stibral went to Italy, where he studied Renaissance buildings and painted watercolours. He concluded his journey with visits to France, England, Belgium, Holland and Germany. After returning to Prague, Stibral rebuilt (1889–92) the castle at Průhonice, south-east of Prague, in the Renaissance Revival style for his patron Count Arnošt Emanuel Sylva-Tarroucca. He used the same style on the façade of the house (1898) at 781/II, Wenceslas Square, Prague. He also rebuilt (1898) the church in Ústí nad Labem, the boiler-house and engine-room (1902–3) of the brewery in Velké Popovice, and the façade (1908–9) of the same brewery. For over 30 years from the 1880s one of Stibral’s main patrons was the Russian Princess ...

Article

Elizabeth Clegg

(b Tettenweis, Lower Bavaria, Feb 23, 1863; d Munich, Aug 30, 1928).

German draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, decorative artist, painter, sculptor and architect. He was noted for his treatment of erotic and comic aspects of mythological themes. He drew eagerly as a child, soon becoming a gifted caricaturist. From 1878 to 1881 he attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich, where he received particular encouragement from Ferdinand Barth (1842–92). From 1881 to 1885 he studied at the Munich Akademie, where he was taught by Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829–95) and Ferdinand Löfftz (1845–1910). During his student years Stuck earned a living from designs for decorative painting, and he made notable contributions (1880–84) to the humorous Munich periodical Fliegende Blätter and to the Viennese serial publications Allegorien und Embleme and Karten und Vignetten. These did much to establish his reputation as both a skilled and a witty draughtsman.

Stuck claimed that his first attempt at painting in oils was the picture ...