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Article

(Rossi)

(b Alderstone, England, Jan 27, 1851; d Bondi, Sydney, April 27, 1942).

Australian painter and writer . He attended the West London School of Art and, following the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the Académie Julian in Paris. In 1878 the newspaper owner David Syme invited Ashton to Melbourne to produce black-and-white illustrations for the Illustrated Australian News. After a disagreement with the management he transferred to the rival Australasian Sketcher. In 1883 he went to Sydney, where he joined the staff of the Picturesque Atlas of Australia and also contributed to the Sydney Bulletin. Ashton was an ardent disciple of Impressionist painting and claimed to have executed the first plein-air landscape in Australia: Evening, Merri Creek (1882; Sydney, A.G. NSW). Much of his work, as in the watercolour A Solitary Ramble (1888; Sydney, A.G. NSW), had a strong sentimental streak. In addition to his outdoor works Ashton painted a number of portraits, such as that of Helen Ashton...

Article

Betsy L. Chunko

(b Le Mans, Nov 1, 1908; d Brisbane, Australia, July 7, 1995).

French architectural historian, active also in America. Bony was educated at the Sorbonne, receiving his agregation in geography and history in 1933. In 1935, converted to art history by Henri(-Joseph) Focillon, he travelled to England under a research grant from the Sorbonne, after which time he became Assistant Master in French at Eton College (1937–9 and 1945–6). He returned to France in 1939 as an infantry lieutenant in World War II in the French Army, was taken as a prisoner of war and spent the years 1940–43 in an internment camp in Germany. After the war he returned to England, first to Eton, then as Lecturer in the History of Art at the French Institute in London (1946–61), Visiting Lecturer at the Courtauld Institute of Art (1948–58), and Slade Professor of Fine Art at St John’s College, Cambridge (1958–61). From 1961 to 1962...

Article

Roslyn F. Coleman

(Joseph)

(b London, Feb 25, 1866; d Melbourne, May 16, 1929).

Australian architect, theorist and writer of English birth. He trained as an architect in London from 1881 and then worked in various architectural offices there. He emigrated to Australia in 1889 and worked in various states before settling in Melbourne in 1899. He designed a number of offices, residences, churches and other public buildings, often for other architects. Through this work and his teachings and writings, he influenced many Australian architects by his strong principles of originality and simplicity in design, harmony and balance in composition, and national sentiment. These principles were closely allied with those of English architects working in the Arts and Crafts Movement; however, his use of nature for inspiration and his relaxation of past rules of composition and decoration also place him within the Art Nouveau movement. Haddon’s designs were characterized by plain façades, the careful use of simple ornament and the positioning of elements to produce a distinctive and often delicately balanced composition. Examples of this work include his residence, Anselm (...

Article

Rosemary T. Smith

(Alfred Williams)

(b Creswick, Victoria, Feb 23, 1879; d Sydney, NSW, Nov 21, 1969).

Australian draughtsman, painter and writer. Born into a family that produced fine artists, his early skill in drawing and reading was encouraged by relatives. He received his only formal training in 1897 at the art colony run by Walter Withers at ‘Charterisville’ in Heidelberg. In 1899 he moved to Sydney, married in 1900, and began a lifelong association with the Bulletin. He was best known for exquisite pen drawings whose dark areas were enlivened by minute traces of white. In 1906 he began producing wash drawings; during World War I he designed government posters, and after the war he took up watercolour painting. From 1918 to 1938 he concentrated on etchings, which were printed by his second wife, Rose Soady (b c. 1885), whom he married in 1920. She collected the drawings and proofs for his over two hundred published etchings, which are now in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. In ...

Article

(b Hamstead, nr Birmingham, July 12, 1812; d Melbourne, Oct 21, 1895).

English illustrator, draughtsman, writer and painter, active in Australia. She was educated at home and was taught by Thomas Lawrence to paint portrait miniatures on ivory. In 1832, at the age of 20, she earned the respect of Henry Parkes (later Premier of New South Wales, Australia) for her writings in support of the Chartist movement, begun in Birmingham in that year. In 1835 she published her first book, Poems: With Original Illustrations Drawn and Etched by the Authoress (London, 1835), and the following year wrote and illustrated The Romance of Nature or The Flower Seasons, containing 26 coloured plates engraved after her original drawings. She married her cousin Charles in 1839 and moved to Sydney, Australia, and then to Tasmania. Having attributed her botanical knowledge to a study of the works of the draughtsman and engraver James Sowerby (1757–1822), she described and illustrated the plant and animal life of Tasmania and painted landscapes and miniatures. Some of her writings are in the form of picturesque travel books accompanied by her illustrations, for example ...

Article

(b London, Aug 29, 1849; d Australia, Aug 18, 1934).

English architect, urban planner, writer and teacher. He studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, where he was a friend of William Morris. Following an apprenticeship to Harry Robert Newton (d 1889), he set up in private practice in 1870 as a partner in Sulman Rhodes, designing several churches, including Congregational churches in Caterham and Croydon, Surrey, and Bromley, Kent, as well as schools and country houses. He also became Vice-President of the Architectural Association, London. In 1885 Sulman moved to Australia, where he became interested in the regulation of Australia’s rapidly growing cities. He continued to practise as an architect in Sydney with J. P Power, important buildings including the Bank of New South Wales (1889) and Mutual Life Association Building (1891; later New Zealand Chambers), both in Sydney, and the AMP Buildings in Melbourne and Brisbane, in which he used a variety of classical styles. However his most important work was in the development of urban planning theories and legislation, and he became an influential writer and government consultant in this field. In his early book ...

Article

(b Richmond, Surrey, ?Oct 4, 1794; d Hobart, Tasmania, Aug 17, 1847).

Australian painter and writer of English birth. He first achieved notice as an art critic and essayist for the London Magazine (1820–23) under a variety of pseudonyms. His circle of acquaintances included Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt and Thomas De Quincey. Between 1821 and 1825 he exhibited six paintings on literary subjects at the Royal Academy, London (and probably drawings, since he preferred to work on paper). A wash drawing of amorous couples in a landscape (early 1820s; London, BM) is reminiscent of Fuseli, whom he described as ‘the God of his worship’.

In his writings and manner, Wainewright affected the style of the dilettante; he was reputed to be a poisoner and embezzler. In 1837 he was tried for forgery and transported to Hobart in Tasmania (then Van Diemen’s Land) where in the next ten years, despite his convict status and poor health, he made an important contribution to the early art of Australia. He was, with ...

Article

Howard Tanner

(b South Creek, NSW, Feb 14, 1881; d Richmond, Victoria, Dec 16, 1955).

Australian architect and writer. He was articled (1899–1904) to Sydney architects Kent & Buden and attended evening classes at Syndey Technical College, where he was President of the Architectural Students Society, graduating in 1904; his student exercises favoured Art Nouveau. He then undertook further study and travel in England, Europe and North America (1905–10) that introduced him to the Georgian Revival, led by Edwin Lutyens in England, and the Colonial and Roman Revivals, promoted by McKim, Mead & White in the USA. Seeking a new architecture free of all Victorian trappings, Wilson was convinced by his overseas studies of the relevance to the Australian climate of Mediterranean arcades, shuttered openings and garden schemes. On his return to Sydney in 1910, he spent some months drawing the surviving examples of late Georgian architecture in Australia; these studies, which were published in 1924 as Old Colonial Architecture in New South Wales and Tasmania...