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Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(bapt Bromsgrove, Worcester, Jan 25, 1828; d St Martin’s, Worcester, Dec 12, 1870).

English porcelain painter and designer, was born near Kidderminster, Worcestershire, the son of a maker of spade handles. He was trained from 1846 as a glass painter at Richardson’s glassworks at Wordsley near Stourbridge. In 1853 he moved to Worcester to work as a painter for the Worcester Porcelain Factory, where he developed ‘Worcester enamel’, a tinted white enamel on a dark ground (often blue); the resemblance to 16th-century Limoges enamels led to his work being sold as ‘Limoges ware’....

Article

Claudine Stensgaard Nielsen

[Andersen, Hans]

(b Brændekilde, Fyn, April 7, 1857; d Jyllinge, March 30, 1942).

Danish painter, glass designer and ceramicist. He trained as a stonemason and then studied sculpture in Copenhagen at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi (1877–81), where he decided to become a painter. In 1884 he changed his name from Andersen to Brendekilde after his place of birth, as he was constantly being confused with his friend Laurits Andersen Ring, who moreover also took the name of his birthplace. In the 1880s Brendekilde and Ring painted together on Fyn and influenced each other’s work. Brendekilde’s art had its origin in the lives of people of humble means and in the country environment of previous centuries. He painted landscapes and genre pictures. He himself was the son of a woodman, and his paintings often contain social comment, as in Worn Out (1889; Odense, Fyn. Kstmus.), which shows the influence of both Jean-François Millet and Jules Bastien-Lepage. Brendekilde was a sensitive colourist, influenced by Impressionism, for example in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Flensburg, March 6, 1866; d Wiesbaden, Jan 5, 1945).

German designer. After an early career as an interior designer he turned to the design of tapestries (subsequently woven at the Scherbeker Kunstgewerbeschule), porcelain (table wares), drinking glasses (for the Theresienthaler Kristallglasfabrik) and silver cutlery. After 1914 he worked primarily as a painter and writer.

M. Zimmermann-Degen and H. Christiansen...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1848; d 1926).

French potter, glass-maker and sculptor. He was the son of a porcelain modeller at Sèvres, where Albert-Louis was eventually to have his own studio, where he became an exponent of the Pâte-sur-pâte technique of ceramic decoration. His early work is maiolica designed under Italian influence, but from the early 1880s he turned to stoneware designed under Japanese influence. He designed for other manufacturers, notably the ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Peckham Rye, London, Jan 29, 1845; d London, April 18, 1910).

English designer and writer. He was educated in France and Germany, but his interest in design was provided by visits to the South Kensington Museum, London (now the Victoria & Albert Museum). In 1865 he entered the office of Lavers & Barraud, glass painters and designers. Some time later he became keeper of cartoons at Clayton & Bell and by 1870 had joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, for whom he worked on the decoration of Eaton Hall, Ches. In late 1880 Day started his own business designing textiles, wallpapers, stained glass, embroidery, carpets, tiles, pottery, furniture, silver, jewellery and book covers. He designed tiles for Maw & Co. and Pilkington’s Tile and Pottery Co., stained glass and wallpaper for W. B. Simpson & Co., wallpapers for Jeffrey & Co. and textiles for Turnbull & Stockdale where he was made Art Director in 1881.

Day was a founder-member and Secretary of the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English ceramics factory in Denby, Derbys; the successor of Bourne, Joseph, & Son & Son. In the 19th century the company was a manufacturer of stoneware bottles, but in the late 19th century the competition from cheaper glass bottles forced the company to diversify. It chose in the first instance to concentrate on decorative and kitchen wares with richly coloured glazes. Its decorative and giftware products (vases, bowls, tobacco jars) were stamped ‘Danesby Ware’. In the 1930s the company introduced the bright ‘Electric Blue’ and the matt blue–brown ‘Orient ware’ giftware lines, and in the same period introduced kitchenware in ‘Cottage Blue’, ‘Manor Green’ and ‘Homestead Brown’, all of which continued in production till the early 1980s.

In the 1950s giftware production was reduced and Denby introduced new lines of tableware, especially dinner services. ‘Echo’ and ‘Ode’ were introduced in the early 1950s, followed by ‘Greenwheat’ (1956), ‘Studio’ (...

Article

Portuguese ceramics and glass factory. It was founded in Ílhavo, near Aveiro, in 1824 by José Ferreira Pinto Basto (1774–1839), and the licence obtained on 1 July 1824 permitted the manufacture of earthenware, porcelain and glass (see Portugal, Republic of, §VIII). Pinto Basto’s son Augusto Valério Ferreira Pinto Basto (1807–1902) was the first managing director and spent some time at the Sèvres porcelain factory, where he learnt the various processes and techniques involved in porcelain production from the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). In 1826 Pinto Basto was granted a 20-year monopoly for his enterprise. However, as only very small deposits of kaolin were available in the early stages, the factory produced creamware, stoneware and a few pieces of poor-quality porcelain. Two Neo-classical enamelled and gilded cups and saucers (1827; Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Ant.) have inscriptions indicating that they were fired in the first kiln of ware from this factory and were painted by ...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Elisabeth Lebovici

(Charles Martin)

(b Nancy, May 4, 1846; d Nancy, Sept 23, 1904).

French glassmaker, potter and cabinetmaker. He was the son of Charles Gallé-Reinemer, a manufacturer of ceramics and glass in Nancy, and as early as 1865 he started working for his father, designing floral decoration. From 1862 to 1866 he studied philosophy, botany and mineralogy in Weimar, and from 1866–7 he was employed by the Burgun, Schwerer & Cie glassworks in Meisenthal. On his return to Nancy he worked in his father’s workshops at Saint-Clément designing faience tableware. In 1871 he travelled to London to represent the family firm at the International Exhibition. During his stay he visited the decorative arts collections at the South Kensington Museum (later the Victoria and Albert Museum), familiarizing himself with Chinese, Japanese and Islamic styles. He was particularly impressed with the Islamic enamelled ware, which influenced his early work. In 1874, after his father’s retirement, he established his own small glass workshop in Nancy and assumed the management of the family business....

