You are looking at  1-20 of 110 results  for:

  • 1800–1900 x
  • Ceramics and Pottery x
  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
Clear All

Article

Gordon Campbell

Name of at least four potters in Staffordshire in the late 18th century and early 19th. The most distinguished William Adams (1746–1805) was the founder of Greengates Pottery, where the design and high quality of his jasper ware has led to the mistaken inference that he had been trained by Josiah Wedgwood; in fact he trained with John Brindley, brother of the canal builder James Brindley. His wares, of which some 300 examples are known to survive, are stamped Adams and Co. Apart from jasper ware, he also made underglaze blue-printed ware. He was succeeded by his son Benjamin, who ran the business until its closure in 1820.

The works of Adams of Greengates are sometimes confused with those of his three namesakes: William Adams (1748–1831) of Brick House, Burslem and Cobridge; William Adams of Stoke-on-Trent (1772–1829), who exported many blue-painted wares to the USA; and William Adams (...

Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Carlos Cid Priego

(b Logroño, Dec 26, 1759; d Madrid, 1842).

Spanish sculptor and ceramicist. He moved to Madrid at an early age and was apprenticed to the French sculptor Robert Michel (i), who was employed at the court. He won first prize in a competition at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes, and organized the royal workshop for the carving of precious stones, where he executed two magnificent cameo portraits of Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa (c. 1796; Madrid, Pal. Real). He was a leading sculptor in the Buen Retiro porcelain factory, for which he produced a large amount of work. In 1797 he entered the Real Academia de Bellas Artes and was promoted until he was finally appointed Director-general in 1821. He was also appointed Honorary Chamber Sculptor to Charles IV. His successful career made him an influential figure in Spanish art. He was one of the leading exponents of Neo-classical sculpture, producing works that were technically accomplished although stylistically rather cold. He executed a large amount of work between ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Spanish pottery manufactory. In 1727 a pottery factory was established in Alcora, in the Catalan province of Castellón (see also Valencia §3). The most important products of the factory in its early years were plaques and glazed floor titles; the plaques were typically decorated with biblical or mythological scenes set within moulded frames, and the floor tiles used religious motifs (for churches and convents) and secular subjects such as maps and theatrical scenes. Later in the century the factory began to produce tableware, notably fruit bowls, sugar bowls, and pyramidical centrepieces. At the end of the 18th century Italian models were displaced by French design, and the factory began to produce tableware of soft porcelain in the Sèvres style. In this period the factory also started to manufacture the polychrome earthenware terrines known as Fauna d’Alcora because they were the shape of animals. The factory closed in 1895...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Dutch porcelain factory near Amsterdam, originally founded at Weesp (1764; see Weesp Porcelain Factory), then moved to Oude Loosdrecht (1771), Oude Amstel (1784) and Nieuwe Amstel (1799); it closed in 1810 (see Netherlands, Kingdom of the §VII 3.). The term ‘Amstel porcelain’ is sometimes used to denote the products of the period 1784–1810, when the factory was in Oude Amstel and Nieuwe Amstel, but is also used to denote all the products of the factory from 1764 to 1810. The original workmen were from Dresden, and the early pottery resembles white Dresden pottery with landscape and figure decorations; the late pottery tends to follow French models, especially Sèvres. Amstel tableware and utilitarian containers suited bourgeois tastes, and apart from a few busts in biscuit there was no attempt to mimic the refined technical mastery of Delft pottery. Decoration and shape were eclectic, so the pottery never developed a strong visual identity. Some pottery is entirely white, with ornament in low relief; piercings are sometimes outlined in blue; cartouches contained a wide variety of pictures, often portraying flowers or landscapes; Sèvres cornflowers are a common adornment....

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory. In 1744 Jacques Lallemant, Baron d’Aprey, established a pottery on his estate at Aprey (near Dijon.). In 1760 his brother Joseph joined the factory, and the brothers engaged the Swiss pottery painter Protaix Pidoux (who had been working in the Mennecy Porcelain Factory); in the course of the next three years Pidoux produced many fine examples of elegant floral decoration for Aprey pottery. In 1769 Jacques withdrew from the partnership, and Joseph invited the potter François Ollivier to join the factory; Ollivier became the director of the factory in 1774, and managed it until his death in 1792. Under Ollivier’s directorship the factory produced its finest pottery, which was decorated with birds, flowers and landscapes by Antoine Ergot, Antoine Mège and Jacques Jarry, and sold at the factory’s shop in Paris and its outlets in Lyon and Angoulême. After the Revolution the factory continued to make pottery of a modest quality until it closed in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory in Le Castellet, near Apt (about 65 km north of Marseille) established in 1723 by César Moulin, who produced a distinctive marbled yellow-glazed pottery; the designs are modelled on English pottery (perhaps Wedgwood), and look more English than French. The success of this pottery encouraged others to open in and around Apt, which is still an important pottery centre....

