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Article

Gordon Campbell

Slip clay that can produce a dark brown glaze. Albany slip was mined near Albany, NY, from the early 19th century, and was used on American stoneware. It is no longer mined commercially, but is imitated by colouring similar clays.

‘Slip Sliding Away’, Ceramics Monthly, 36 (Jan 1988), pp. 57–8...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American pottery manufacturer. Beginning in 1828 D. & J. Henderson made award-winning Rockingham in a factory previously occupied by the Jersey Porcelain and Earthenware Co. in Jersey City, NJ, but in 1833 David Henderson (c. 1793–1845) took control of the company and changed the name to the American Pottery Manufacturing Co. (see fig.). In addition to the fine Rockingham modelled by the Englishman Daniel Greatbach (fl after 1839; d after 1866), the company was the first to make transfer-printed pearlware in the USA and c. 1833 reproduced Ridgway’s ‘Canova’ pattern. Many English potters who settled in the USA during the second quarter of the 19th century started their American careers in Henderson’s pottery. After Henderson’s death in 1845, the firm continued until 1852, when John Owen Rouse (d 1896) and Nathaniel Turner (d 1884) took over the works for the production of whiteware, which was made there until ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Tara Leigh Tappert

(b Philadelphia, PA, May 1, 1855; d Gloucester, MA, Sept 17, 1942).

American painter. Beaux’s paintings of upper-class men, women, and children represent the finest examples of portraiture from the turn of the 20th century (see fig.). Known for her bravura brushwork, lush colour, and consummate ability to combine likeness and genre, Beaux’s paintings garnered awards and accolades at the exhibitions where she regularly showed her work. By the 1890s her portraits were often compared with those of John Singer Sargent, and she was as well known as Mary Cassatt.

Beaux was 16 years old when an uncle arranged private art lessons with a distant relative and artist, Catharine Ann Drinker (1871–2). Beaux did copy-work with her and then took two more years of training at the art school of Francis Adolf van der Wielen (1872–4). Beaux later studied china painting at the National Art Training School with Camille Piton (1879). Her earliest Philadelphia training prepared her for a career in the decorative arts. A few of Beaux’s early commissions include her lithograph, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American pottery manufactory in Baltimore, MD, founded in 1846 by Edwin Bennett, a Staffordshire potter, and his brother William. The company was known as Bennett & Brothers and in 1890 was incorporated as the Edwin Bennett Pottery Company. It closed in 1936. The early products were household wares with a brown glaze (known in America as Rockingham ware) and jugs of biscuit porcelain resembling Parian ware, but with a blue or sage-green ground and white decorations. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1840; d 1907).

Anglo-American potter. He was born in Staffordshire and as a young man worked for Doulton, where he developed a distinctive method of underglaze painting. In 1877 he emigrated to New York, where he established a studio; at first he imported English biscuit clay, but then developed his own compound. His pottery, in which he favoured Arts and Crafts styles or Islamic styles, was distributed through Tiffany & Co. Examples of his work at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, include a vase dated ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Worcester, UK, Oct 4, 1857; d Alfred, NY, Dec 4, 1934).

American potter and teacher of English birth. As the son of Richard William Binns (1819–1900), director of the Worcester Royal Porcelain Co. Ltd, he was exposed at an early age to the pottery industry. After holding various positions in the Worcester firm, he resigned. In 1897 he settled in the USA, where he was appointed director of the Technical School of Arts and Sciences in Trenton, NJ, and superintendent of the Ceramic Art Co., also in Trenton. In 1900 he became the first director of the New York College of Clayworking and Ceramics at Alfred University, NY. In this capacity and as a founder-member and officer in the American Ceramic Society, he greatly influenced the development of American ceramics. He frequently contributed articles to Craftsman, Keramic Studio and the Transactions and Journal of the American Ceramic Society, and he was the author of several books. His own technically exquisite stoneware, produced at Alfred, was inspired by early Chinese ceramics and emphasized the interrelationship of classical shape and finely textured glazes. His students included ...

Article

Jean Stern

(b Bomen, Austria, Jan 14, 1864; d Pasadena, Feb 5, 1929).

