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Article

Carlos Cid Priego

(b Logroño, Dec 26, 1759; d Madrid, 1842).

Spanish sculptor and ceramicist. He moved to Madrid at an early age and was apprenticed to the French sculptor Robert Michel (i), who was employed at the court. He won first prize in a competition at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes, and organized the royal workshop for the carving of precious stones, where he executed two magnificent cameo portraits of Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa (c. 1796; Madrid, Pal. Real). He was a leading sculptor in the Buen Retiro porcelain factory, for which he produced a large amount of work. In 1797 he entered the Real Academia de Bellas Artes and was promoted until he was finally appointed Director-general in 1821. He was also appointed Honorary Chamber Sculptor to Charles IV. His successful career made him an influential figure in Spanish art. He was one of the leading exponents of Neo-classical sculpture, producing works that were technically accomplished although stylistically rather cold. He executed a large amount of work between ...

Article

Mieke van der Wal

(b The Hague, Jan 6, 1876; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1955).

Dutch sculptor and ceramicist. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1894–7) and in various sculpture studios. In 1898 he decorated the shop-front of the gallery Arts and Crafts in The Hague after a design by Johan Thorn Prikker, who advised him to set up on his own. From 1901 Altorf exhibited regularly and successfully; he was represented at the Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna in Turin in 1902, where he won a silver medal, and at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

Altorf was a leading exponent of Dutch Art Nouveau. His work is characterized by a strong simplification of form. It is often compared with that of Joseph Mendes da Costa but is somewhat more angular and austere. At first Altorf made mainly animal forms from various types of wood, ivory, bronze and ceramic. In firing his modelled figures, he worked with the ceramicist ...

Article

Laure de Margerie

(b Longwy, Meurthe et Moselle, July 3, 1837; d Capbreton, Landes, Aug 23, 1916).

French sculptor. In 1851 he entered the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin, Paris, also studying with Antoine-Laurent Dantan, and in 1854 moved to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. A grant from his native département enabled him to travel to Italy in 1866–7, though he was evidently little influenced by antique or Renaissance works of art. Apart from his bronze monument to Dante Alighieri (1879–80; Paris, Square Monge), his work is in a neo-Rococo style, as exemplified in his terracotta bust of his daughter Marcelle Aubé (1910; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). Besides many portrait busts he also executed public monuments to notable Frenchmen, several of which were destroyed on the orders of the Vichy government in 1941. The most important, and most controversial, was that to Léon Gambetta (bronze, 1884–8), built in collaboration with the architect Louis-Charles Boileau in the courtyard of the Louvre in Paris; it was damaged during World War II and dismantled from ...

Article

Thérèse Picquenard

(b Paris, Oct 9, 1743; d Paris, March 10, 1809).

French sculptor. He was the son of Antoine Boizot (1704–82), a designer at the Gobelins, and a pupil of René-Michel Slodtz. He studied at the Académie Royale, Paris, winning the Prix de Rome in 1762, and after a period at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he completed his education from 1765 to 1770 at the Académie de France in Rome. He was accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1771, presenting the model (untraced) for a statuette of Meleager, but was not received (reçu) as a full member until 1778, when he completed the marble version (Paris, Louvre). He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon until 1800.

The first years of Boizot’s career were dedicated primarily to decorative sculpture, such as the model for the elaborate allegorical gilt-bronze clock known as the ‘Avignon’ clock (c. 1770; London, Wallace; see France, Republic of, §IX, 2, (iii), (a)...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Valcartier, Qué., May 16, 1836; d Trenton, NJ, May 4, 1922).

American sculptor, ceramic modeller and teacher of Canadian birth. Broome received his artistic training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he was elected an Academician in 1860 and taught (1860–63) in the Life and Antique department. In 1854 he assisted Thomas Crawford with the statues on the pediment of the Senate wing of the US Capitol in Washington, DC, and tried unsuccessfully to establish a firm for architectural terracotta and garden ornaments in Pittsburgh and New York.

From 1875 Broome was employed as a modeller by the firm of Ott & Brewer in Trenton, NJ. The parian porcelain sculpture he created for their display at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia won him medals for ceramic arts (e.g. Plaque; New York, Met.). Following his success at the Exhibition and at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris, for which he was Special Commissioner from the USA, he was active as a teacher and lecturer and was keenly interested in educational, political and industrial reforms. He also continued as a modeller for potters in Ohio and Trenton, including the ...

Article

(b Leiden, Oct 19, 1877; d Zoeterwoude, Oct 23, 1933).

Dutch potter and sculptor. He trained as a drawing teacher but took a particular interest in bookbinding, decorative woodcuts and household pottery. From the example of the Arts and Crafts Movement he learnt the value of traditional techniques and craftsmanship. In 1898 he settled in Gouda in order to perfect his technical knowledge of pottery-making. Three years later he started his own ceramics firm in Leiderdorp. His ceramics are characterized by their intentionally plain shapes, combined with mostly geometric linear ornament and frequently with sculptural decoration applied in low relief. His work attracted international attention and gained awards at several exhibitions, including the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin (1902) and the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in Brussels (1910). Around 1907 Brouwer began to experiment with large-scale ceramic decoration. His terracotta ornaments and façade sculptures were greatly admired by contemporary architects, who secured him important commissions in this field, for example the ...

