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Věra Naňková




Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff


(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...


Robert H. Westin and Alessandra Anselmi

Italian family of artists. They originated in Carrara, the well-known source of the best Italian marble. Jacopo Baratta, a mason at Monte Marcello, near Sarzana, was the father of (1) Francesco Baratta, (2) Giovanni Maria Baratta, Isidoro Baratta and Andrea Baratta (fl 1650s). Francesco was a sculptor and follower of Gianlorenzo Bernini, and Giovanni Maria a mason and architect who worked with Alessandro Algardi. The less gifted Andrea collaborated with his brothers in the sculptural decoration of S Nicola da Tolentino, Rome, where he carved two reliefs of Charity and Religion. Little is known of Isidoro, but his three sons Pietro Baratta (1668–1729), (3) Giovanni di Isidoro Baratta and Francesco Baratta (d 1731) were sculptors, Giovanni di Isidoro attracting royal patronage from various European monarchs. Pietro was active in Venice; his most famous work is the elaborate Brandolin monument (1708) in the church of Cison di Valmarino. He travelled to Rome in ...



Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...


O. Lohr

(b Dresden, Dec 10, 1625; d Dresden, Nov 12, 1672).

German sculptor, ivory-carver and ?master builder . He probably started his training with his father, the sculptor Hieronymus Barthel (fl 1625; d c. 1640), and completed his apprenticeship (c. 1640–45) with Johann Boehme (d 1667). There are records of various journeys he made to Augsburg, Ulm, Venice and Rome. He lived in Venice for 17 years, during which time he made sculptures for the tomb of Doge Giovanni Pesaro (d 1659) (1669; Venice, S Maria Gloriosa dei Frari), based on a design by Baldassare Longhena, a statue of St John the Baptist (Venice, Chiesa degli Scalzi), a Crucifix (Venice, S Bartolomeo) and a mourning female figure for the tomb of the painter Melchiore Lanza (Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo). From Venice, Barthel returned to Dresden, where he was appointed court sculptor in 1670. No large works are known from his time in Dresden. His works in ivory include copies (large col., Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) of groups from Classical antiquity. No evidence of his work as a master builder has survived....


Lucie Galactéros-de Boissier

(b ?Paris, 1614; d Lyon, June 21, 1689).

French painter, draughtsman, architect, sculptor and printmaker. He trained in Paris, where he came into contact with Jacques Sarazin, who advised him to study painting rather than sculpture. He probably studied (c. 1637–45) with Simon Vouet, becoming familiar with perspective, the Mannerism of the School of Fontainebleau and the Baroque, then newly introduced to Paris. Around 1645 he arrived in Rome; during his stay there (which ended in 1653) he worked with artists who were members of Nicolas Poussin’s circle and frequented the studios of Andrea Sacchi, Pietro da Cortona and Gianlorenzo Bernini (who thought highly of him). He executed paintings for Niccolo Guido di Bagno (1584–1663). His engravings of antique tombs and his prospettive were much admired. In 1654 he created a mausoleum for René de Voyer d’Argenson, Ambassador of France in Venice, in S Giobbe, Venice.

In 1655 Blanchet returned to Lyon, having been summoned to carry out the decoration, both painted and sculpted, of the Hôtel de Ville. In ...


Christine Debrie

(b Amiens, May 8, 1600; d Amiens, March 2, 1659).

French sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Philippe Blasset (b 1565/70; d 1624). He became a master sculptor in 1625 and was appointed Architecte et Sculpteur Ordinaire du Roi in 1637. As well as an architect, he was a mason. He became famous when, as a result of losing a lawsuit, he was obliged to execute a statue of a Weeping Angel (marble, 1636; Amiens, Cathedral) for the funerary monument of Canon Lucas. Blasset’s altars, retables and statues of the Virgin, such as Notre-Dame de Bon Secours (marble, c. 1632) and the Assumption (marble, 1637; both Amiens, Cathedral), manifest the spirit of the Counter-Reformation. His favourite theme, childhood, is treated with astonishing mastery and unusual sensitivity, as in the funerary monument of his eight-year-old son Jean-Baptiste Blasset (polychromed stone, c. 1647–8; Amiens, Mus. Picardie). His funerary sculpture also displays his readiness for innovation. He was among the first in France to introduce the allegory of death, in the tomb of ...


Cynthia Lawrence


(b Mechelen, c. 1650; d Mechelen, 1734).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he absorbed the influence of Rubens. Boeckstuyns became a master in the Mechelen Guild of St Luke in 1680 but may have continued to collaborate with Faydherbe. Among his commissions for Mechelen churches are three wooden confessionals with allegorical figures (1690) and the wooden gable (1712) for Faydherbe’s earlier high altar for the basilica of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Hanswijk and numerous works for the Begijnhof Church, including the north interior portal (c. 1700), the communion rails (1710) and the wooden confessionals (also attributed to Faydherbe). In 1690 he collaborated with the Mechelen sculptors Frans Langhemans and Adam Frans van der Meulen on the wooden high altar of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-over-de-Dyle. Boeckstuyns was perhaps responsible for the wooden pulpit in St Rombouts (also attributed to Michiel van der Voort I) as well as the wooden tabernacle for the altar of the Holy Sacrament (...


