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Tara Leigh Tappert

(b Philadelphia, PA, May 1, 1855; d Gloucester, MA, Sept 17, 1942).

American painter. Beaux’s paintings of upper-class men, women, and children represent the finest examples of portraiture from the turn of the 20th century (see fig.). Known for her bravura brushwork, lush colour, and consummate ability to combine likeness and genre, Beaux’s paintings garnered awards and accolades at the exhibitions where she regularly showed her work. By the 1890s her portraits were often compared with those of John Singer Sargent, and she was as well known as Mary Cassatt.

Beaux was 16 years old when an uncle arranged private art lessons with a distant relative and artist, Catharine Ann Drinker (1871–2). Beaux did copy-work with her and then took two more years of training at the art school of Francis Adolf van der Wielen (1872–4). Beaux later studied china painting at the National Art Training School with Camille Piton (1879). Her earliest Philadelphia training prepared her for a career in the decorative arts. A few of Beaux’s early commissions include her lithograph, ...


Jean Stern

(b Bomen, Austria, Jan 14, 1864; d Pasadena, Feb 5, 1929).

American painter and porcelain painter of Austrian birth. Bischoff began his artistic training at a craft school in his native Bomen. In 1882 he went to Vienna for further training in painting, design and ceramic decoration. He came to the USA in 1885 and obtained employment as a painter in a ceramic factory in New York City. Bischoff moved to Pittsburgh, PA, then to Fostoria, OH, and finally to Dearborn, MI, continuing to work as a porcelain painter. In 1906 he moved his family to the Los Angeles area. Two years later he built a studio–home along the Arroyo Seco in South Pasadena, which included a gallery, ceramic workshop and painting studio. Once in California, Bischoff turned to landscape painting, in addition to continuing his flower paintings and his porcelain work. Through the 1920s, he painted the coastal areas of Monterey and Laguna Beach, the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the desert near Palm Springs. In ...


Pascale Méker

(b Paris, July 25, 1781; d Paris, June 12, 1853).

French painter. After an apprenticeship at the Dihl et Guerhard porcelain factory in Paris, where he was taught by Etienne Leguay (1762–1846), Blondel moved to Jean-Baptiste Regnault’s atelier in 1802. He won the Prix de Rome in 1803 with Aeneas and Anchises (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.) but did not go to Rome until 1809, when he stayed there for three years. After gaining a gold medal in the Salon of 1817 for the Death of Louis XII (Toulouse, Mus. Augustins), Blondel embarked on a wide-ranging and successful career as official decorative painter. In addition to the decoration of the Salon and of the Galerie de Diane at Fontainebleau (1822–8) and the ceiling of the Palais de la Bourse (Justice Protecting Commerce, sketch, 1825; Dijon, Mus. Magnin), he received commissions for several ceilings in the Louvre, of which the earliest and most remarkable is in the vestibule to the Galerie d’Apollon (...


Claudine Stensgaard Nielsen

[Andersen, Hans]

(b Brændekilde, Fyn, April 7, 1857; d Jyllinge, March 30, 1942).

Danish painter, glass designer and ceramicist. He trained as a stonemason and then studied sculpture in Copenhagen at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi (1877–81), where he decided to become a painter. In 1884 he changed his name from Andersen to Brendekilde after his place of birth, as he was constantly being confused with his friend Laurits Andersen Ring, who moreover also took the name of his birthplace. In the 1880s Brendekilde and Ring painted together on Fyn and influenced each other’s work. Brendekilde’s art had its origin in the lives of people of humble means and in the country environment of previous centuries. He painted landscapes and genre pictures. He himself was the son of a woodman, and his paintings often contain social comment, as in Worn Out (1889; Odense, Fyn. Kstmus.), which shows the influence of both Jean-François Millet and Jules Bastien-Lepage. Brendekilde was a sensitive colourist, influenced by Impressionism, for example in ...


Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Paris, Dec 12, 1812; d Paris, March 13, 1893).

