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Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1810; d 1864).

English painter of pottery and porcelain and the proprietor of a China decorating firm. In 1834 he began to work for Copeland, and during this period he may have developed the formula for Parian ware. He is given credit for its invention in the catalogue of the Great Exhibition of ...

Article

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Nin’ami Dōhachi; Takahashi Mitsuoki]

(b Kyoto, 1783; d ?Fushimi, Kyoto Prefect., 1855).

Japanese ceramicist. He was the second-generation head of the Dōhachi family. His father, Dōhachi, son of a retainer of the Kameyama fief in the province of Ise, established a kiln at Awataguchi in Kyoto in the Hōreki era (1751–64), thereby forming his own school, and later assumed the name Takahashi Dōhachi. Along with Aoki Mokubei, and Eiraku Hozen, the younger Takahashi Dōhachi was one of the most famous makers kyōyaki (‘Kyoto ceramics’), especially polychrome (overglaze) enamels, in the later Edo period (1600–1868). As a youth he followed his father into the ceramics trade, and then became a disciple of Okuda Eisen. From 1806 he was permitted to conduct official business with the prince–abbot (monzeki) of the temple Shōren’in, which secured his reputation as the leading potter of Awataguchi. In 1814 he moved to the Gojōzaka district, where he built a kiln and perfected the craft of making blue-and-white ceramics. He produced some superbly elegant pieces of ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Yōtoku; Yingchuan]

(b Kyoto, 1753; d Kyoto, 1811).

Japanese potter. He is thought to have been the grandson of Chinese immigrants who came to Japan to escape the turbulence at the end of the Ming period (1368–1644). He was adopted into the Okuda family of wealthy pawnbrokers, who patronized the Buddhist temple Kenninji, where, according to one account, Eisen lodged for a time. The temple was famous as a centre of Chinese learning, and it was probably this contact that stimulated Eisen’s first attempts at making Chinese-style ceramics. By the 1780s he was producing copies of late Ming-period enamelled porcelain called gosu akae (gosu: a type of mineral; aka: ‘red’; akae ‘red design’, a type of ware introduced to Japan in the 17th century). Ceramicists in Kyoto had experimented with porcelain earlier in the 18th century, but Eisen was the first to make sustained use of the material, although it is unclear how he acquired the basic clay for porcelain. He is now known to have studied ceramic techniques at ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Chinese porcelain jar with an ovoid body and a wide mouth with a lid, manufactured in mid-19th century China for the export market. The jars may have been used to hold preserved ginger; it was believed by purchasers in the West that the jars were used to contain wedding or New Year gifts, and that the jars were intended to be returned to the giver after the contents had been eaten....

Article

Hagi  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan. High-fired Hagi ware was manufactured from the early 17th century in Nagato Province (now Yamaguchi Prefect.; see Japan, §IX, 3, (ii)). The first Hagi potters, the brothers Yi Suk-wang and Yi Kyŏng (Jap. Sakamoto Sukehachi), were brought to Japan from Korea during Toyotomi Hideyoshi invasions in the 1590s. The older Yi was first brought to Hiroshima to serve the daimyo Mōri Terumoto (1553–1625), a student of the tea master Sen no Rikyū. After the defeat of the Toyotomi family at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and the establishment of Tokugawa hegemony, Terumoto’s fief was reduced to Nagato Province alone. The Yi brothers were probably brought together to found an official kiln at the new clan seat, Hagi, when it was established in 1604.

Production began in the village of Matsumoto just east of Hagi. Yi Suk-wang died not long after the opening of the kiln, whereupon leadership was assumed by his younger brother. Yi Kyŏng also trained his brother’s son, who received the name ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American ceramic factory. Homer Laughlin first produced white ironstone in 1873 with his brother Shakespeare, as Laughlin Brothers. The partnership was dissolved in 1877, and Homer Laughlin established the Homer Laughlin China Co. Semi-vitreous dinnerware made for hotels was added as a major product in the 1890s, and in 1896 the firm was formally incorporated. Laughlin retired two years later, but the firm continued to use its new name. By 1905 the company had three potteries in East Liverpool, OH, with a capacity of 36 kilns. Expansion of the operation continued in Newell, WV, and in 1929 all the manufacturing was consolidated there in five potteries. ‘Fiesta’, ‘Harlequin’ and ‘Eggshell’ were among the most popular domestic lines produced between 1935 and 1960. By the late 20th century the firm was one of the largest potteries in the world, producing domestic cooking- and dinnerware and hotelware.

W. C. Gates jr and ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida and Andrew Maske

[Nishimura Zengorō XI; Konan Hozen]

(b ?Kyoto, c. 1795; d Ōtso, Tōtōmi Prov. [now Shiga Prefect.], 1854).

Japanese ceramicist and member of the Eiraku family. At the age of 13 he was adopted by Nishimura Ryōzen, the tenth-generation head of a family of doburo (earthenware braziers) makers for the tea ceremony. In 1827 he was invited to Kii Province (now Wakayama Prefect.) to produce porcelain for the local daimyo, from whom he received the right to use a silver seal bearing the name Eiraku. He obtained national recognition for his sometsuke (blue-and-white) and kinrande (gold and enamel) wares (see Japan §IX 3., (iii)). Hozen was skilled in the manufacture of many types of ceramic ware, including stonewares and copies of Chinese Ming-period (1368–1644) wares, and his coloured glazes (violet, yellow, red, blue and green) were a major influence on later Kyoto ceramics (kyōyaki). He also devoted much effort to mastering the use of underglaze copper red (shinsha). After passing the family headship to his son, Wazen, in ...

