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Article

Mieke van der Wal

(b The Hague, Jan 6, 1876; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1955).

Dutch sculptor and ceramicist. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1894–7) and in various sculpture studios. In 1898 he decorated the shop-front of the gallery Arts and Crafts in The Hague after a design by Johan Thorn Prikker, who advised him to set up on his own. From 1901 Altorf exhibited regularly and successfully; he was represented at the Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna in Turin in 1902, where he won a silver medal, and at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

Altorf was a leading exponent of Dutch Art Nouveau. His work is characterized by a strong simplification of form. It is often compared with that of Joseph Mendes da Costa but is somewhat more angular and austere. At first Altorf made mainly animal forms from various types of wood, ivory, bronze and ceramic. In firing his modelled figures, he worked with the ceramicist ...

Article

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1851; d 1938).

French potter. From 1877 to 1905 he was employed as a designer by Sèvres Porcelain Factory, for which he created sophisticated floral and figural designs in the Art Nouveau style that he introduced to the factory. From 1892 he also had his own studio in Paris. Doat’s display pieces were often decorated with fine enamels; his individualistic medallions were made with the pâte-sur-pâte technique. His vases often took the form of gourds. From ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Brussels, Nov 28, 1854; d Helsinki, 1930).

Belgian painter and potter. He studied painting at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels from 1878 to 1880. He was a founder-member of XX, Les, a group of 20 avant-garde artists who held annual exhibitions of paintings and decorative arts between 1884 and 1895. Initially Finch painted land- and seascapes in the Impressionist style. In 1887—after Seurat and Camille Pissarro exhibited with Les XX—Finch adopted their divisionist painting technique. An early work in the Neo-Impressionist style, the Race Course at Ostende (1888; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), shows his unfamiliarity with this new technique. His subsequent proficiency is evident in the work English Coast at Dover (1891; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), which also makes use of a border constructed of divisionist dots, a device he borrowed from Seurat. Finch came to excel at rendering the atmospheric effect of the damp climate of the Channel coast—his main subject—through the use of widely spaced dots in related colour values. Finch served as a liaison between ...

Article

Elisabeth Lebovici

(Charles Martin)

(b Nancy, May 4, 1846; d Nancy, Sept 23, 1904).

French glassmaker, potter and cabinetmaker. He was the son of Charles Gallé-Reinemer, a manufacturer of ceramics and glass in Nancy, and as early as 1865 he started working for his father, designing floral decoration. From 1862 to 1866 he studied philosophy, botany and mineralogy in Weimar, and from 1866–7 he was employed by the Burgun, Schwerer & Cie glassworks in Meisenthal. On his return to Nancy he worked in his father’s workshops at Saint-Clément designing faience tableware. In 1871 he travelled to London to represent the family firm at the International Exhibition. During his stay he visited the decorative arts collections at the South Kensington Museum (later the Victoria and Albert Museum), familiarizing himself with Chinese, Japanese and Islamic styles. He was particularly impressed with the Islamic enamelled ware, which influenced his early work. In 1874, after his father’s retirement, he established his own small glass workshop in Nancy and assumed the management of the family business....

Article

(b 1867; d 1925).

American potter and ceramic manufacturer. He was apprenticed in 1882 to the J. and J. G. Low Art Tile Works, Chelsea, MA, where he remained for ten years. At the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, he was very impressed with the high-temperature flambé glazes of the French art pottery created by Auguste Delaherche and Ernest Chaplet, which encouraged Grueby’s own experiments with matt, monochromatic glazes. In 1895 he set up his own factory, the Grueby Faience Co., in Boston, which produced tiles and architectural faience in Greek, medieval and Hispano-Moresque styles, popularized by the Arts and Crafts Movement. From 1897–8 he manufactured a range of vases finished in soft, matt glazes in greens, yellows, ochres and browns, with the ‘Grueby Green’ predominating. Until 1902 the potter George Prentiss Kendrick was largely responsible for the designs, executed in heavily potted stoneware based on Delaherche’s Art Nouveau shapes. Young women were employed to carry out the hand-moulded and incised surface decoration, which consisted mainly of vertical leaf-forms in shallow relief (e.g. stoneware vase, late 19th century; London, V&A). The work was enthusiastically received by the public, and such designers as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Angelika Steinmetz

(b 1864; d 1952).

German potter, interior decorator and architect. Inspired by the rural pottery made in the Black Forest, he applied engobe (slip) with a painting horn to vases and ornamental plates from 1893. In 1895 he established the art pottery Tonwerke Kandern at Kandern with a view to producing utility wares in the ...

Article

(b Burslem, Staffs, 1872; d ?Cobridge, Staffs, Oct 14, 1945).