Camillo Semenzato

(b Belluno, July 20, 1662; d Belluno, Oct 25, 1732).

Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He worked almost exclusively in wood. His first teacher was his father, Jacopo Brustolon (d 1709), also a sculptor, and he then trained with the painter Agostino Ridolfi (1646–1727). In 1677 Andrea was sent to Venice to the workshop of Filippo Parodi, to whose elegance, dynamism and technical virtuosity he was always indebted, although he soon established his own style. Brustolon came from an alpine area that had a long tradition of craftsmanship in wood. His achievement was to transpose techniques that had been associated with everyday craftsmanship on to the highest artistic level.

Brustolon went to Rome, probably in 1679. In 1685 he signed a contract for the execution of the altar of the Souls in S Floriano at Pieve di Zoldo, which suggests that he was already settled in Belluno even while maintaining contacts with Venice. In 1695 he presented a model of a door (unexecuted) for the chapel of the Tesoro at the Santo in Padua, a chapel that had been designed by ...


Adam White

(b Gloucester, bapt June 1, 1624; d ?1690).

English sculptor and architect. Byrd served an eight-year apprenticeship to Walter Nicholls, a mason of Gloucester. About the year 1647 he moved to Oxford, where he discovered a process for painting and staining marble (1658) and made the ornamental centrepiece for the fountain in the Great (‘Tom’) Quadrangle at Christ Church (1670; removed 1695; destr.). He claimed to have worked on ‘several noble buildings’ in different counties but most of those with which he can be specifically associated are in Oxford. By 1656 he had been appointed mason at Wadham College, and from 1666 to 1669 he supplied the ornamental carving for Wren’s Sheldonian Theatre, including the 14 ‘Emperors’ heads’ which adorn the screen on the street front (now recut). He stated that he built the chapel of St Edmund Hall (1680–85/6), and he also designed and partly built the Garden Quadrangle at New College (...


Anthea Brook

(b Rome, Oct 24, 1556; bur Florence, March 17, 1613).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was the pupil and assistant of Giovanni Antonio Dosio and probably moved with his master from Rome in November 1575 to Florence, where he spent the rest of his life. From Dosio he learnt the techniques of marble-carving, stucco and antique restoration and the principles of architecture, benefiting from Dosio’s intense interest in Greek and Roman antiquity. He is recorded as spending much of his early career engaged in the restoration of antique statuary for the Medici (an archival notice of August 1578 also connects him with the Giambologna workshop in this respect), although he also produced significant original work during this time. He had his own workshop by the early 1590s, and his predominance as a sculptor in marble in Florence was assured when his principal rival in this medium, Pietro Francavilla, began to transfer his activities to Paris in 1601 (where he settled in ...


Guilhem Scherf and Jean-Dominique Augarde

[Caffieri; Caffier]

French family of artists of Italian descent. (1) Philippe Caffiéri (i), the son of Daniele Caffiéri (1603–39), chief engineer to Pope Urban VIII, left Rome for Paris in 1660. His virtuosity of craftsmanship and mastery of detail were characteristics that were shared by other members of the family, as was employment as a sculptor in the naval yards. Philippe was associated with Le Havre while his eldest son, François-Charles Caffiéri (1667–1729), François-Charles’s own son, Charles-Philippe Caffiéri (b 1695), and grandson, Charles-Marie Caffiéri (b 1736), all worked as sculptors in the naval yards of Le Havre and Brest. (2) Jacques Caffiéri, another of Philippe’s sons, was one of the most celebrated bronzeworkers in the reign of Louis XV. Jacques’s eldest son, (3) Philippe Caffiéri (ii), was also a bronze-caster and chaser and had a large private clientele in France that included the Marquise de Pompadour, the Prince de Condé and Mme du Barry. Jacques’s younger son, ...


Suzanne Stratton

(bapt Granada, March 19, 1601; d Granada, Sept 3, 1667).

Spanish painter, sculptor and architect. He was an artist of rare versatility in 17th-century Spain, although his architectural work was not extensive. While he is also known for his drawings, only about 60 of these are definitely attributable to him, despite the many extant sketches with the name ‘Cano’ carelessly added by later hands. Unlike most of his Spanish contemporaries, such as Zurbarán or Velázquez, whose artistic styles did not outlive them, Cano’s artistic legacy is measured in part by the number of artists who trained in his workshop and went on to become important masters in their own right: the painters Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra, Juan de Sevilla (1643–95) and, more distantly, José Risueño, and the sculptors Pedro de Mena and José de Mora, who began by following Cano’s models and then continued to produce polychrome sculpture in a distinctive style typical of Granada.

Cano’s father, Miguel Cano (...


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Albacete, c. 1590; d Madrid, Aug 31, 1660).