French painter. From 1825 to 1828 he was apprenticed as a decorator of porcelain at the Gouverneur Factory in Paris. He then studied under Camille Flers, who taught him to paint landscape en plein air and compelled him to sharpen his powers of observation of nature at the expense of the rules of classical landscape. In 1830 he visited Normandy and on his return to Paris he associated with two avant-garde painters, Philippe-Auguste Jeanron, founder of the Société Libre de Peinture et de Sculpture, and Jules Dupré. The latter was a committed member of the Barbizon school who sought to portray the truthfulness of nature in his landscapes rather than an arranged composition (see Barbizon school). In order to deepen their study of nature, Cabat and Dupré painted together in the Forest of Fontainebleau. In 1832 they also visited the region of Berry. The following year, Cabat exhibited for the first time at the Salon in Paris, where until ...


Mikhail F. Kiselyov


(b Valayka Station, Novgorod Province [now Lykoshino, Tver’ region], 1878; d en route from Germany to Paris, Feb 22, 1936).

Russian graphic artist, ceramicist, painter and designer. In 1896 he studied at the School of Drawing at the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts and in 1897 at Maria Tenisheva’s art school in St Petersburg, where he worked under Il’ya Repin until 1900. In 1904 he worked in the pottery studio at the Abramtsevo colony. At this period he employed Art Nouveau elements in his work, as in the majolica decorations for the Hotel Metropole, St Petersburg (early 1900s) and the majolica panel St George Triumphant for the Municipal Primary School on Bol’shaya Tsaritsynskaya [now Bol’shaya Pirogovskaya] Street in Moscow (1909). He took up book illustration in 1904 and his graphic talent flourished in the 1910s. His work for Apollon was particularly successful, his illustrations first appearing in its pages in 1911. Chekhonin soon became an original and skilful artist, using a sharp and elastic line interspersed with dots. From ...


(b Lyon, 1798; d Paris, June 16, 1838).

French painter, designer and interior decorator. Throughout his career he was an advocate of the importance of art and design for industry and manufacture. In 1830 he was appointed adviser to the Sèvres Porcelain Factory by the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). There Chenavard made cartoons for stained-glass windows, a stoneware ‘Vase de la Renaissance’ shown at the 1833 Sèvres exhibition and designs for the Duc d’Orléans (future King Louis-Philippe), such as a silver-gilt ewer made by M. Durant and shown at the 1834 Paris Exposition Universelle. Chenavard exhibited designs at the Paris Salons of 1827, 1831, 1833 and 1834, among them his Gothic-style designs, in collaboration with Achille Mascret, for the decoration of the chapel at the château of Eu, and his sketches for the restoration of the Théâtre Français and Opéra Comique in Paris. Material by Chenavard is preserved in the Musée National de Céramique at Sèvres and the ...


Fabio Benzi

(b Florence, Dec 2, 1873; d Florence, Aug 24, 1956).

Italian painter and potter. He began his artistic activity at a very early age, as a decorator and fresco painter. In 1894, as a pupil of the Italian painter Augusto Burchi (b 1853), he painted a ceiling and a frieze in the Palazzo Budini–Gattai in Florence; these frescoes are in a lively style combining naturalism with elements derived from Italian painting of the 16th century. In the following years Chini was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites and by Art Nouveau, for example in illustrations for the magazine Fiammetta in 1896–7, in Portrait of my Sister Pia (1897; priv. col., see 1987 exh. cat., p. 20) and in paintings enriched by Divisionist effects, such as Seashore in Versilia (1899; priv. col., see 1987 exh. cat., p. 21).

By the early 1900s Chini was working in a wholly Symbolist idiom, as in Self-portrait (1901; Pistoia, Cassa di Risparmio, see ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Flensburg, March 6, 1866; d Wiesbaden, Jan 5, 1945).

German designer. After an early career as an interior designer he turned to the design of tapestries (subsequently woven at the Scherbeker Kunstgewerbeschule), porcelain (table wares), drinking glasses (for the Theresienthaler Kristallglasfabrik) and silver cutlery. After 1914 he worked primarily as a painter and writer.

M. Zimmermann-Degen and H. Christiansen...


Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...


Valérie M. C. Bajou


(b Bordeaux, Aug 21, 1807; d Menton, Nov 18, 1876).

