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Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...


Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....


Gordon Campbell

English ceramics manufactory (also known as Wilcox and Co.) founded in Leeds in 1858, originally for the manufacture of bricks and building materials. In 1879 the firm began to produce tiles, display pottery and architectural faience; tiles from this period survive in the sumptuous bathroom of Gledhow Hall in Leeds (decorated for the visit of the Prince of Wales, ...


(b Doesburg, Oct 31, 1841; d Laag-Keppel, May 28, 1930).

Dutch decorative artist. He trained as an architect at the firm of L. H. Eberson in Arnhem. From c. 1867 to 1870 he lived in Paris, where he was involved in the preparations for the Exposition Universelle of 1867. After returning to the Netherlands he concentrated increasingly on the applied arts. From 1884 until 1889 he was the artistic director of the Rozenburg delftware factory in The Hague, which was established by W. W. von Gudenberg in 1883. It was not only Colenbrander’s designs of ornamental china that were revolutionary but also the asymmetric, whimsical, but at the same time elegant, decorative patterns, which were applied in bright, transparent colours. His motifs seemed to indicate an awareness of oriental decorations, which he may have seen at Expositions Universelles, although for the most part they were original. After a disagreement with the management, he left Rozenburg in 1889 and spent several years working in different fields within the applied arts, including interior design and textiles....


Gordon Campbell

(b 1857; d 1940).

French potter. As a young man he made architectural ornaments (principally tiles) in a ceramics factory near Beauvais. In 1887 he moved to Paris to assume responsibility for the Haviland studio of Ernest Chaplet; he specialized in stoneware vases with high-temperature flambé glazes, often decorated with Persian motifs. In 1894...


Term used to describe an antiquarian style popular in England from the 1830s to the 1860s, inspired by the Elizabethan style of the 16th century. Designs for Elizabethan-style furniture first appeared in Rudolf Ackermann’s Repository of Arts in 1817, although the style was not widely popular until the 1830s. The English architect most closely identified with the style was Anthony Salvin, who designed Harlaxton Manor, Lincs (1831–8). The entire vocabulary of gables, octagonal turrets, tall chimney-stacks, pinnacles, leaded-paned windows and heraldic ornament was used at Harlaxton, which was based on the Elizabethan E-plan. Salvin’s other notable works in this style include Mamhead (1828–33), Devon, and Scotney Castle (1835–43), Kent. Mentmore Towers (1851–4), Bucks, was designed by Joseph Paxton and George Henry Stokes for Baron Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (1818–74) and is possibly the most elaborate manifestation of the Elizabethan Revival style....


Hans Ottomeyer

The name derives from the first French Empire under Napoleon I (see Bonaparte family, §1). The dates defining the period of the Empire historically (1804–14) and the duration of the style itself are at variance: the early phase, referred to by contemporaries as ‘le goût antique’, was a late form of Neo-classicism and became more developed as the chaos resulting from the French Revolution subsided c. 1797. The Directoire style and the Consulate style—terms similarly derived from political periods in France—were both part of the development of the Empire style.

The term was originally applied to architecture, but because Napoleon rejected the building of new castles and palaces as wasteful, the style was especially used in interior design and decoration, later being extended to other decorative arts and fashion. There was strong conscious allusion to the civilization of imperial Rome through the building forms and motifs used by the first Roman emperors, who pursued goals of internal peace and a new order together with an expansionist military policy, as did Napoleon. Personal taste and comfort became of secondary importance to the demonstration of wealth and power. The Empire style spread throughout Europe and acquired fresh impetus with the Napoleonic conquests....


Bernadette Nelson

Portuguese ceramics factory. It was founded in the borough of Porto de Mós, near Leiria, in 1770 by the painter and architect José Rodrigues da Silva e Sousa (d 1824). In 1784 the factory received the designation ‘Royal’ and the protection of Sebastião de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquês of Pombal. The factory had two very distinct periods of production. During the first 30 years it produced blue-and-white tableware that was influenced in style and decoration by the Real Fábrica do Rato. Many pieces are distinctive for their recurring semi-abstract, leaf-like motifs, shaded in blue or manganese-purple, surrounded by chains of beads. During the second period, under the direction of José Luís Fernandes da Fonseca, wares were decorated with more sober decoration in manganese-purple. Important painters who worked at the factory at this time included João Coelho Pó and Manuel Coelho. Fonseca’s son Bernardino José da Fonseca directed the factory from ...


Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1855; d 1915).

French architect, interior designer, potter and collector. His Paris workshop undertook interior decoration, furniture design, woodwork and ironwork. He decorated three rooms at the Exposition Universelle of 1900; his floral decoration was in an Art Nouveau style. When his friend Jean(-Joseph-Marie) Carriès died, Hoentschel took over his pottery studio in Montriveau, and thereafter Carriès’s workers produced stoneware that Hoentschel integrated in his furniture. His collections of French art of the 17th and 18th centuries and of Asian art, acquired by J. Pierpont Morgan and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, influenced the style of his own work....


John Steen

(b Rotterdam, April 6, 1861; d The Hague, June 19, 1919).

Dutch ceramicist and architect. He trained as an architect at the Polytechnische School in Delft and practised his profession in The Hague from 1883 until 1893. Between 1894 and 1913 (when he became the alderman for public works of The Hague) he worked at N.V. Haagsche Plateelbakkerij Rozenburg, a delftware factory in The Hague, first as aesthetic adviser, as manager after June 1894 and a year later as general manager. He introduced numerous improvements in the production process. With chemist M. N. Engelen he developed a number of chemical methods to make porcelain, resulting in a wafer-thin product that was a type of eggshell porcelain and that found a variety of ceramic applications. The porcelain was shaped in plaster moulds and biscuit fired at a low temperature. After that the product was painted, glazed and fired at a high temperature. Through Kok’s work the factory became prosperous, but it was forced into liquidation during World War I because of the relaxation of import and export restrictions. Kok was responsible for the choice of his friend H.P. Berlage to become architect of the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague....


Dyveke Helsted

(b Frederiksvœrk, Zealand, March 18, 1856; d Tisvilde, Zealand, June 7, 1931).

Danish architect and painter. He received his training as an architect at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. During his training he assisted in the restoration of the Renaissance palaces of Kronborg and Fredriksborg north of Copenhagen. In 1883 production at the Kongelige Porcelaensfabrik (see Copenhagen §3) was revived after it was taken over by the Aluminia Co. The factory was reorganized under the director Philip Schou (1838–1922) who hoped to develop a national style at the factory. Krog was engaged as an artist on a trial basis in October 1884 and as artistic director from January 1885.

Krog’s first attempts at finding a style different from the white, gilded, classical porcelain, embellished with coloured overglazes, that had been the standard ware of the factory, were made with Renaissance patterns and in the manner of wares from the Delft potteries. However, an ‘Immortelle’ plate that had been made at the factory from ...


Gordon Campbell and Angelika Steinmetz

(b 1864; d 1952).

German potter, interior decorator and architect. Inspired by the rural pottery made in the Black Forest, he applied engobe (slip) with a painting horn to vases and ornamental plates from 1893. In 1895 he established the art pottery Tonwerke Kandern at Kandern with a view to producing utility wares in the ...


M. N. Sokolov


(b Saratov, Aug 25, 1878; d Moscow, Oct 22, 1960).

Russian sculptor. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1899–1902) under Sergey Volnukhin (1859–1921) and Paolo Troubetskoy. He took part in the World of Art and Blue Rose exhibitions. The influence of the impressionistic sculpture of Troubetskoy is particularly noticeable in Matveyev’s early works (e.g. the sculpture of the painter Viktor Borisov-Musatov, plaster, 1900; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). Matveyev borrowed from this impressionism a sensitivity to texture and to the ‘breathing’ surface of forms, and from Symbolism and Art Nouveau an inclination towards images of sleep and of outward contentment along with inward anxiety, a shaky equilibrium on the boundaries of dream and reality, life and a deathly torpor. Although as a result Matveyev was called the ‘Russian Maillol’, his work is nearer to the painting of Gauguin and the sculpture of George Minne. The figures of naked adolescent boys (marble and Inkerman stone, ...


Ronald R. McCarty

(b Benicia, CA, Dec 12, 1872; d Palm Beach, FL, Feb 5, 1933).

American architect, interior designer, city planner, and developer. Mizner specialized in Mediterranean Revival architecture in California, New York, and Florida during the early 20th century and founded Mizner Industries, Inc. Mizner was the second youngest son born to Lansing Bond Mizner and Ella Watson Mizner. His father was an accomplished lawyer, politician, and landowner, later becoming the American ambassador to five republics in Latin America that are now Guatemala, San Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, and Costa Rica. Travelling internationally with his father, Addison became fluent in Spanish and was inspired by the 16th- and 17th-century Spanish architecture of Central America. After moving to San Francisco in 1890, he attended Boones University in Berkeley. He continued his education at the University of Salamanca in Spain in 1892–3. Returning to the USA he began his professional training in San Francisco as an apprentice draftsman in 1894 with the firm of Willis J. Polk, becoming a full partner with the firm in ...


