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Philip Attwood

(b Amsterdam, 1608; d Amsterdam, 1684).

Dutch medallist. One of the foremost Dutch medallists of the 17th century, he was influential in developing a style that was more sculptural than before. Most of his medals consist of two silver plates of repoussé work, chased and joined together at the rim to create a hollow medal. This novel technique allowed the artist to create portraits in very high relief. His medals date from 1650 to 1678. One of the earliest, portrays on one side Prince Frederick Henry of Orange and on the other Prince Maurice of Orange. More usually, the reverses of his medals bear a coat of arms, as for example the medal commemorating the settlement of the disputes between William II of Orange and the States of Holland (1650). Here the reverse bears William’s armorial shield, a crown, and the English garter. The ground of the obverse is covered with orange branches in the manner typical of van Abeele and demonstrates his mastery of chasing. On his medal of ...



Rudolf Preimesberger

(b Bologna, July 31, 1598; d Rome, June 10, 1654).

Italian sculptor, architect and draughtsman. He was, with Gianlorenzo Bernini, the most important sculptor active in Rome in the middle years of the 17th century. After the early death of François Duquesnoy in 1643, Algardi’s work came to represent the classicizing stylistic antithesis to the High Baroque sculpture of Bernini, and the two artists were perceived by their contemporaries as equals and rivals. During Algardi’s first years in Rome, Bernini was the principal sculptor in demand at the court of Urban VIII, and Algardi had to be content with relatively modest commissions given to him by patrons with connections to his native Bologna. It was only during the papacy of Innocent X (1644–55) that he came to true artistic prominence, revealing himself to be one of his century’s greatest relief and portrait sculptors. At a time when few sculptors drew with any skill, Algardi was an accomplished draughtsman, making drawings for his sculptural projects and also original works for engravers. In addition he worked as an architect, though the exact extent of his involvement with the design of many of the buildings with which his name has been associated is unclear....


Simon Lee and Guilhem Scherf

French family of artists. (1) Etienne Allegrain was a landscape painter who worked predominantly in the tradition of classical scenes established in the mid-17th century by Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain. His brother Jean-Baptiste Allegrain (1644–before 1714) was a sculptor, while his son Gabriel Allegrain (i) (1679–1748) was also a landscape painter, whose works (e.g. Landscape with Apollo and the Sibyl, Tours, Mus. B.-A.) can be distinguished from those of his father only with difficulty. Gabriel’s son (2) Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain was a sculptor who was much influenced by his more illustrious contemporary and brother-in-law Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. Christophe-Gabriel’s own son Gabriel Allegrain (ii) (1733–after 1779) was a sculptor who worked in the naval dockyard at Rochefort.

Simon Lee

(b Paris, 1644; d Paris, April 2, 1736).

Painter and draughtsman. He was possibly the pupil of Henri Mauperché and in 1676 was admitted (...


Torbjörn Fulton

(b Germany, fl 1620–56; d Mecklenburg).

German stuccoist and sculptor. His few surviving works provide fine examples from a period that is sparsely represented in the history of stucco decoration in parts of middle and northern Europe. Anckerman’s first known work is in Mecklenburg, where he decorated the ceilings in the castles of Dargun (destr.) and Güstrow. In the latter a vast expanse of his relief panels (1620) survives, although some of them are 20th-century free reconstructions. His other identified works are in Sweden, where he worked for several patrons, including Queen Christina. In the 1640s he decorated the funerary chapel of General Herman Wrangel (d 1645) in Skokloster (Uppland) parish church. In this tower-like chapel he provided three stucco wall reliefs: the Battle of Gorzno (1629) (depicting the battle in which the Swedes defeated the Poles), a family tree and a decorative landscape. The Gothic vault is decorated with leaves, entwined along the ribs, a central floral motif and four figures of angels, sculpted in such high relief as to seem almost in the round. In addition there are two life-size figures representing General Wrangel, one reposing on the tomb, the other an equestrian monument set against a wall. None of the stucco is painted or gilded, and the effect of so much decoration in a small room is somewhat overcrowded; however, it succeeds in communicating the patron’s martial pride. Although there is no documentation to support identification of Anckerman as the sculptor of these works, the stylistic similarity to the documented ones in Strängnäs Cathedral strongly suggests such an attribution....


Věra Naňková



Camillo Semenzato



Johannes Ramharter

(b Weilheim, Bavaria, c. 1580; d Munich, June 6, 1633).

