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Norihisa Mizuta

[Ippō; Shiin; San’unsuigetsu Shujin; Ryūkōkaku; Gyokujundō; Seishūken]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1665; d Edo, 1737).

Japanese seal-carver and calligrapher. The Ikenaga were a powerful provincial family in Odawara, Sagami Province (now Kanagawa Prefect.). In 1593 they moved to Edo, where they ran a pharmacy as well as being the head family of their residential district. Dōun was adopted into the Ikenaga family and became its fifth-generation head. He enjoyed learning from an early age and studied with Sakakibara Kōshū (1655–1706); his close friends included such seal-carvers as Hosoi Kōtaku (also a distinguished calligrapher) and Imai Junsai (1658–1718). His seal album Ittō banshō (‘One blade, a myriad images’; 1713; Japan, N. Mizuta priv. col.; see Japan, §XVII, 20) was the forerunner of artistic seal albums in Japan. It is in four volumes, the first two showing 328 seals carved in different styles, based on the Senjimon (the ‘Thousand-character’ Chinese classic); the third is a collection of the impressions of 170 private seals in Dōun’s own collection. Prefaces from major scholars and Koreans and Chinese resident in Japan, as well as Dōun’s own prefatory remarks, are bound together in another volume. Only 100 copies of the ...



Donald F. McCallum

(b Mino Province [now Gifu Prefecture], 1632; d 1695).

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist itinerant monk (hijiri). He was active during the early Edo period (1600–1868). He entered the priesthood of the Tendai sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) at an early age, this being one of the few means of advancement within feudal society for individuals of the lower classes. Enkū began sculpting images in the early 1660s for both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in his home province. In the later 1660s he made an important missionary expedition to the Tōhoku region of Honshu and to the northern island of Hokkaido, which had only recently come under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, introducing Buddhism and Buddhist imagery to that still remote island. Thereafter he travelled extensively, carving icons for rural temples and wayside shrines in Honshu, especially in the Kantō and Chūbu regions. He also carved images on living trees on mountain-tops. For more than 300 years his works were little known outside their localities; to local people they were objects of worship, imbued with magical powers to heal and protect....


Bent Nielsen

[ Chang Feng ; zi Dafeng ; hao Shangyuan Laoren , Shengzhou Daoshi ]

(b Shangyuan, Shengzhou (now Nanjing, Jiangsu Province); fl c. 1645–62).

Chinese painter, poet, seal-carver and government official . Like many of his literati colleagues, he remained loyal to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) after it had been overthrown by the Manchus and withdrew from office to live as a Buddhist recluse. He led a life of relative poverty, occasionally enjoying the patronage of the nobility, which allowed him to pursue a variety of scholarly activities. In his paintings he concentrated on landscapes ( see fig. ), flowers and figures. A contemporary of the Eight Masters of Nanjing ( see Nanjing school ), Zhang remained an independent artist in the cultured milieu of the south. Initially, he was influenced by the painters of the Yuan period (1279–1368), notably Huang Gongwang and Ni Zan, and emulated their subjective expressionism and daring brushwork, as for example in Figure between Rocks and a Twisted Tree (1648; Hong Kong, Chin. U.). Around ...


Stephen Addiss

(b Kyoto, 1658; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1735).

Japanese calligrapher and seal-carver. He was probably the most important Japanese master of Karayō (Chinese-style) calligraphy in the early 18th century. The son of a physician from Totomi Province (now in Shizuoka Prefect.), Kōtaku went to Edo as a youth to receive a Confucian education. He studied the Chinese classics with Sakai Zenken (d 1703) and also learnt a number of cultivated arts and skills such as poetry, painting, seal-carving, mathematics, astronomy and munitions. He also studied Karayō calligraphy with Kitajima Setsuzan (1636–97), who popularized in Japan the styles of Chinese calligraphers such as Wen Zhengming (see Wen family, §1) of the Yuan (1279–1368) and Ming (1368–1644) periods. Immigrant Ōbaku (Chin. Huangbo) Zen monks had brought this literati style, which became admired and practised partly because of the Tokugawa government’s strong support for Chinese scholarly and cultural attainments (see...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Li Liu-fang; zi Maozai, Changheng; hao Tanyuan, Xianghai, Paoan, Shenyu Jushi]

(b She xian, Anhui Province, 1575; d 1629).

Chinese painter and poet. His family moved to Jiading, now part of Shanghai, where he spent most of his life. Li received his juren degree in 1606 and twice attempted the higher examinations, failing the first and arriving late for the second, which disqualified him. Having the means, he chose to abandon pursuit of a government career to lead a cultured life of leisure. He built a house and garden in Nanxiang, near Jiading, called Tan yuan (Sandalwood Garden) after the sandalwood trees that grew there, using the garden’s name thereafter as one of his hao names. He is classed, along with Tang Shisheng (1551–1636), Lou Jian (d 1631) and Cheng Jiasu (1565–1644), as one of the Four Gentlemen of Jiading. All were well-known poets, and Li and Cheng were painters. Li is not known as a calligrapher, although he had an adequately trained hand in a style based on that of Su Shi. In seal-carving, contemporaries praised him as the rival of He Shen (...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Xin yue; Shōun]

(b Puyang, nr Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov., 1639; d Mito, Ibaragi Prefect., 1695).

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In 1681 the daimyo of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628–1700), hearing of this situation, invited Shin’etsu to his fiefdom, where in 1692 he became founding abbot of Mitsukuni’s temple, Jushōzan Gionji (formerly Tentokuji) in Mito, later the place of his burial. Shin’etsu’s school of Buddhism is known as the Jushō or Shin’etsu school of Sōtō Zen.

Shin’etsu is best known as an artist and true literatus. Together with Dokuryū Shōeki...


Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Duli Xingyi; Dai Mangong; Tianwai yi xianren]

(b Hangzhou Prefect., Zhejiang Prov., 1596; d Nagasaki, 1672).

Chinese Ōbaku Zen monk, calligrapher, poet, seal-carver and medical expert, active in Japan. Dokuryū was one of many learned men from south-east China to emigrate to Japan during the political turmoil following the collapse of the Ming dynasty in 1644. He arrived in Nagasaki in 1653 accomplished in several disciplines and quickly became a major force in the development of these arts and skills in Japan. Together with Tōkō Shin’etsu, Dokuryū is revered for having introduced techniques and practices of late Ming literati seal-carving to Japan. On his arrival there, Dokuryū became an itinerant scholar and medical specialist, establishing ties with émigré Chinese abbots and Japanese political figures. When the distinguished Chinese prelate Yinyuan Longqi (known in Japan as Ingen Ryūki) arrived in 1654, Dokuryū was ordained as his disciple and received the Buddhist names Dokuryū and Shōeki.

He was Ingen’s scribe from 1655 until 1658, when he took up residence at the Rinzai Zen monastery Heirinji (Saitama Prefect.) under the patronage of the shogunal minister ...