American painter and porcelain painter of Austrian birth. Bischoff began his artistic training at a craft school in his native Bomen. In 1882 he went to Vienna for further training in painting, design and ceramic decoration. He came to the USA in 1885 and obtained employment as a painter in a ceramic factory in New York City. Bischoff moved to Pittsburgh, PA, then to Fostoria, OH, and finally to Dearborn, MI, continuing to work as a porcelain painter. In 1906 he moved his family to the Los Angeles area. Two years later he built a studio–home along the Arroyo Seco in South Pasadena, which included a gallery, ceramic workshop and painting studio. Once in California, Bischoff turned to landscape painting, in addition to continuing his flower paintings and his porcelain work. Through the 1920s, he painted the coastal areas of Monterey and Laguna Beach, the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the desert near Palm Springs. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1779; d c. 1864).

American potter who made red earthenware domestic wares in Goshen, CT, for 72 years. There is little documentary evidence of the activities of most American potters of the period, but Brooks is an exception. The extensive records, together with the archaeological excavation of the site of his pottery, has meant that he is the best understood American potter of the 19th century. His workshop is now a working exhibition in Old Sturbridge Village, where a replica of his kiln was built in ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Valcartier, Qué., May 16, 1836; d Trenton, NJ, May 4, 1922).

American sculptor, ceramic modeller and teacher of Canadian birth. Broome received his artistic training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he was elected an Academician in 1860 and taught (1860–63) in the Life and Antique department. In 1854 he assisted Thomas Crawford with the statues on the pediment of the Senate wing of the US Capitol in Washington, DC, and tried unsuccessfully to establish a firm for architectural terracotta and garden ornaments in Pittsburgh and New York.

From 1875 Broome was employed as a modeller by the firm of Ott & Brewer in Trenton, NJ. The parian porcelain sculpture he created for their display at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia won him medals for ceramic arts (e.g. Plaque; New York, Met.). Following his success at the Exhibition and at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris, for which he was Special Commissioner from the USA, he was active as a teacher and lecturer and was keenly interested in educational, political and industrial reforms. He also continued as a modeller for potters in Ohio and Trenton, including the ...

Article

Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1774; d c. 1846).

English painter and sculptor, active also in America. He worked in porcelain, plaster, and terracotta and after an early career in an artificial stone factory in London he moved c. 1792 to the Derby Porcelain Factory, where he worked as a modeller. In 1816 he emigrated to America, where he contributed architectural decoration to the University of Virginia, including the plaster of Paris friezes for the university buildings and internal plaster and lead ornaments for various buildings....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American pottery established by William Crolius [Johan Willem Crollius] (b Neuwied, near Koblenz, c. 1700; d New York, c. 1776) and John Remmey [Remmi] (d New York, Nov 1762). Crolius arrived in New York c. 1718 and established a stoneware pottery on Pot-Bakers Hill. Bound by intermarriage to the Corselius and Remmey families, who were also in the pottery business, the Crolius family figured prominently in Manhattan pottery history until about 1850. From c. 1735 William Crolius and John Remmey were in business together. Although salt-glazed stoneware was the principal product, lead-glazed earthenware was also made in the early years of the Crolius and Remmey potteries. Before the American Revolution, their stoneware closely resembled Rhenish stoneware with incised decoration filled in with a blue cobalt oxide glaze, but subsequent generations usually painted simple blue embellishments (e.g. pitcher, 1798; New York, NY Hist. Soc.). Remmey’s grandson Henry Remmey sr (...

Article

Elizabeth Collard

Canadian family of potters. The St Charles River valley, Quebec, where the family had settled as early as 1671, had been the scene of some of the first pottery-making in New France; the tradition handed down was French provincial. It was in this style that the Dions began working in Ancienne Lorette, Quebec, producing simple, utilitarian wares of local, red-burning clay. Although Jean-Baptiste Dion (1827–1901) began the pottery c. 1854, it was his brother Antoine Dion (1825–1902) who expanded operations on the family land in the 1860s, winning recognition for Dion wares in crockery shops in Quebec City and at provincial exhibitions. Antoine Dion never used imported clay; he used plaster moulds for some wares (possibly taken from imported English earthenware) but for others devised the patterns himself. His sons joined him in the business, and in 1881 the pottery had an estimated capital of £2000–5000, which ranked it with other successful Canadian potteries of the day. Large tobacco jars with moulded figures probably belong to this period. ...

