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(b Holywood, County Down, Ireland, Jan 26, 1922).

Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between 1949 and 1951 Adams worked as an exhibition designer in London and studied wood-engraving with Gertrude Hermes in her evening class at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (now Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1951, after moving to Melbourne, Adams began a 30-year teaching commitment at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), where he instructed many of the younger generation of Australian printmakers, including George Baldessin and Jan Senbergs. A brief return to Britain and Ireland in 1957–8 provided experience with Dolmen Press, Dublin, which published his first book of engravings, ...

Article

Betsy L. Chunko

(b Le Mans, Nov 1, 1908; d Brisbane, Australia, July 7, 1995).

French architectural historian, active also in America. Bony was educated at the Sorbonne, receiving his agregation in geography and history in 1933. In 1935, converted to art history by Henri(-Joseph) Focillon, he travelled to England under a research grant from the Sorbonne, after which time he became Assistant Master in French at Eton College (1937–9 and 1945–6). He returned to France in 1939 as an infantry lieutenant in World War II in the French Army, was taken as a prisoner of war and spent the years 1940–43 in an internment camp in Germany. After the war he returned to England, first to Eton, then as Lecturer in the History of Art at the French Institute in London (1946–61), Visiting Lecturer at the Courtauld Institute of Art (1948–58), and Slade Professor of Fine Art at St John’s College, Cambridge (1958–61). From 1961 to 1962...

Article

Miles Lewis

(Sutton)

(b Sydney, Sept 10, 1939).

Australian architect and writer. He graduated in architecture at the University of Sydney in 1962, began a private practice with Ian McKay (1963–6) and won a number of major awards. The firm of Philip Cox & Associates was established in 1967, and Cox developed a substantial interest in conservation and in Australian architectural history, with publications from 1968. These reflected his interest in the Australian vernacular, although they sometimes resorted to nostalgic stereotyping in the manner of his first co-author, Professor J. M. Freeland.

Cox’s early executed designs, for example the C. B. Alexander Agricultural College (1964), Tocal, New South Wales, combined the natural materials, earthy colours and textures of the Sydney ‘nuts and berries’ school (see Sydney school) with vernacular elements such as verandahs. He rebuilt Cadman’s Cottage (1972), Sydney, a work criticized by specialist conservationists, and he was involved in a major restoration programme on the early 19th-century buildings of Norfolk Island from ...

Article

Roslyn F. Coleman

(Joseph)

(b London, Feb 25, 1866; d Melbourne, May 16, 1929).

Australian architect, theorist and writer of English birth. He trained as an architect in London from 1881 and then worked in various architectural offices there. He emigrated to Australia in 1889 and worked in various states before settling in Melbourne in 1899. He designed a number of offices, residences, churches and other public buildings, often for other architects. Through this work and his teachings and writings, he influenced many Australian architects by his strong principles of originality and simplicity in design, harmony and balance in composition, and national sentiment. These principles were closely allied with those of English architects working in the Arts and Crafts Movement; however, his use of nature for inspiration and his relaxation of past rules of composition and decoration also place him within the Art Nouveau movement. Haddon’s designs were characterized by plain façades, the careful use of simple ornament and the positioning of elements to produce a distinctive and often delicately balanced composition. Examples of this work include his residence, Anselm (...

Article

Louise Cox

[Peter]

(b Melbourne, Dec 15, 1923).

Australian architect, teacher and writer. He studied at the University of Sydney (BArch 1951) and in 1955 became a partner in McConnel, Smith & Johnson. Early work included his own house (1963) at Chatswood, Sydney, integrated with its steep, wooded site and built with exposed timber and brick (see also Sydney school). McConnel, Smith & Johnson emphasized a team approach to architecture, which Johnson saw as a social art with buildings and spaces designed to serve users’ needs, take account of context and fulfil explicit aesthetic aims. This philosophy is expressed in the firm’s early interest in environmental design and energy conservation, seen in the Water Board headquarters (1965), Sydney, and its innovative use of concrete cladding panels for solar protection. The Commonwealth State Law Courts (1977), Sydney, a 26-storey steel frame structure inserted into an historic and old-established legal district, was designed after a lengthy research process involving both the client and the public. Other key projects included the Benjamin Offices (...