Article

(b Anizy-le-Château, Aisne, June 12, 1824; d Sèvres, June 3, 1887).

French sculptor and designer. He was one of the most prolific and versatile sculptors of the 19th century, producing portrait busts, monuments and ideal works, as well as exploiting to the full the commercial opportunities offered by developing technology for the mass production of small-scale sculpture and decorative wares. His style ranged from the unembellished Realism of his male portraits to the neo-Baroque exuberance of his architectural decoration, and his art is particularly associated with the amiable opulence of the Second Empire. He signed his works A. Carrier until c. 1868, thereafter adopting the name Carrier-Belleuse.

Carrier-Belleuse began a three-year apprenticeship with a goldsmith at the age of 13, a training that gave him a lifelong sensitivity to intricate surfaces. In 1840 David d’Angers sponsored his entry to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but his straitened financial circumstances led him to study decorative arts at the Petite Ecole. This left him free to produce small models for such commercial manufacturers of porcelain and bronze as ...

Article

(b Lyon, Feb 15, 1855; d Paris, July 1, 1894).

French sculptor and ceramicist. He was brought up in an orphanage and in 1868 entered the studio of a sculptor of religious images named Vermare. In 1874 he became a probationary pupil of Augustin-Alexandre Dumont at the Ecole des Beaux–Arts in Paris but, having failed the tests for full admission, left to set up on his own. He made his début at the Salon of 1875; his first success, however, came after that of 1881, and above all from a private exhibition organized by the Cercle des Arts Libéraux in 1882. Most of his sculptural work, principally bronze portrait busts cast by the lost-wax method, was carried out between 1881 and 1888. It includes portraits of contemporaries, for example Jules Breton and Léon Gambetta (plaster casts of both, Paris, Petit Pal.); historical representations, for example of Frans Hals and Diego Velázquez (plaster casts of both, Paris, Petit Pal.); and a number of ideal busts—Symbolist reinterpretations of the academic ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1774; d c. 1846).

English painter and sculptor, active also in America. He worked in porcelain, plaster, and terracotta and after an early career in an artificial stone factory in London he moved c. 1792 to the Derby Porcelain Factory, where he worked as a modeller. In 1816 he emigrated to America, where he contributed architectural decoration to the University of Virginia, including the plaster of Paris friezes for the university buildings and internal plaster and lead ornaments for various buildings....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1848; d 1926).

French potter, glass-maker and sculptor. He was the son of a porcelain modeller at Sèvres, where Albert-Louis was eventually to have his own studio, where he became an exponent of the Pâte-sur-pâte technique of ceramic decoration. His early work is maiolica designed under Italian influence, but from the early 1880s he turned to stoneware designed under Japanese influence. He designed for other manufacturers, notably the ...

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.

Article

Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Makowiec Duży, nr Mińsk Mazowiecki, Sept 3, 1865; d Kraków, March 23, 1956).

Polish sculptor and ceramicist. He began studying sculpture in 1885, initially at private schools in Warsaw and then between 1891 and 1896 in Paris at the studios of Antonin Mercié, Alexandre Falguière and Jean-Léon Gérôme. Laszczka exhibited in Poland and abroad from 1889. From 1899 to 1935 he was a professor of sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków, where he created the ‘Kraków school’ of sculpture, as distinct from that in Warsaw.

Laszczka’s work has several stylistic phases. While at Falguière’s studio he produced realistic pieces, and in the early 20th century Rodin’s influence can be seen in his sculptures. However, most of his sculptures reflect his fascination with folklore and symbolism. Folk trends are evident in his genre sculptures (e.g. Country Urchin and Kasia’s First Attempts at the Loom) and in his ceramic work, which was prolific: he collaborated with the majolica factories in Dębniki and ...

Article

Lemire  

Gordon Campbell

[Sauvage, Charles-Gabriel]

(b Lunéville, 1741; d Paris, 1827).

French pottery and porcelain modeller and sculptor. He worked from 1759 to 1800 in Niderviller, where he made both classical figures and commemorative pieces, notably the allegorical group commemorating the visit of Marie-Antoinette to Strasbourg in 1770 (Colmar, Mus. Unterlinden). In 1800 he moved to Paris, where he worked as a sculptor in marble....

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Terent’yevich)

(b Saratov, Aug 25, 1878; d Moscow, Oct 22, 1960).

Russian sculptor. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1899–1902) under Sergey Volnukhin (1859–1921) and Paolo Troubetskoy. He took part in the World of Art and Blue Rose exhibitions. The influence of the impressionistic sculpture of Troubetskoy is particularly noticeable in Matveyev’s early works (e.g. the sculpture of the painter Viktor Borisov-Musatov, plaster, 1900; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). Matveyev borrowed from this impressionism a sensitivity to texture and to the ‘breathing’ surface of forms, and from Symbolism and Art Nouveau an inclination towards images of sleep and of outward contentment along with inward anxiety, a shaky equilibrium on the boundaries of dream and reality, life and a deathly torpor. Although as a result Matveyev was called the ‘Russian Maillol’, his work is nearer to the painting of Gauguin and the sculpture of George Minne. The figures of naked adolescent boys (marble and Inkerman stone, ...

