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Kirk Ambrose

(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....



French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...


Betzy Dinesen

(b London, Sept 17, 1842; d London, April 5, 1935).

English architect and writer. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and articled to John Prichard of Llandaff, Glamorgan, setting up in independent practice in 1867. He began moving in the circle of William Morris and Dante Gabriel Rossetti and between 1868 and 1870 designed St Luke’s, Kentish Town, London, in a Gothic Revival style, with stained glass by Henry Holiday and Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. In 1872 Champneys designed the Eel Brook Common Board School (destr.), Harwood Road, Fulham, London. It was the first of the London board-schools, which were built as a result of the Elementary Education Act (1870), to be designed in the Queen Anne Revival style by a number of architects, one of the most important being J(ohn) J(ames) Stevenson. It had Flemish gables, large chimney-stacks and dormer windows. As a writer Champneys also supported this emerging style and praised vernacular traditions. Oak Tree House (...


Luc Verpoest

(b Feluy, Jan 10, 1849; d Ghent, Jan 11, 1920).

Belgian architect and writer. He trained as a civil engineer under Adolphe Pauli at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. As a student he came into contact with the Belgian Gothic Revival movement centred on Jean-Baptiste Bethune and the St Luke School in Ghent, founded by Bethune in 1862. From 1874 Cloquet worked with the publishers Desclée. His early architectural work was similar to that of Bethune, Joris Helleputte and the first generation of St Luke architects. His most important projects were built around the turn of the century: the University Institutes (1896–1905), Ghent, and the Central Post Office (1897–1908), Ghent, the latter with Etienne Mortier (1857–1934), a pupil of Helleputte. In them Cloquet adopted a more eclectic though still predominantly medieval style, also introducing Renaissance motifs. Between 1904 and 1911 he designed a redevelopment plan for the historic centre of Ghent, between the early 14th-century belfry and the 15th-century church of St Michael, known as the Kuip, which was realized before the Ghent World Fair of ...


Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).

American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.

In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.

Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...


(b 1838; d ?London, 1913).

English architect and designer. He studied under the architect James Kellaway Colling (c. 1815–1905), an expert on Gothic architecture, and spent several years as assistant to Matthew Digby Wyatt, who at the time was working on the then India Office (1867–8), Whitehall, London. Davis was a designer of architectural ornament, furniture, wallpaper, textiles, ironwork and ceramics, and in 1870 some of his designs were published in Building News. For James Shoolbred & Co., London (fl 1870–1900s), he designed furniture in the medieval, Jacobean, Stuart, Louis XVI and Japanese styles and in the style of Robert Adam and James Adam, illustrated in the company’s catalogue Designs of Furniture … and Interior Decoration (1876). A selection of furniture designed by Davis and manufactured by Shoolbred was shown at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. In 1885 he published Art and Work, which contains 85 lithographic plates of ornament for marble, stone and terracotta and designs for furniture, ceramics, metalwork and textiles, accompanied by notes on the design sources; among the plates are several after drawings, previously unpublished, by the ...


Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Londonderry, Jan 7, 1867; d Boston, MA, Feb 15, 1955).

American architect and writer. He moved to the USA from Ireland at the age of 18. After an apprenticeship to Edmund M. Wheelwright in Boston, he established his own office, also in Boston, at about the turn of the century with Timothy Walsh (1868–1934). Among the Boston Gothicists headed by Ralph Adams Cram, Henry Vaughan (1846–1917), and Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Maginnis quickly established himself as a leader, best known for the magnificent Gothic Revival buildings of Boston College (begun 1909), for which the firm earned an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal. Like Cram, Maginnis’s work was eclectic and included the Spanish-style Carmelite Convent (c. 1915), Santa Clara, CA, and the regal Classical Revival chapel of Trinity College (c. 1920), Washington, DC, as well as a number of churches in the Lombard style, for which he had a special affinity. The best of these is St Catherine’s (...


Jörn Bahns

(b Sieseby, nr Eckenförde, Oct 8, 1839; d Berlin, June 8, 1911).

German architect, teacher and writer. He studied building in Hannover with Conrad Wilhelm Hase, whose extensive use of plain brickwork, traditional in north Germany, he later imitated. While still an assistant in the building administration of Schleswig-Holstein he won the competition (1867) for the Johanniskirche (1868–73) in Altona, near Hamburg, but after this success he turned to other kinds of work. In Berlin he designed villas (c. 1870) in the suburb of Lichterfelde. These were plain, practical buildings, almost without historical idiom, in the manner taught at Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Berlin Bauakademie. In addition to creating Italianate town and country houses in Berlin (1870), Sternfelde (1872–4) and Topper (1874), Otzen produced Gothic Revival commercial buildings for the more traditional trading towns, including Flensburg (1868) and Thorn (1881). In 1882–3 he designed his own grandiose villa in Wannsee, near Berlin, which was given a strikingly picturesque tower but was otherwise built of brick, sparsely decorated with carved stone devoid of historical idiom. From ...