Article

Ferenc Batári

Hungarian ceramics manufactory. It evolved from a glassworks in the village of Hollóháza on the estate of Count Károlyi, in northern Hungary. Between 1860 and 1880 it was leased to Ferenc Istvánffy, who enlarged and modernized it and added stovemaking. The factory produced dinner-services, a series of ornamental plates inscribed with a line from the Lord’s Prayer and ornamental dishes and bottles, which were very popular. Typical Hollóháza motifs were the cornflower and rose. After 1880 wares were decorated with new designs, which were influenced by the Zsolnay Ceramics Factory and consisted of late Renaissance and traditional Turkish motifs. The factory was very successful at the Millennial Exhibition of 1896 in Budapest and at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris. In 1915 the factory was merged with the stoneware factory of Emil Fischer in Budapest, and Fischer became the artistic and commercial director of the works. From 1918 until ...

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...

Article

Laveno  

Gordon Campbell

Italian centre of ceramics production. In 1856 a glassworks was founded in Laveno, on the shore of Lake Maggiore, in northern Italy. It was quickly converted into a ceramics factory by three potters from the Richard Pottery in Milan. Soon there were four production sites, of which three (Lago, Ponte and Verbano) became the Società Ceramica Italiana (1893), which later became Richard Ginori and finally Pozzi Ginori; the fourth site, Reville, became an independent factory. The Lego and Reville factories have now closed, and Verbano has become a workers’ cooperative, but in the 1990s the Ponte factory was revived by concentrating its production on bone china. The local pottery museum (est. 1893) has a comprehensive collection of Laveno pottery, ranging from its early Art Nouveau wares to its more recent bathroom porcelain.

G. Musumeci: Laveno e le sue ceramiche: Oltre un secolo di storia (Laveno Mombello, 1994)...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of ornamentation produced by impressing upon porcelain-glass in a soft state figures which are made visible by transmitted light. When back-lit, a three-dimensional picture appears, Lithophanes were made at the Berlin Porcelain Factory (from 1827) and at Meissen Porcelain Factory (from 1828), and later in Gotha and Plaue; in England they were made at Minton Ceramic Factory, Copeland and Worcester. They were immensely popular in 19th-century Europe, where they were used as candle shields and fire screens, and as ornaments to be hung in windows. The Blair Museum of Lithophanes, in the Botanical Garden in Toledo, OH, holds more than 2300 lithophanes....

Article

Term used for a manifestation of the Neo-classical style initiated in the decorative arts of France during the Second Empire (1852–71) of Napoleon III and his wife, the Empress Eugénie. Based on the standard repertory of Greco-Roman ornament, it combined elements from the Adam, Louis XVI and Egyptian styles with a range of motifs inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, where excavations had begun in 1848; it can be identified by the frequent use of Classical heads and figures, masks, winged griffins, sea-serpents, urns, medallions, arabesques, lotus buds and borders of anthemion, guilloche and Greek fret pattern. Néo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted, polychromatic and sometimes bizarre; it enjoyed popularity as one of the many revival styles of the second half of the 19th century.

In Paris, the Néo-Grec style was best exemplified in the famous ‘Maison Pompéienne’ (1856–8; destr. 1891) designed for Prince Napoléon Bonaparte (see...

Article

English ceramic manufactory. In 1892 the Pilkington family, which had been making window glass since 1826, founded Pilkington’s Royal Lancastrian Pottery and Tile Company in Clifton, near Manchester. It was managed by William Burton (formerly of Wedgwood) and his brother Joseph. Initially the factory made architectural tiles, but in 1897...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[from Fr. potiche: ‘glass vase’]

The mid-19th-century fashion for imitating Japanese or other porcelain by covering the inner surface of glass vessels with designs on paper or sheet gelatine. Those who adopted the craze were called potichomanists.

A Handbook to Potishomachia, or the Art of Ornamenting and Decorating Glass, Giving to it the Appearance of Porcelain...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1827; d 1891).

French glassmaker and ceramicist . He was an early advocate of Japonisme, commissioning Bracquemond family, §1 ’s ‘Japanese’ service (1866) and from 1867 running a studio in Paris, where he imitated Chinese carved jade in glass and applied the decorative techniques of Japanese pottery to glass.

K. Schneck: François Eugene Rousseau: Keramik und Glas an der Schwelle zum Jugendstil...

Article

Bruce Tattersall

German ceramics and glass manufacturers. In 1748 François Boch (1695–1754) founded a small factory for the production of faience fine (a lead-glazed earthenware) at Audun-le-Tiche in the Meurthe-et-Moselle region of France, near Luxembourg. In 1766 a second factory was opened at Septfontaines in Luxembourg, and more diversified wares were produced. In the early 19th century Boch’s son Jean-François Boch (1735–1817) visited England to study ceramic techniques, which led to the introduction of transfer-printing at the factory. In 1809 Boch founded a factory for the production of creamware at the monastery of Mettlach. In 1787 another earthenware factory had been started at Vaudrevanges-Wallerfangen, Luxembourg, by Nicolas Villeroy (1759–1843). Under the direction of the Englishman John Leigh this also produced faience fine decorated with enamelled and transfer-printed flowers and views. Pierced wares and Neo-classical vases, influenced by wares from the Leeds factory, were also made. In ...