Article

Elizabeth Collard

Canadian family of potters of American origin. They were descended from English colonists and were potting in Vermont by 1795. They made two important contributions to Canadian pottery: they introduced stoneware potting and promoted Canada’s first whiteware pottery. In 1840 Moses Farrar (b c. 1810) and Isaac Newton Soule built the first stoneware pottery in Canada in St Johns (now St Jean, Quebec), importing the necessary American clay for salt-glazed wares via the Lake Champlain-Richelieu River waterway. In the 1850s Ebenezer Lawrence Farrar (d 1857), proprietor of potteries in both Fairfax, VT, and St Johns, acquired the assistance of his brother George Whitfield Farrar (1812–81). When Ebenezer Farrar died, George Farrar remained in St Johns to make earthenware and stoneware and to enlarge the scope and nature of Canadian ceramics by vigorous promotion in 1873 of the St Johns Stone Chinaware Co. for white-bodied earthenware. Though only briefly connected with the final organization of this company, George Whitfield Farrar had been the prime mover behind it. In ...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American pottery established in 1814 in Flemington, NJ, by Samuel Hill (d 1858), who made earthenware storage jars and drainpipes. On Hill’s death the pottery was bought by Abram Fulper, and the product lines expanded to include stoneware and tiles (including drainpipes). In 1900 the company began to make art pottery, and in 1910 hired the German designer J. Martin Stangl (d 1972), who in 1911 created the first Vasekraft wares, which were covered with colourful crystalline, flambé and monochromatic glazes. The most famous Vasekraft products were ceramic and stained-glass table-lamps (shaped like toadstools), which were sold from 1911 to 1918. During World War I the factory produced porcelain dolls and doll heads to fill the gap caused by the embargo on German imports. In the 1920s the factory introduced Fulper Fayence art and dinnerware lines; the dinnerware, which eventually became known as Stangl Pottery, was America’s first solid-colour dinnerware. The factory closed in ...

Article

English ceramic export wares made for the American market. Gaudy Dutch ware is a type of Staffordshire cottageware produced in the early 19th century for the American export market, specifically the German colonists in Pennsylvania known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (i.e. Deutsch). Gaudy Dutch wares are painted with blue underglaze and bright overglaze enamels in cobalt blue and burnt orange; the designs, which often include floral motifs, were often based on the Imari designs used for fine china in Derby and Worcester. The shapes are conventional, though the cups do not have handles. Gaudy Welsh (which was sold to Welsh settlers in America) and Gaudy Ironstone are simpler and cheaper wares, and are usually decorated in copper lustre....

Article

Gordon Campbell

American pottery factory established in Phoenixville, PA, in 1867, when it was known as the Phoenix Pottery, Kaolin, and Fire Brick Company. The company made industrial pottery, and in 1882 began to make maiolica in the Etruscan style. Its best-known product was the ‘ Shell and Seaweed’ dinner service. In ...

Article

(b 1867; d 1925).

American potter and ceramic manufacturer. He was apprenticed in 1882 to the J. and J. G. Low Art Tile Works, Chelsea, MA, where he remained for ten years. At the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, he was very impressed with the high-temperature flambé glazes of the French art pottery created by Auguste Delaherche and Ernest Chaplet, which encouraged Grueby’s own experiments with matt, monochromatic glazes. In 1895 he set up his own factory, the Grueby Faience Co., in Boston, which produced tiles and architectural faience in Greek, medieval and Hispano-Moresque styles, popularized by the Arts and Crafts Movement. From 1897–8 he manufactured a range of vases finished in soft, matt glazes in greens, yellows, ochres and browns, with the ‘Grueby Green’ predominating. Until 1902 the potter George Prentiss Kendrick was largely responsible for the designs, executed in heavily potted stoneware based on Delaherche’s Art Nouveau shapes. Young women were employed to carry out the hand-moulded and incised surface decoration, which consisted mainly of vertical leaf-forms in shallow relief (e.g. stoneware vase, late 19th century; London, V&A). The work was enthusiastically received by the public, and such designers as ...