Article

Mieke van der Wal

[Jozef]

(b Amsterdam, Nov 4, 1863; d Amsterdam, July 20, 1939).

Dutch sculptor and ceramicist. His first training was in the stone-carving workshop of his father. He also attended the Quellinus School (1879–81) and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (1882–5) in Amsterdam. With some of his fellow students, including Lambertus Zijl, Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof and T. W. Nieuwenhuis, he formed the artists’ group Labor et Ars in 1885. Their principal concern was the design of utensils, in which they aimed to produce an individual style and to react against the styles of the past; in this they belonged to the group of artists who initiated a revival of the Dutch applied arts. Between 1885 and 1888 Mendes da Costa formed a partnership with Zijl for the creation of sculptures and applied-art products. From 1888 until 1902 he was a teacher of modelling at the Industrieschool of the Society for the Working Classes in Amsterdam.

From 1880 Mendes da Costa made such utensils as vases and dishes in clay, which he glazed himself and had fired in a pottery. His first sculptural works, including a number of groups inspired by scenes observed in the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam, also date from this time. As the results of the glazed earthenware pieces were not always to his satisfaction, he built his own kiln in ...

Article

Laure de Margerie

(b Paris, March 25, 1810; d Paris, May 21, 1879).

French sculptor. Having learnt to cast and chase bronze from his father, who was a metal-turner, he began his career by executing models for porcelain manufacturers and making small-scale sculptures for the commercial market. He received his first professional lessons from the sculptor René Compaire and augmented these with anatomical studies and life drawings of animals in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. From 1838 he regularly exhibited animal sculptures at the Salon. His statuettes and groups, such as Flemish Cow and her Calf (wax, 1845; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay), depicted the animal world with great physical precision. He even made sculptures of horses, such as Ibrahim, an Arab Horse Brought from Egypt (exh. Salon 1843), Djinn, Barb Stallion (exh. Salon 1849) and the Winner of the Derby (exh. Salon 1863). Mène was distinguished from other animal sculptors by his well-developed sense of business. He established his own foundry, where he formed a partnership with his son-in-law ...

Article

Peter Stasny

(b Judenburg, Sept 18, 1871; d Vienna, Jan 4, 1954).

Austrian decorative artist and sculptor. He received training as a potter in his father’s business from 1885 to 1889, concluding this training with the firm of Sommerhuber in Steyr from 1890 to 1891. After attending the Fachschule für Thonindustrie in Znojmo [Ger. Znaim], southern Moravia (now Czech Republic) (1891–4), he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule (now the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) in Vienna. From 1894 to 1901 he produced sculpture and modelling work with August Kühne (1845–95), Josef Breitner (1861–1927), Otto König (1838–1920) and Arthur Strasser (1854–1927), and from 1903 to 1906 he was assistant to the sculptor, Franz Metzner. The Kunstgewerbeschule, which at that time strongly reflected the impact of the Secession, had a decisive effect on his work.

As a member of the arts and crafts association, Wiener Kunst im Hause, from 1901, Powolny showed, at their Christmas exhibition of ...

Article

Aleksandr U. Grekov

Russian estate lying 18 km from Smolensk. It was acquired in 1893 by Prince Vyacheslav Tenishev (1843–1903) and his wife Mariya Tenisheva. In the 19th century and the early 20th Princess Tenisheva, with the help of her husband’s capital (he was a leading industrialist and businessman), turned Talashkino into a unique artistic centre in the forefront of the revival of peasant handicrafts. She founded various workshops for joinery, ceramics, wood-carving, wood painting, metal chasing and fabric dyeing, where local craftsmen and apprentices from the peasantry worked under professional artists. They manufactured different objects for everyday life, including towels, clothes, wooden bowls, plates and toys. This took place in the context of the mutual enrichment of folk crafts and professional Art Nouveau in Russia at that time. Tenisheva formed a large collection of objects from traditional folk life, and of artistic products. Originally they were housed on the estate, where a museum, Russkaya Starina (‘Russian antiquity’), was opened to all in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Walworth, London, Nov 5, 1843; d Putney, Sept 10, 1913).

English wood-carver and potter. He joined the Doulton Ceramic Factory in Lambeth in 1867, and remained there for the rest of his life. His work in wood included collaborations with the architect George Edmund Street (1824–81) in the crucifixion panel for the reredos at York Minster (1876) and 28 panels for the Guards’ Chapel in the Wellington barracks in London (1878, now mostly destroyed). His other commissions in wood included panels in the pulpit and reredos of the English church in Copenhagen.

Tinworth’s work in pottery, mostly in stoneware, included decorated pots, plaques with religious themes and many figural subjects. He is now best known for his figures, which included children (especially boy musicians) and animals (especially mice and frogs). These figures are now collected by individuals and museums (e.g. London, V&A and the Royal Doulton Collectors’ Centre in Burslem. Of his pots, the best known is the ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...