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Ger.: Bartmannskrug; ‘bearded-man jug’; d’Alva bottle

Type of German glazed stoneware jug produced from the 15th century through to the 19th, and known in English from the 17th century as the bellarmine, the eponym of which was Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino (1542–1621), who was detested in England because of his anti-Protestant polemics. The jugs, which are decorated with the moulded face of a bearded man (sometimes with a coat-of-arms below it) are also known as ‘Greybeards’ and as ‘d’Alva bottles’; the latter name alludes to the third Duke of Alba (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the village of Bellvue (near Toul, in Meurthe-et-Moselle) in 1758. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Charles Bayard (former director of the Lunéville pottery) and François Boyer, who in 1773 were given the right to style the pottery ‘Manufacture Royale de Bellevue’. Bayard left in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

German centre of ceramics production.The term ‘Bernburg Pottery’ is used to describe both Prehistoric pottery made in Thuringia c. 3000 bc, and the product of two faience factories that flourished in the 18th century. The first operated from c. 1725 to c. 1775, and produced blue-and-white wares (e.g. chinoiserie vase, ...

Article

John Mawer

(b Derby, bapt Oct 12, 1758; d Coalport, Jan 16, 1828).

English ceramic artist and porcelain manufacturer. In 1774 he was apprenticed to William Duesbury at the Derby porcelain factory, where his father, William Billingsley (d 1770), was a flower painter. He became one of their chief flower painters and some ten years later developed a new, soft, naturalistic style of painting flower petals on ceramics that came to be widely, though poorly, imitated at other English factories. His innovative technique involved painting with a heavily loaded brush, and then wiping away much of the paint with a virtually dry brush to produce more delicate colours and highlights (e.g. two-handled tray, c. 1790; Derby, Mus. & A.G.). Though particularly famous for his ‘Billingsley roses’, he also painted landscapes, buildings and other botanical subjects. In 1795 he helped John Coke (1776–1841) to set up a porcelain factory at Pinxton, Derbys. By 1799 he was working as a decorator of blanks, first in Mansfield, then moving in ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Thérèse Picquenard

(b Paris, Oct 9, 1743; d Paris, March 10, 1809).

French sculptor. He was the son of Antoine Boizot (1704–82), a designer at the Gobelins, and a pupil of René-Michel Slodtz. He studied at the Académie Royale, Paris, winning the Prix de Rome in 1762, and after a period at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he completed his education from 1765 to 1770 at the Académie de France in Rome. He was accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1771, presenting the model (untraced) for a statuette of Meleager, but was not received (reçu) as a full member until 1778, when he completed the marble version (Paris, Louvre). He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon until 1800.

The first years of Boizot’s career were dedicated primarily to decorative sculpture, such as the model for the elaborate allegorical gilt-bronze clock known as the ‘Avignon’ clock (c. 1770; London, Wallace; see France, Republic of, §IX, 2, (iii), (a)...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. Town in Derbyshire where a group of manufacturers of household wares in brown stoneware were active from the 18th century to the early 20th. The most prominent factories were Oldfield & Co. and S. & H. Briddon. The Brampton potter Thomas Davenport (1815–88) emigrated to Utah, where he and his descendants worked as potters....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English pottery factory established in the Yorkshire town of Castleford in 1790 by David Dunderdale, whose company (David Dunderdale & Co.) produced fine cream-coloured earthenware and white stoneware decorated in blue and black; the best-known products of the factory are teapots. The mark, which was impressed, was d d & ...

Article

John Sandon

English family of ceramic manufacturers. Robert Chamberlain (bapt Worcester, 1 Aug 1736; d Worcester, 19 Dec 1798) is believed to have been the first apprentice employed at the Worcester Porcelain Co. who progressed to become the senior decorator in charge of the painting and gilding departments. His son Humphrey Chamberlain (b Worcester, 13 April 1762; d 1841) joined him, and together they were responsible for overseeing the entire ornamental work done at the company from the late 1770s until 1786–7, when they left to form their own decorating workshop. Around 1788 they finally broke with the factory (then owned by Thomas Flight (1726–1800) and managed by his sons John (c. 1766–91) and Joseph (c. 1762–1838)) and bought white porcelain from the Caughley Porcelain Factory for enamelling. By 1790 the Chamberlains were manufacturing their own porcelain and employed skilled painters and gilders to produce some of the richest Regency porcelain. Their most celebrated productions were a Japan-style service (...

Article

Roger S. Edmundson

English ceramic manufactory. The works, near Ironbridge, Salop, beside the River Severn and close to coal resources, were founded by John Rose (1772–1841), a former apprentice at the Caughley works, with backing from Edward Blakeway (1720–1811). After manufacturing from c. 1794 at the Calcut China Manufactory, Jackfield, Salop, they moved to Coalport in 1796. In October 1799 they bought the Caughley works and used them until 1814, when all the production was consolidated at Coalport. In 1800 Rose’s younger brother Thomas Rose (1780–1843) opened a smaller works in the former Coalport Pottery owned by William Reynolds (1758–1803), who was succeeded by Robert Anstice (1757–1845) and William Horton (1754–1833). Both works produced fine utilitarian and ornamental wares in hard-paste porcelain, emulating Chinese and French shapes and decoration. In 1814 John Rose & Co. took over Thomas Rose’s works. Softer and more translucent bodies were produced by the 1820s, when Rose bought the moulds of the discontinued ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1774; d c. 1846).

English painter and sculptor, active also in America. He worked in porcelain, plaster, and terracotta and after an early career in an artificial stone factory in London he moved c. 1792 to the Derby Porcelain Factory, where he worked as a modeller. In 1816 he emigrated to America, where he contributed architectural decoration to the University of Virginia, including the plaster of Paris friezes for the university buildings and internal plaster and lead ornaments for various buildings....