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Yasuyoshi Saito

[Sugita, Hideo]

(b Miyazaki Prefect., April 28, 1911; d Tokyo, March 10, 1960).

Japanese photographer, painter, printmaker and critic. In 1925 he entered the department of yōga (Western-style painting) at the Japanese School of Art in Tokyo. In 1926 he began writing art criticism and in 1927 he left the School, going on in 1930 to study at the School of Oriental Photography, Tokyo. In 1934 he returned to Miyazaki and studied Esperanto, going back two years later to Tokyo; thereafter he rejected his real name of Hideo Sugita in favour of his pseudonym, which was suggested by Saburō Hasegawa. His first exhibition, a one-man show of photograms (Tokyo, 1936), was based on drawings that used photographic paper. His collection of photograms, Nemuri no riyū, was also published in 1936. In 1937 he was a founder-member of the Jiyū Bijutsuka Kyōkai (Independent Art Society) and in Osaka, of the Demokurāto Bijutsuka Kyōkai (Democratic Art Society); from then on he produced etchings, also making lithographs from ...


Kohtaro Iizawa

revised by Karen M. Fraser

(b Osaka, Oct 10, 1938).

Japanese photographer and writer. He studied photography at the studio of Takeji Iwamiya (1920–89) in Osaka. He moved to Tokyo in 1961 hoping to join the radical Vivo (Esperanto: ‘life’) photography group. It was on the verge of dissolving, however, and instead he became an assistant to Eikoh Hosoe. Moriyama drew inspiration from former Vivo members Hosoe and Shōmei Tomatsu, as well as the American photographer William Klein. He developed a distinctive style that employed grainy, blurred and spontaneous snapshot imagery, shooting either without looking through the viewfinder or from a moving car, for example, and cropping images in unexpected ways. These qualities created a vivid physical sensibility in Moriyama’s work, which he described as taking photos with his body more than his eye. His first major collection of work, Nippon gekijō shashinchō (‘Japan: A photo theatre’, 1968), firmly established his representative style. It featured high-contrast, rough images of Kabuki and avant-garde theatre performers interspersed with random snapshots to create a loose, impressionistic, and dreamlike narrative. It also established one of his preferred formats, the photobook, which he would use repeatedly to present a sequence of disconnected images together in bound form....


Ray McKenzie

(b Edinburgh, June 14, 1837; d London, Sept 30, 1921).

Scottish photographer and writer. After studying chemistry at Edinburgh University he settled on the island of Pinang, Malaysia, where he began practising as a professional photographer in 1862. Over the next 12 years he travelled extensively in the region, taking many photographs in Siam (now Thailand; see fig.), Cambodia, Vietnam and China. His subjects ranged from ethnography to antiquities, and his style is distinguished by the directness with which he represented landscapes and social practices that to his western contemporaries appeared almost fantastic. Despite acute difficulties of climate and terrain, he used the cumbersome wet collodion process, producing large-format (up to 360×480 mm) and stereographic negatives that are noted for their clarity of detail and richness of tone.

Unlike most travel photographers of his generation Thomson rarely exhibited his work, preferring the illustrated album as the medium best suited to his documentary approach. In all he produced nine such albums, varying widely both in format and reprographic process. The first, ...