German ivory-carver and sculptor. He was the first in a line of 17th-century south German ivory-carvers who served the taste of princely and aristocratic patrons for small-scale carvings for their Kunstkammern. Angermair worked mainly at the Munich court of Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria; his works reveal a high degree of virtuosity, and minute details are worked with a precision reminiscent of goldsmith’s work. As his style developed, the modelling became softer, but there was always a certain stiffness in his compositions.

Angermair was the son of a Swabian goldsmith, and he was first apprenticed to the Weilheim sculptor Hans Degler, through whom he would have had close contact with the Munich court sculptors Hans Reichle, Hubert Gerhard and Hans Krumper. His first recorded work was a Christ Child (untraced) in ivory, carved in 1606 for the Innsbruck court of Anna Caterina Gonzaga (1566–1621), the widow of Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol. It has been conjectured that Angermair might have worked in ...


Thomas F. Hedin


French family of sculptors. Honoré Anguier (b Eu, fl c. 1570–80; d Eu, 1648) was a carpenter, wood-carver and small-scale entrepreneur in Eu, Normandy. Local church archives document his work on doors, frames, balustrades and retables. His eldest son, (1) François Anguier, became noted for his funerary sculpture but also contributed to decorative schemes for ecclesiastic and secular buildings. His younger son, (2) Michel Anguier, worked in Rome before returning to Paris where he enjoyed royal and aristocratic patronage and became a distinguished teacher and lecturer at the Académie Royale. Both François and Michel introduced a new Roman influence, helping to form the classical style in France. A third brother, Guillaume Anguier (1628–1708), was a successful decorative painter, working at various royal residences; one of his daughters married the sculptor Domenico Cucci. Catherine Anguier, sister of François, Michel and Guillaume, was the mother of the sculptor ...





Juan Nicolau

[Arche, Jozef de]

(b ?Flanders; d Seville, 1666).

Flemish sculptor, active in Spain. He arrived in Seville sometime before 1637, having had experience of both the Flemish and the Italian Baroque traditions. He introduced important changes to Andalusian sculpture, which departed from the naturalism characteristic of early national Baroque to convey figures in movement, clothed in flowing robes, with wind-blown hair. Arce’s work in Seville led to a movement away from the imitative style of the pupils of Juan Martínez Montañés.

In 1637 Arce received an important commission for the principal altarpiece of the Carthusian monastery of Jerez de la Frontera, a retable composed of sculpture and paintings (1638–9) by Francisco de Zurbarán. The completed scheme must have been one of the most beautiful in 17th-century Spain. It was dismantled in the 19th century, when the paintings were dispersed to various museums and the large, richly polychromed figures by Arce, including the fine Twelve Apostles, were retained in the monastery....


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cunq, Tarn, 1655; d Toulouse, Oct 26, 1739).

French sculptor. He trained in Toulouse, where he received his first official commission in 1677. This was for 30 terracotta busts representing famous men of Toulouse, together with a bust of Louis XIV for the Galerie des Illustres of the Capitole (Hôtel de Ville; 21 still in situ). From 1678 to 1688 Arcis was employed by the Bâtiments du Roi, collaborating on the sculptural decorations for the château of Versailles. These included a stone statue personifying Reason of State on the south wing, as well as a marble vase and term figure of Flora for the gardens (all in situ). In 1684 he was received (reçu) by the Académie Royale on presentation of a marble low relief of St Mark (Versailles, Notre-Dame). The following year the city of Toulouse commissioned a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV, raised on a high base with four low reliefs and four seated statues of slaves; this did not progress beyond a terracotta model (Toulouse, Mus. Augustins). In ...


Thomas Martin

(b Padua, c. 1559; d Pisa, between 27 July and Nov 3, 1606).

Italian sculptor . After Girolamo Campagna, he was the leading sculptor in Venice at the end of the 16th century and was particularly gifted in working bronze.

Aspetti came from an artistic family: his grandfather Guido Minio (fl 1511–16), called Lazzaro, was a founder, while his uncle Tiziano Minio was a stuccoist and sculptor. Aspetti probably received his earliest training in the family workshop and may also have collaborated with Campagna. Doubtless through family connections, in 1577 in Venice Aspetti entered the service of Giovanni Grimani, Patriarch of Aquileia. Grimani was a distinguished patron of contemporary art, and his palazzo housed the finest and most extensive collection of antiquities outside Rome. Aspetti worked for the Patriarch for 16 years and hence, unlike any other Venetian artist of his day, began his career as a kind of court artist serving one particular patron. The Grimani were partisans of central Italian Mannerist art, and the family palazzo at S Maria Formosa in Venice contained stuccos and frescoes by Giovanni da Udine, Federico Zuccaro and Francesco Salviati. Because of its collection of antiquities, the palazzo was one of the principal sights for any 16th-century tourist; Aspetti was the house sculptor and restorer of the collection (a project in ...


Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff


(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...


Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Mechelen, Flanders, c. 1585–90; d ?Madrid, c. 1650).

Spanish engraver and medallist of Flemish birth. From the beginning of the 17th century until 1609 he lived in Toledo, where, under the supervision of El Greco, he worked as an engraver and printed (1605–6) such works of his master as SS Peter and Paul (1603–7; Stockholm, Nmus.) and St Francis and Brother Leo (c. 1600–05; Ottawa, N.G.). Other engravings from this period include frontispieces for Historia de … Nuestra Señora de Valvanera (Ávila, 1607) by Francisco de Ariz and the Index librorum prohibitorum (Madrid, 1612) by Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, the Archbishop of Toledo. From 1609 to 1636 he was engraver at the Casa de Moneda in Segovia, where he created designs for currency and made the printing plates. He also executed engravings for Obras espirituales (Alcalá de Henares, 1618) by St John of the Cross and the frontispiece for Historia … de Segovia...


A. Gerhardt

(b Heimingberg-Hopperg, Tyrol, 1645; d Grins, Tyrol, May 7, 1706).

Austrian sculptor. From 1666 to 1671 he was an apprentice in the workshop of Michael Lechleitner (c. 1611–69), whose daughter he married. From 1671 to 1673 he probably worked in Otztal, Tyrol: the high altar in the church at Zwieselstein may be an early work of his. In 1673 he took over Lechleitner’s workshop. The first certain work by Auer is an ivory relief of the Fall of Man (signed and dated 1677; Weimar, Schlossmus.). The almost transparent relief ground, the smooth, soft full figures and the highly detailed, naturalistic delineation of the accessories are typical of Auer’s small sculptural work. The ceremonial goblet of rhinoceros horn carved with mythological scenes (signed i.a., c. 1680–90; Munich, Residenz) is probably also by Auer, as the small, lively figures are common in his work.

It is not easy to trace a stylistic development in Auer’s art; thus, lacking documentation, it is not possible to establish the chronology of his small sculptural work, his work for the royal art collection or his devotional images. He may have travelled to Vienna ...


J. J. Martín González

(b Valladolid; d 1739).

Spanish sculptor . He was the son of the sculptor Juan de Ávila (fl 1678–c. 1700) and a collaborator of Juan Antonio de la Peña (fl 1674–96), whose daughter he married in 1700. In his early works, such as Pietà (Valladolid, Colegio de los Ingleses), the folds are smoothly carved, like those of his father, but he subsequently developed towards a more Baroque style of great masses and sharply cut folds. In 1720 he undertook to make five sculptures for S Felipe Neri, Valladolid: in the Immaculate Conception the folds spread out from the centre of the figure; the contemplative Mary Magdalene continues the tradition of the 17th-century ascetic type. His St Michael (Palencia, Castil de Vela) is a heroic and courtly figure.

Ávila carved a series of statues for the high altar (the architecture of the retable probably being by Alonso de Manzano) of the parish church of Fuentes de Valdepero, Palencia (...


(b Cefalù, Sicily, c. 1572; d Naples, Dec 12, 1645).

Sicilian painter and sculptor. He was probably trained in Sicily, yet he is recorded in Naples from 1594, and his artistic roots are Neapolitan. The painting of the Presentation in the Temple (1599; Naples, S Maria la Nova) is his earliest datable work. It demonstrates that Azzolino was already aware of trends in late 16th-century Neapolitan painting and that he knew the art of Belisario Corenzio, Fabrizio Santafede and Luigi Rodriguez (fl 1594–1606). He took his lead at first from Corenzio and was, like him, an expert fresco painter. In 1599 Azzolino was commissioned to execute the decoration (untraced) for the church of the Spirito Santo, Naples. In the canvases and frescoes that he painted between 1606 and 1610 for the church of Gesù e Maria, Naples, and in the earlier Pentecost for the church of S Francesco at Caiazzo (in situ; his only signed work) it is possible to discern the influences of both Corenzio and Santafede. An awareness of the new clarity and naturalism of the Florentine reformers Lodovico Cigoli, Agostino Ciampelli and Domenico Passignano had spread in Naples through Santafede, whose role in the development of Azzolino’s style was fundamental. Both artists subsequently remained faithful to the devotional art of the Counter-Reformation, although they later demonstrated an awareness of the innovative work of Caravaggio. Azzolino countered both the excessive intellectual subtleties of Mannerism and the experimental naturalism of Caravaggio with serene and familiar renderings of sacred stories such as the ...