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Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Mikhail F. Kiselyov

(Vasil’yevich)

(b Valayka Station, Novgorod Province [now Lykoshino, Tver’ region], 1878; d en route from Germany to Paris, Feb 22, 1936).

Russian graphic artist, ceramicist, painter and designer. In 1896 he studied at the School of Drawing at the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts and in 1897 at Maria Tenisheva’s art school in St Petersburg, where he worked under Il’ya Repin until 1900. In 1904 he worked in the pottery studio at the Abramtsevo colony. At this period he employed Art Nouveau elements in his work, as in the majolica decorations for the Hotel Metropole, St Petersburg (early 1900s) and the majolica panel St George Triumphant for the Municipal Primary School on Bol’shaya Tsaritsynskaya [now Bol’shaya Pirogovskaya] Street in Moscow (1909). He took up book illustration in 1904 and his graphic talent flourished in the 1910s. His work for Apollon was particularly successful, his illustrations first appearing in its pages in 1911. Chekhonin soon became an original and skilful artist, using a sharp and elastic line interspersed with dots. From ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Horsham, 1829; d St John’s Wood, London, March 22, 1904).

English book illustrator and painter. He trained as a surgeon, but never practised, instead working as a writer and illustrator of books on natural history and as a painter of watercolour landscapes. In 1869 Coleman embarked on a new career when he joined Copeland’s (see Spode Ceramic Works) as a painter of china plaques. Later that year he moved to the Minton Ceramic Factory, attracted by the opportunity to work with their well-known turquoise colour. At Minton he designed table services, which were transfer-printed in colour with his scrupulously accurate depictions of flora (e.g. ‘The Naturalist’) and fauna (e.g. ‘Game Place’) and people (a series of dessert services with orientalized ladies). In 1871 he became head of the new Minton’s Art Pottery Studio in Kensington Gore; there he designed porcelain plaques, many of which depict flora, fauna and lighly-clad girls and women. He resigned as director in 1873...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

David Blayney Brown

(b London, Jan 31, 1769; d Oxford, Oct 5, 1847).

English painter, illustrator and designer. He studied for seven years under Philip Reinagle, one of whose daughters he later married, and entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1788. His ambitions were as a history painter in the manner of Reynolds. His Caractacus (untraced), which won a gold medal in 1790, was highly praised by Reynolds, then almost blind. In 1791 Howard went to Rome, where he became a close friend of John Flaxman whose Neo-classical figural style helped to form his own. In 1794, after three years study, he returned to England via Vienna and Dresden. Howard’s exhibiting career began at the Royal Academy in 1794, and from 1806 to 1844 he also showed at the British Institution. His portraits and especially his historical compositions based on classical and literary themes, relatively late manifestations of the traditions of Reynolds, Fuseli and Flaxman combined in a diluted form, proved extremely popular. He was made an ARA in ...

Article

Gitte Valentiner

(Andreas)

(b Oldenburg, Jan 25, 1846; d Copenhagen, July 28, 1906).

Danish painter, illustrator and ceramicist of German origin. He trained in Copenhagen at the Akademi, graduating in 1868. In his early years as an artist he was much in demand as a portrait painter: his skill is clear in examples such as Partikulier Kunze and his Son (1871; Copenhagen, Hirschsprungske Saml.). The subjects of this and later portraits are clearly marked by their environment, their way of life and their occupations. Jerndorff also painted historical portraits, such as the full-length figures of officers from the war of 1848–50 and the war of 1864: Claude du Pat (1855), General Bülow (1890), Colonel Lunding (1892) and General Rye (1895; all Hillerød, Frederiksborg Slot). Jerndorff’s biblical compositions are rather arid and academic, but his landscapes, such as Autumn on the Heath (1895; Randers, Kstmus.), seem fresh and spontaneous in treatment. Most of Jerndorff’s landscape paintings are small, intimate studies with careful rendering of flowers and plants. He was also an imaginative illustrator, notably for editions of Danish folk tales. He also produced ceramics, working together with the ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b ?N. England, ?1840–50; d 1894–7).

English illustrator and designer. He received architectural training under William Salmon of Glasgow. He began his career as a designer in the London studio of Christopher Dresser, where he executed countless designs for furniture, decorations, wallpapers, carpets, tapestries, metalwork and pottery, which according to Smith were passed off as the work of Dresser. Smith contributed some of the designs and lithographed the plates for Sketches of Artistic Furniture, the 1871 catalogue of the London furniture-makers Collinson & Lock. His first publication, Studies for Pictures: A Medley (London, 1868), is dedicated to Dresser. His next two books, Album of Decorative Figures and Ancient Greek Female Costume (both London, 1882), reveal his interest in figurative designs. His most scholarly work was a history of interiors, Ornamental Interiors, Ancient to Modern (London, 1888).

Smith’s penchant for drawing literary, allegorical and historical figures in historical costumes is evident in the themes of the books he chose to illustrate and in his designs for tiles. During the 1870s and 1880s he produced illustrations for Greek myths, fairy tales and the writings of Plutarch and Shakespeare. Smith was a prolific designer for ...