English ceramics designer. He came from an artistic family and studied ceramics in Burslem, London and Paris, qualifying as an art teacher in 1897. From 1898 he worked for James Macintyre & Co. Ltd of Burslem, where he developed ‘Florian’ ware, an innovative line of tableware and ornamental ware in floral designs using slip trailing and coloured glazes. By 1913 Moorcroft had his own factory at Cobridge, where he produced his richly coloured pottery, with its simple shapes decorated with pomegranates, orchids, toadstools and other exotica, often on deep blue backgrounds (examples in London, V&A). In 1913 he introduced his distinctive ‘Powder-blue’ line of tableware, which was made until 1963. He was appointed potter to Queen Mary by royal warrant in 1928. He passed on the secret of his high-fired, flambé glazes to his son Walter Moorcroft (b 1917), who took over the Cobridge factory and generated his own designs, until his retirement in ...

Article

Marie-Rose A. S. Bogaers

[Lambertus]

(b Groningen, Nov 14, 1873; d Blaricum, May 26, 1960).

Dutch potter, teacher and designer. He began his training at the Groningen Tekenacademie in 1891. Two years later he moved to Amsterdam to study at the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid. In 1895 Nienhuis was appointed painter and designer at the Amsterdam De Distel pottery. In 1900–01 De Distel took over the Lotus tile factory in Watergraafsmeer, near Amsterdam, which Nienhuis had founded in 1896 and which chiefly produced tiles with animal and flower motifs. De Distel was itself taken over by the Goedewaagen pottery in Gouda in 1923.

Apart from tiles, Nienhuis designed vases decorated with geometric and stylized linear patterns in the Art Nouveau style. These designs were mostly painted in soft tones on a white background with a matt glaze. In its attempt to strike a balance between simple forms and decorative patterns, Nienhuis’s work is related to that of C. J. van der Hoef (b 1875), whose earthenware was produced by the ...

Article

Peter Stasny

(b Judenburg, Sept 18, 1871; d Vienna, Jan 4, 1954).

Austrian decorative artist and sculptor. He received training as a potter in his father’s business from 1885 to 1889, concluding this training with the firm of Sommerhuber in Steyr from 1890 to 1891. After attending the Fachschule für Thonindustrie in Znojmo [Ger. Znaim], southern Moravia (now Czech Republic) (1891–4), he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule (now the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) in Vienna. From 1894 to 1901 he produced sculpture and modelling work with August Kühne (1845–95), Josef Breitner (1861–1927), Otto König (1838–1920) and Arthur Strasser (1854–1927), and from 1903 to 1906 he was assistant to the sculptor, Franz Metzner. The Kunstgewerbeschule, which at that time strongly reflected the impact of the Secession, had a decisive effect on his work.

As a member of the arts and crafts association, Wiener Kunst im Hause, from 1901, Powolny showed, at their Christmas exhibition of ...

Article

Marie-Rose A. S. Bogaers

(b Engelen, North Brabant, Jan 22, 1863; d The Hague, June 8, 1931).

Dutch teacher, designer and writer. He attended drawing classes with A. Le Comte (1850–1921) at the Polytechnische School in Delft. From 1888 to 1891 he was in Paris, where he trained as a gold- and silversmith with E. J. Niermans. Between 1886 and 1888, and again between 1891 and 1895, he taught at the Haarlem School voor Kunstnijverheid. In 1895 he graduated as an engineer and succeeded Le Comte in Delft as teacher and, from 1905, professor of decorative arts and ornamental drawing.

As a designer Sluyterman was active in a number of fields. From c. 1890 to 1899 he produced work in various historical styles for the Amsterdam jewellers Hoeker & Zoon. In 1900 he made several designs for the Van Kempen silver factory in Voorschoten. In 1895 and 1896 he made a number of large-scale mural designs for ’s Hertogenbosch railway station in the florid Art Nouveau style which he had become acquainted with in France. The same style recurs in his decorations for the Dutch exhibition at the Paris Exposition Universelle of ...

Article

Aleksandr U. Grekov

Russian estate lying 18 km from Smolensk. It was acquired in 1893 by Prince Vyacheslav Tenishev (1843–1903) and his wife Mariya Tenisheva. In the 19th century and the early 20th Princess Tenisheva, with the help of her husband’s capital (he was a leading industrialist and businessman), turned Talashkino into a unique artistic centre in the forefront of the revival of peasant handicrafts. She founded various workshops for joinery, ceramics, wood-carving, wood painting, metal chasing and fabric dyeing, where local craftsmen and apprentices from the peasantry worked under professional artists. They manufactured different objects for everyday life, including towels, clothes, wooden bowls, plates and toys. This took place in the context of the mutual enrichment of folk crafts and professional Art Nouveau in Russia at that time. Tenisheva formed a large collection of objects from traditional folk life, and of artistic products. Originally they were housed on the estate, where a museum, Russkaya Starina (‘Russian antiquity’), was opened to all in ...