French painter. After the death of his Spanish parents he was taken in by a pastor living in Bellevue (nr Paris). In 1825 he started work as an apprentice colourist in Arsène Gillet’s porcelain factory, where he became friendly with Gillet’s nephew Jules Dupré and made the acquaintance of Auguste Raffet, Louis Cabat and Constant Troyon. At this time he executed his first oil paintings of flowers, still-lifes and landscapes. Around 1827 Diaz is thought to have taken lessons from the Lille artist François Souchon (1787–1857); perhaps more importantly, he copied works by Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and Correggio in the Louvre, Paris, and used their figures and subjects in such later paintings as Venus and Adonis and the Sleeping Nymph (both Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). He soon became the friend of Honoré Daumier, Théodore Rousseau and Paul Huet. Diaz’s pictures exhibited at the Salon from 1831 to 1844 derive from numerous sources, including mythology, as in ...


Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Nantes, April 5, 1811; d L’Isle-Adam, Val-d’Oise, Oct 6, 1889).

French painter. He began his career in Creil, Ile de France, as a decorator of porcelain in the factory of his father, François Dupré (b 1781), and later worked at the factory founded by his father in Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche, Limousin. It was in this region of central France that Dupré became enchanted by the beauty of nature. He went to Paris to study under the landscape painter Jean-Michel Diébolt (b 1779), who had been a pupil of Jean-Louis Demarne. Dupré began to see nature with a new awareness of its moods, preferring to paint alone and en plein air. He was fascinated by bad weather, changes of light and sunsets. Many of his paintings depict quiet woodland glades, often with a pond or stream (e.g. Plateau of Bellecroix, 1830; Cincinnati, OH, A. Mus.). In 1830–31 he associated with other young landscape painters, including Louis Cabat, Constant Troyon and Théodore Rousseau, and with them sought inspiration for his study of nature in the provinces, exhibiting the finished paintings at the annual Salons. In ...


Joellen Secondo

(b Brussels, Nov 28, 1854; d Helsinki, 1930).

Belgian painter and potter. He studied painting at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels from 1878 to 1880. He was a founder-member of XX, Les, a group of 20 avant-garde artists who held annual exhibitions of paintings and decorative arts between 1884 and 1895. Initially Finch painted land- and seascapes in the Impressionist style. In 1887—after Seurat and Camille Pissarro exhibited with Les XX—Finch adopted their divisionist painting technique. An early work in the Neo-Impressionist style, the Race Course at Ostende (1888; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), shows his unfamiliarity with this new technique. His subsequent proficiency is evident in the work English Coast at Dover (1891; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), which also makes use of a border constructed of divisionist dots, a device he borrowed from Seurat. Finch came to excel at rendering the atmospheric effect of the damp climate of the Channel coast—his main subject—through the use of widely spaced dots in related colour values. Finch served as a liaison between ...


Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Feb 15, 1802; d Annet-sur-Marne, June 27, 1868).

French painter and pastellist. The son of a porcelain-maker, he first learnt painting in the studio of a porcelain decorator. After a period as a theatre decorator and a dancer, he became a pupil of the animal painter Joseph François Pâris (1784–1871). He devoted himself to landscape painting and became one of the precursors of plein-air painting. Referring to himself as a ‘romantique-naturaliste’, he was a member of the new Naturalist school of landscape painting that emerged in the 1830s in opposition to the official classicism of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He was one of the first to paint sur le motif (from life) in the forest of Fontainebleau, and he also made frequent visits to Barbizon, joining that group of artists known as ‘le groupe de Marlotte’. His works consist largely of views of Normandy and the Paris environs; he concentrated on thatched cottages, farmyards, prairies, ponds and riverbanks. He made his début at the Salon in ...


(b Paris, June 17, 1820; d Paris, March 1, 1900).

French painter, designer and printmaker. He was a pupil of Jules Jollivet, Pierre Lecomte and Eugène-Ammanuel Amaury-Duval, for whom he also acted as executor. From 1857 to 1885 he worked mainly as a designer for the Sèvres manufactory. He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1842 to 1880; from 1864 he could exhibit his works at the Salon without having to undergo selection by the jury. Heavily influenced by the style of Ingres’s pupils, and especially Amaury-Duval, Froment painted a Virgin (1846; Autun, St Jean) that recalls the contemporary work of Ingres for the stained-glass windows in the chapel of St Ferdinand at Dreux. In the same year he painted St Peter Healing a Lame Man at the Door of the Temple in the church at Pégomas.