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[kakiemonde: ‘Kakiemon style’]

Japanese porcelain made in the Arita district of Hizen Province (now Saga Prefect.). Sakaida Kinzaemon (later Kakiemon; 1596–1666) is traditionally credited with making the first porcelain in Japan in 1643 at the family kiln in Nangawara, but recent archaeological excavations have shown that ‘Kakiemon’ wares were widely produced in the region during the early Edo period (1600–1868). Kakiemon ware is chiefly represented by polychrome overglaze enamels (iroe), but it also includes underglaze blue-and-white porcelain (sometsuke) and white porcelain (hakuji; see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)). Polychrome pieces show the harmonious combination of gold with soft reds, blues, yellows, violets and greens over a translucent milky-white body (negoshide; see fig.). Typical forms include plates, bowls, jars, water pitchers, teapots and animal and human figurines. The ware was widely exported, and popular designs, such as quail and millet, tiger and bamboo, deer and maple and bird-and-flower motifs, were imitated by several European manufacturers, most notably by the Meissen potteries during the 18th century (...

Article

Karatsu  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan. High-fired ceramic ware was manufactured from the late 16th century in kilns (119 identified by 1986) located in and around present-day Karatsu (Kyushu, Hizen Prov., now Saga Prefect.). Geographical and historical circumstances destined Karatsu to be the meeting-place of the advanced ceramic technology of Chosŏn-period (1392–1910) Korea and the sophisticated aesthetics of the Japanese tea ceremony (see Japan §IX 3., (i)). The region became a centre for the dissemination of both techniques and finished products. Historical documents and several datable heirlooms suggest that Karatsu antedates other Kyushu and western Honshu teaware kilns founded after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s abortive Korean campaigns of 1592 and 1597. The earliest Karatsu kilns, known as the Kishidake group, were built around the fortress of the Hata clan, local daimyo until 1594. Excavations at Handōgame, one of the Kishidake kilns, revealed what is considered to be Japan’s first single-vaulted multi-chambered ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

Japanese family of ceramicists. They were active in Kyoto. The first-generation head, Kinkōzan Gen’emon, established a kiln at Awataguchi in the Shōhō era (1644–8). At first the family produced utilitarian objects, but later they made teabowls for the tea ceremony (chadō), particularly of the type known as kyōyaki (‘Kyoto wares’; see Kyoto, §III). The third-generation head, Zen’emon, became master ceramicist to the shogunate in the Edo period (1600–1868). The fourth- and fifth-generation heads (both also called Zen’emon) were skilled producers of wares—such as flower vases, incense burners, display ornaments (okimono), drinking vessels and covered dishes—that imitated Dutch designs and also showed the influence of the work of Nonomura Ninsei. Later generations produced porcelain, basing their techniques on the manuals of Aoki Mokubei (see Aoki Mokubei §2). A porcelain teabowl accompanied by a box bears a calligraphic inscription of the year ...

Article

Kutani  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan. Porcelain was produced from the mid-17th century at Kutani (now in Ishikawa Prefect.). The term Old Kutani (Ko Kutani) is frequently applied to what has long been believed to be the earliest wares, typically large porcelain dishes decorated with bold designs in overglaze enamels, with green, purple and yellow predominating (see Japan §IX 3., (iii)). Two documents attest to the founding of the kilns: Jūshū Kaetsunō tairo suikei (‘Highways and waterways of the Kaga, Etchū and Noto districts; 1736) states that during the mid-1650s the daimyo Maeda Toshiharu commanded Gotō Saijirō to start production of pottery at Daishōji, a fief of Kaga Province (now Ishikawa Prefect.); and Bakkei kibun (‘Bakkei diary’), written by local governor Tsukatani Sawaemon in 1803, points to one Tamura Gozaemon as the founder, and mentions a pair of vases bearing Gozaemon’s signature and the date, ...

Article

Kōzō Sasaki and Hiroko Nishida

[Hyakurokusanjin; Kokukan; Kukurin; Rōbei; Ryūbei; Sahei; Seirai; Teiunrō; Yasohachi]

(b Kyoto, 1767; d Kyoto, 1833).

Japanese potter, painter and scholar. He was born into the Kiya family of restaurateurs and adopted the surname Aoki only after becoming a painter. Mokubei, one of his many artist’s names, was created by combining the Chinese characters for ‘tree’ and ‘rice’ (a character anagram of his given name Yasohachi). His most familiar studio name (), Rōbei (‘deaf [Moku]bei’), dates from the time when he had become deaf from the clangour of his ceramic kilns. Despite his plebeian origins, he gravitated at a young age towards the arts and Chinese philosophy and poetry. At 18 he became a pupil of Kō Fuyō, from whom he learnt seal-carving, epigraphy, literati painting (Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)), Confucianism and the arts and crafts of China. His first acquaintance with pottery also came through Fuyō, who owned a large collection of Chinese ceramics. After studying with Fuyō, he is said to have gone to Ise (now Mie Prefect.) to take up metalwork, and he later tried his hand at sculpture, but he was successful at neither. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[from Fr. potiche: ‘glass vase’]

The mid-19th-century fashion for imitating Japanese or other porcelain by covering the inner surface of glass vessels with designs on paper or sheet gelatine. Those who adopted the craze were called potichomanists.

A Handbook to Potishomachia, or the Art of Ornamenting and Decorating Glass, Giving to it the Appearance of Porcelain...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1810; d 1910).

English porcelain painter. He worked at Coalport Porcelain Factory, Derby, and Pinxton Porcelain Factory, painting birds in a style derived from Sèvres (e.g. Coalport vase and cover, Ironbridge, Coalport China Museum). He subsequently ran a porcelain painting shop in Spa Fields, London (where his employees included Moses Webster), and (from ...