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(b Paris, June 17, 1820; d Paris, March 1, 1900).

French painter, designer and printmaker. He was a pupil of Jules Jollivet, Pierre Lecomte and Eugène-Ammanuel Amaury-Duval, for whom he also acted as executor. From 1857 to 1885 he worked mainly as a designer for the Sèvres manufactory. He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1842 to 1880; from 1864 he could exhibit his works at the Salon without having to undergo selection by the jury. Heavily influenced by the style of Ingres’s pupils, and especially Amaury-Duval, Froment painted a Virgin (1846; Autun, St Jean) that recalls the contemporary work of Ingres for the stained-glass windows in the chapel of St Ferdinand at Dreux. In the same year he painted St Peter Healing a Lame Man at the Door of the Temple in the church at Pégomas.

Froment’s genre scenes, with their pleasant, decorative symbolism, are often close to the works of Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jean-Louis Hamon, or his friend ...

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.

Article

Norman Stretton

(b Badsey, Hereford & Worcs, bapt April 7, 1731; d Brislington, Avon, Oct 14, 1817).

English engraver and painter. He was apprenticed to George Anderton, an engraver, in Birmingham on 28 January 1745. In 1756 he joined the Worcester Porcelain Company of Dr John Wall (1708–76). He became a partner in the firm in March 1772. At Worcester, Hancock engraved copperplates for transfer-printing on porcelain. Many designs were adapted from contemporary engravings and paintings, particularly those of the French schools; such romantic scenes as Amusements champêtres and Fêtes vénitiennes were derived from compositions by Antoine Watteau. A series of children’s games, including Battledore and Shuttlecock, Blind Man’s Buff and Marbles, are based on a series of compositions engraved by Gravelot. Mugs with portraits of Frederick II, King of Prussia, dated 1757 (for illustration see Worcester), are based on an engraving by Richard Houston after a painting by Antoine Pesne and are among the best-known examples of Hancock’s work. The English schools also provided subjects for Hancock’s engravings. A half-length portrait of George III decorates Worcester mugs together with one of Queen Charlotte, both likenesses after engravings by ...

Article

(b Stuttgart, Dec 2, 1795; d Munich, July 9, 1846).

German painter and printmaker. He was a pupil in Stuttgart of Johann Baptist Seele, whose stiff drawing style he at first adopted. After taking part in the Napoleonic Wars he moved to Munich in December 1815 to study landscape painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Wilhelm Alexander Wolfgang von Kobell. His first oil paintings were copies of hunting scenes after Franz Joachim Beich, whose works were in the royal collection at Schloss Schleissheim. He also copied pen drawings by Kobell and Johann Georg von Dillis. His first original oil paintings (e.g. Militia Picket at Schlettstadt, 1816; Stuttgart, Staatsgal.) depicted scenes from his own life as a soldier. Between 1818 and 1822 he painted many landscapes replete with genre-like details of the area around Munich and the Bayerisches Oberland, and these were widely disseminated as lithographs (e.g. Excursion on the Tegernsee, 1818; e.g. Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.). The composition tends to draw attention first to the active figures in the foreground and then to an open view of the countryside, a device recalling the works of Kobell. These early naturalistic scenes are characterized by an affinity for nature and by the depiction of people at work....

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...

Article

Judit Geskó

(b Kaposvár, May 23, 1861; d Kaposvár, Nov 27, 1927).

Hungarian painter, printmaker, pastellist, ceramicist and designer. In 1881 he graduated in pharmacy from the Budapest University of Sciences. He worked as a pharmacist for a short time and then became tutor to Count Ödön Zichy. In 1884 he registered at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich, becoming a student in the life class and studying under Johann Caspar Herterich (1843–1905) and Wilhelm von Diez (1839–1907). In 1887 he went to Paris to work in the studio of Mihály Munkácsy, for whom he copied and finished paintings for export to the USA. In 1889 Rippl-Rónai went to Pont-Aven, where he painted In a Pont-Aven Bar (1889; Budapest, priv. col.) and Woman in a White Spotted Dress (1889; Budapest, N.G.), which shows the influence of Whistler (which persisted throughout his career) and in which, as in many of his paintings of this period, the dominant colour is black. In ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...

Article

Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, March 16, 1804; d Paris, Dec 25, 1856).

French painter, ceramicist, writer and lithographer. He first studied in Paris under Ingres and François-Joseph Heim. In 1830 he toured Italy, spending time in Venice especially, and then went to Munich, where he learnt the technique of fresco painting from Peter Cornelius. After spending some time in Belgium, he returned to Paris and illustrated such Romantic pieces of literature as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Contes fantastiques. At the Salon of 1831 he exhibited paintings based on his travels, including View of Venice (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Souvenir of Germany. In 1833 he established his reputation as a history painter by showing at the Salon two works that were based on medieval sources: Giotto in Cimabue’s Studio (Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg, and the Death of Foscari (Arras, Mus. B.-A.). At the Salon of 1835 he was awarded medals for portraits of Connétable, Comte de Sancerre...