Spanish architect and sculptor. The son of a carpenter, he trained as a sculptor with Antón de Morales (fl 1586–1625). He designed the altarpiece (1612–18) for S María Magdalena in Getafe, near Madrid, in the classical style. With the Conde-Duque de Olivares as his patron, he turned to architecture and at the court of Philip IV was appointed second Aparejador to the royal works (1627), then Aparejador Mayor (1630) and finally Maestro Mayor (1643). Carbonel’s style was similar to the classicism of Juan Gómez de Mora (i), for whom he had worked, although his façades, doors and windows tended to be more decorative. His most important work was the construction of the Buen Retiro (1630–33; see Madrid §IV 1.), which was built with low-quality materials, such as brick; stone was used only for door- and window-frames. The building consisted of a square block with corner towers terminating in slate capitals, as was usual for a Spanish fortress, and had an interior courtyard. The existing Gothic church of the monastery of St Jerónimo, joined to the palace by a small cloister, served as the chapel. The interior of the palace was decorated with paintings by ...


Adam Miłobędzki

Italian family of architects and sculptors, active in Rome and Poland. Together they created the only significant body of work beyond the Alps in the early Roman Baroque style of Carlo Maderno. Matteo Castelli (b Melide, c. 1560; d 1632) was apprenticed in Rome to his relative Domenico Fontana, and then for 20 years, from c. 1593, he worked with Maderno. By the beginning of the 17th century he was Maderno’s leading collaborator, involved in such works as the decoration (1595; with the sculptor Francesco Rossi) of the chapel of Cardinal Rusticucci in Il Gesù, Rome, to plans by Maderno, and on the façade of S Susanna (1597–1603), Rome, as well as the stone-built Palazzo Mattei (1599–1601). Matteo’s independent projects (after 1601) were largely developments of designs by Maderno, interpreting his moderately linear forms in a more decorative manner. The most important were the interiors of three chapels in S Andrea della Valle, Rome, notably the Barberini Chapel (...


Spanish family of artists. Their most important work was executed between 1675 and 1750, when they created a decorative style known as Churrigueresque, which can be considered the culmination of the Spanish Baroque. After the death of Josep de Xuriguera, a carpenter and wood-carver from Barcelona, his son José Simón de Churriguera (‘the elder’; d 1679) became the stepson of José Ratés Dalmau, a sculptor and wood-carver also from Barcelona. They set up a workshop together in Madrid (c. 1662). In 1674 they were contracted to construct the altarpiece (destr. 1903; fragments in situ) of the hospital of Montserrat; this had large solomonic columns and profuse decoration that signalled the family style. Among José Simón’s five sons were (1) José Benito de Churriguera, (2) Joaquín de Churriguera and (3) Alberto de Churriguera. José Benito’s sons, Nicolás Churriguera and Jerónimo Churriguera (d 1731), were both trained as architects and wood-carvers in the Madrid workshop and continued their father’s work at the church (destr.) of the Colegio de S Tomás, Madrid. Of José Simón’s other grandsons (by his daughter, Mariana, and the sculptor ...


Torbjörn Fulton

(fl c. 1620–c.1630).

Dutch sculptor and architect active in Sweden. In 1622 he worked in the Royal Palace in Stockholm under the direction of Kasper Panten. His best-known works are the tombs of Gustav Banér (alabaster and black marble, 1629; Uppsala Cathedral) and Svante Banér (grey sandstone and polished limestone, ?1628; Danderyd, nr Stockholm, parish church). The tomb of Gustav Banér (1547–1600) is surmounted by reclining figures that seem almost encased in the compact baldacchino arrangement of sturdy, richly ornamented pillars carrying rounded arches; the baldacchino itself has figure sculptures, and reliefs on the walls show Banér’s many children kneeling. The monument’s heavy splendour almost fills the rather constricted area of the chapel. The ornamental portals of the Ryning Palace, 2 Stora Nygatan, and Lindeska Palace, 68 Västerlånggatan, Stockholm, are also attributed to Claeszon, who was influenced stylistically by Hendrik de Keyser I (see Keyser, de family, §1). He seems to have stayed in Sweden until the late 1630s. He probably left before ...


Camillo Semenzato

(fl Treviso, 1673; d Venice, Feb 18, 1695).

Italian sculptor. He was the main representative of a family of sculptors and architects originating in Treviso that included his father Leonardo Comin (fl late 16th century–early 17th), his brother Francesco Comin (fl 1658–81) and his son Andrea Comin (c. 1676–after 1703). He is first recorded in 1673, when he was asked to submit a drawing for the altar of the Rosario, S Nicolò, Treviso, with which his father and brother had been involved. Between 1673 and 1678 he moved to Venice. His first documented work is the marble figure of Rachel with two groups of putti for the altar of the Innocenti, S Giustina, Padua, commissioned from him in 1679; this work is influenced by the Baroque art of such sculptors as Enrigo Merengo (fl 1679–1714) and Bernardo Falcone, yet shows a more academic restraint. For the same church Comin executed the marble statue of ...