Charles T. Little

(b Paris, 1931; d May 1, 2009).

French art historian of medieval art. As Professor of the University of Paris IV (Paris-Sorbonne) from 1981 until 1998, she was a leading specialist in French architecture and stained glass. She was president of the French section of Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi from 1980 to 1988. Studying at the Ecole du Louvre, she wrote initially on the sculpture of Reims, followed by a study on Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Châlons-en-Champagne, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux. Her doctoral dissertation for the Sorbonne, under the direction of Louis Grodecki (1910–82), became an important monograph on St Remi at Reims. This was later followed by several books on Chartres Cathedral that stand out as classic studies. Aside from technical studies of the origin and development of the flying buttress, she was able to determine building sequences for a number of monuments by utilizing dendrochonological analysis of wooden beams. Her interest in Gothic architecture lead to a new series devoted to the Gothic monuments of France by Editions Picard. Her important contribution to Zodiaque publications included books on the ...


Pavel Zatloukal

(b Iglau [now Jihlava], Aug 15, 1838; d Gries bei Baden, Aug 18, 1915).

Moravian architect and writer. He studied in Vienna at the Polytechnic and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Eduard van der Nüll, August Sicard von Siccardsburg, Heinrich von Ferstel and Friedrich von Schmidt. From 1867 he lived in Brünn (now Brno), and in the following year he was appointed architectural adviser to the diocese, and dean and president (1868–92) of the Polytechnic in Brünn, before leaving (1892) to teach at the Polytechnic in Vienna. He was involved in the conservation of old buildings and was a prolific writer, chiefly on architectural history. In his early works he often combined Gothic Revival brick exteriors with spacious timber interiors. These included the Lobkowitz Mausoleum (1867–71) at Netín, the synagogue (1867) at Gross Meseritsch (now Velké Meziříčí), the Gymnasium (1867–8, 1877–8) at Brünn, the castle of Rantířov (1873) and the church of St Nicholas (...


Jutta Schuchard

(Wilhelm Ernst)

(b Kassel, Jan 18, 1844; d Carlsfeld, nr Brehna, May 5, 1908).

German architect, teacher and writer. He was one of the best-known architects and university teachers in Germany in the late 19th century and is regarded as one of the most important exponents of the German Gothic Revival. He first studied engineering (from 1858) at the Höhere Gewerbeschule in Kassel, but he changed to architecture (1860–62) and was strongly influenced by the teaching of Georg Gottlob Ungewitter. After completing his studies he taught (1862–4) at the Baugewerkschule at Holzminden. His great didactic talent made him a renowned and respected teacher of architecture, a noted pupil being Max Berg; he was also a gifted writer, most of his numerous publications being devoted to architectural history. Of particular significance were his contributions on timber buildings, which notably advanced the technical and historical understanding of the subject.

Schäfer obtained his first practical experience as an architect with Conrad Wilhelm Hase in Hannover (...


Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, July 26, 1826; d Ghent, Feb 24, 1907).

Belgian architect, writer and restorer. He was the son of a carpenter-builder, and his studies at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt, J. Van Hoecke (1803–1862) and Adolphe Pauli were crowned by a first prize in 1855–6. His first works included several designs for houses and a published project for a museum (‘Ontwerp van een Museum van beeldende kunsten’, in Album uitgegeven door hat kunstlievend geselschap der Gentsche Academie (Ghent, 1856)) in the classical taste, as well as work in the Rundbogenstil advocated by his teachers. When Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune settled in Ghent in 1858, Van Assche became his pupil and collaborator, teaching at the St Luke Schools and becoming a member of the archaeological society, the Gilde de St Thomas et de St Luc. Under Bethune’s influence, from c. 1865 he increasingly developed his own practice as a protagonist of the Gothic Revival movement. His personal interpretation of Bethune’s architectural principles, distinguished by a preference for a strong visual impact sometimes resulting in a striking constructional polychromy, are evident in St Joseph’s (...


(b Brussels, Aug 31, 1847; d Brussels, Sept 11, 1917).

Belgian architect, designer, engineer, writer and politician. After graduating as an engineer at the University of Ghent in 1870, he established himself in Charleroi before settling in Ghent on his marriage in 1872. Under the influence of Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune, he worked in the Belgian Gothic Revival style on architecture, furniture and wall paintings and in stained glass, gold, iron and embroidery. From 1875 to 1895 he directed the workshop for stained glass founded by Bethune. Verhaegen’s most important building is the new Beguinage (1873) of Sint Amandsberg near Ghent, which conforms to the severe Gothic Revival ideals of Bethune and anticipates some of the features of garden-city designs. His churches and conventual buildings at Ghent (Poortakker, 1874; St Macharius, 1880–82), Hekelgem (abbey, 1880; church destr.), Paris (Oeuvre des Flamands Church, c. 1875) and Rome (Everlasting Adoration, 1885–6) and châteaux at Watermaal-Bosvoorde (1880–81) and Merelbeke (...