Article

Philip Goad

(b Melbourne, April 8, 1912; d Mildura, July 30, 1986).

Australian architect and writer. Inspired by a visit in 1940 to the adobe and pisé buildings of Montsalvat, the artists’ colony at Eltham, Victoria, he became a leading designer of mud-brick houses. His participatory building process and the alternative lifestyles of his artistic clients complemented the earth-building tradition of Eltham and the surrounding areas, which was to blossom in the late 1960s and 1970s. Notable mud-brick designs at Eltham by Knox include his first, the Frank English house (1947); Phyllis Busst house (1948); Downing/La Gallienne house complex (1948–58); his own house (1965); and the Pittard house (1979). Knox was considered by many to be the originator of the Australian environmental building movement, which relied on the use of traditional materials (often recycled), largely unskilled workers and a minimum of machinery, factory-made components or expensive finishes. His writings were highly influential and popularized a sympathetic response to living and building in the Australian bush. He received an honorary PhD from the University of Melbourne in ...

Article

Philip Drew

(b Vienna, June 25, 1923; d Sydney, March 9, 2006).

Australian architect and writer of Austrian birth. He moved to England in 1938 to escape Nazism and he attended a building crafts course in Cambridge (1938–40). In 1940 he was interned and in 1941 was sent to Canada where he studied architecture at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, graduating in 1944. After working in Toronto for a year he received a scholarship that took him to Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, where he studied (March, 1946) at the Graduate School of Design under Walter Gropius; in the same class were Ulrich Franzen (b 1921), Henry Ives Cobb and I. M. Pei. At Gropius’s suggestion, Seidler then spent a summer studying with Josef Albers at Black Mountain College, NC, returning to New York to become Marcel Breuer’s chief assistant (1946–8). In 1948, after working briefly with Oscar Niemeyer in Rio de Janeiro, he joined his family in Sydney, where he opened his own office. Each of these experiences made an important contribution to the architecture of extraordinary consistency and quality that Seidler developed. He absorbed theory from Gropius, a liking for hard-edged, geometric and minimalist composition from Albers, and the spatial ideas and choice of materials of Breuer. Later, in the 1960s, the structural rationalism of Pier Luigi Nervi contributed to the increasing expressiveness of Seidler’s forms....

Article

(b London, Aug 29, 1849; d Australia, Aug 18, 1934).

English architect, urban planner, writer and teacher. He studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, where he was a friend of William Morris. Following an apprenticeship to Harry Robert Newton (d 1889), he set up in private practice in 1870 as a partner in Sulman Rhodes, designing several churches, including Congregational churches in Caterham and Croydon, Surrey, and Bromley, Kent, as well as schools and country houses. He also became Vice-President of the Architectural Association, London. In 1885 Sulman moved to Australia, where he became interested in the regulation of Australia’s rapidly growing cities. He continued to practise as an architect in Sydney with J. P Power, important buildings including the Bank of New South Wales (1889) and Mutual Life Association Building (1891; later New Zealand Chambers), both in Sydney, and the AMP Buildings in Melbourne and Brisbane, in which he used a variety of classical styles. However his most important work was in the development of urban planning theories and legislation, and he became an influential writer and government consultant in this field. In his early book ...

Article

Howard Tanner

(b South Creek, NSW, Feb 14, 1881; d Richmond, Victoria, Dec 16, 1955).

Australian architect and writer. He was articled (1899–1904) to Sydney architects Kent & Buden and attended evening classes at Syndey Technical College, where he was President of the Architectural Students Society, graduating in 1904; his student exercises favoured Art Nouveau. He then undertook further study and travel in England, Europe and North America (1905–10) that introduced him to the Georgian Revival, led by Edwin Lutyens in England, and the Colonial and Roman Revivals, promoted by McKim, Mead & White in the USA. Seeking a new architecture free of all Victorian trappings, Wilson was convinced by his overseas studies of the relevance to the Australian climate of Mediterranean arcades, shuttered openings and garden schemes. On his return to Sydney in 1910, he spent some months drawing the surviving examples of late Georgian architecture in Australia; these studies, which were published in 1924 as Old Colonial Architecture in New South Wales and Tasmania...