John Sweetman and A. R. Gardner

[Hindoo, Indo-Saracenic]

Term used specifically in the 19th century to describe a Western style based on the architecture and decorative arts of the Muslim inhabitants (the Moors) of north-west Africa and (between 8th and 15th centuries) of southern Spain; it is often used imprecisely to include Arab and Indian influences. A similar revivalist style prevalent specifically in Spain around the same time is known as the Mudéjar revival. Although their rule in Spain finally ended in 1492, the Moors remained indispensably part of the European vision of the East. (See also Orientalism.)

In the Renaissance moreschi were bandlike patterns allied to grotesques. The Swiss Johann Heinrich Müntz, who visited Spain in 1748 and drew unspecified Moorish buildings, designed a Moorish garden building (1750; London, RIBA) that may have formed the basis for the Alhambra (destr.), one of a series of exotic buildings designed by William Chambers after 1758 for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, near London. Further early interest was shown by the painter ...


Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Altkirch, Alsace, Sept 21, 1823; d Nice, Nov 11, 1889).

French architect, ceramics manufacturer and writer. He trained at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, Paris, and became a civil engineer, his first project being the building of 300 dwellings (1852–97) for the Jean Dollfuss workers’ housing estate in Mulhouse. In 1853 he proposed model workers’ housing estates called ‘cités circulaires’, composed of prefabricated timber houses, but none was ever built. After these early experiments in social housing Muller became one of the undisputed specialists in the field, publishing his ideas in 1855 and 1879.

It was in the industrialized production of ceramic products, however, that Muller played his most significant role. In 1854 he founded his own tile factory, La Grande Tuilerie d’Ivry, producing the first industrial tiles, which were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, in 1855. He produced industrial tiles in different colours, ridge-tiles and made-to-measure roofing for the Menier factory (1871–2) in Noisiel, Seine-et-Marne. Designed by the architect ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1860; d 1910).

English designer. As a young man he trained as an architect and worked at the Burmantoft pottery in Leeds, where he developed an interest in architectural ceramics. In the early 1890s he moved to London, where he joined the Doulton Ceramic Factory as director of its architect department, designing Art Nouveau tile panels for exteriors and interiors, notably the meat hall in Harrods, London (...


Alan Powers

Stylistic term applied to the revival in the UK in the late 19th century and the 20th of the classical Georgian style of domestic architecture and interior and furniture design from the period 1714–1830. Similar, contemporary revivals of late 18th- and early 19th-century Georgian colonial styles also took place in such countries as the USA and Australia (see Colonial Revival). Neo-Georgian was one of the most popular architectural styles in the UK between 1900 and 1930; it continued to be employed despite the advent of Modernism, and in the 1980s a new phase of popularity began, stimulated by the anti-modernist, eclectic and pluralist trends of Post-modernism.

The origins of the Neo-Georgian style can be found in the 1860s. The house (1860–62; destr.) at 2 Palace Green, Kensington, London, designed for William Makepeace Thackeray by Frederick Hering (1800–69), who drew on Thackeray’s sketches, was an early, isolated example reflecting a literary interest in the 18th century. Another precursor is ...


Julius Fekete and Charles Wheelton Hind

Term in use from the mid-19th century to describe a style of architecture and the decorative arts that flourished in the West from the early 19th century to early 20th. It was based on the arts of the Renaissance, initially of Italy (15th–16th centuries), and later on its regional manifestations (16th–17th centuries), principally of France and Germany.

Julius Fekete

The first impetus for the revival came from France, with the publication of Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand’s Précis de leçons d’architecture (1802–5) and Auguste-Henri Grandjean de Montigny’s L’Architecture de la Toscane (Paris, 1806–19), both of which cited examples from the Italian Renaissance. Early French buildings in a Roman Renaissance palazzo style include those in the Rue de Rivoli (begun 1802) by Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine, and the Ministère des Relations Extérieures (begun 1810; destr. 1871) in Paris by Jacques-Charles Bonnard (1765–1818). In Germany, where the Renaissance Revival was exclusively taken from Italian models until the mid-19th century, ...