Froment’s genre scenes, with their pleasant, decorative symbolism, are often close to the works of Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jean-Louis Hamon, or his friend ...


Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.


Jon Whiteley

(b Saint-Loup, near Plouay, Côtes-du-Nord, May 5, 1821; d Saint-Raphaël, May 29, 1874).

French painter and designer. He was encouraged to practise drawing by the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine at Lannion. Through the intervention of Félicité-Robert de Lamennais (1782–1854), he was made drawing-master at a religious seminary at Ploërmel, Brittany, although at this stage he had received no instruction and had never seen an oil painting. In 1840 he asked his conseil général for help and left for Paris the following year with a grant of 500 francs. He went to Delaroche’s studio, where he made friends with Picou, Jean-Léon Gérôme, Jean Aubert (1824–1906) and Jean Eugène Damery (1823–53). Charles Gleyre, who took over Delaroche’s studio in 1843, encouraged and protected him during years of poverty. Daphnis and Chloe (untraced), his first Salon picture, exhibited in 1847, was painted in Gleyre’s studio.

In 1848, on Gleyre’s recommendation, Hamon was given a post as a designer to the ...


Norman Stretton

(b Badsey, Hereford & Worcs, bapt April 7, 1731; d Brislington, Avon, Oct 14, 1817).

English engraver and painter. He was apprenticed to George Anderton, an engraver, in Birmingham on 28 January 1745. In 1756 he joined the Worcester Porcelain Company of Dr John Wall (1708–76). He became a partner in the firm in March 1772. At Worcester, Hancock engraved copperplates for transfer-printing on porcelain. Many designs were adapted from contemporary engravings and paintings, particularly those of the French schools; such romantic scenes as Amusements champêtres and Fêtes vénitiennes were derived from compositions by Antoine Watteau. A series of children’s games, including Battledore and Shuttlecock, Blind Man’s Buff and Marbles, are based on a series of compositions engraved by Gravelot. Mugs with portraits of Frederick II, King of Prussia, dated 1757 (for illustration see Worcester), are based on an engraving by Richard Houston after a painting by Antoine Pesne and are among the best-known examples of Hancock’s work. The English schools also provided subjects for Hancock’s engravings. A half-length portrait of George III decorates Worcester mugs together with one of Queen Charlotte, both likenesses after engravings by ...


(b Stuttgart, Dec 2, 1795; d Munich, July 9, 1846).

German painter and printmaker. He was a pupil in Stuttgart of Johann Baptist Seele, whose stiff drawing style he at first adopted. After taking part in the Napoleonic Wars he moved to Munich in December 1815 to study landscape painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Wilhelm Alexander Wolfgang von Kobell. His first oil paintings were copies of hunting scenes after Franz Joachim Beich, whose works were in the royal collection at Schloss Schleissheim. He also copied pen drawings by Kobell and Johann Georg von Dillis. His first original oil paintings (e.g. Militia Picket at Schlettstadt, 1816; Stuttgart, Staatsgal.) depicted scenes from his own life as a soldier. Between 1818 and 1822 he painted many landscapes replete with genre-like details of the area around Munich and the Bayerisches Oberland, and these were widely disseminated as lithographs (e.g. Excursion on the Tegernsee, 1818; e.g. Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.). The composition tends to draw attention first to the active figures in the foreground and then to an open view of the countryside, a device recalling the works of Kobell. These early naturalistic scenes are characterized by an affinity for nature and by the depiction of people at work....


Patrick Conner

(b Burslem, Staffs, Oct 18, 1799; d London, Feb 12, 1870).

English painter. As a boy he was employed for seven years to paint flowers on pottery in the factory of John Davenport(fl 1793; d 1848) of Longport. In 1819 Holland moved to London, where he continued at first to work as a pottery painter but also undertook watercolours of flowers and natural history subjects, exhibiting his works at the Royal Academy from 1824. After 1828 oil paintings predominated over watercolours in the many pictures that he exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Society of Painters in Water-Colours (of which he was made an associate in 1835), the British Institution and the Society of British Artists. He travelled to Paris in 1831 and subsequently made repeated tours of the Continent. Buildings in European cities now became his favourite subject, and above all, scenes of Venice, which he first visited in 1835; his Venetian views have sometimes been confused with those by Richard Parkes Bonington. In ...