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(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...


José Luis Morales y Marín


(b Madrid, Sept 27, 1845; d Madrid, Jan 5, 1912).

Spanish writer, painter and collector. After pursuing a political career and taking a doctorate in civil and canon law, he dedicated himself to writing on art and produced important studies on Diego Velázquez (1898), Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (1901) and other artists. He travelled extensively and enthusiastically in Europe (France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, England and elsewhere), studying especially the different national schools of painting. On his travels he also painted landscapes. After working for some time as a copyist in the Museo del Prado, Beruete decided in 1873 to concentrate his efforts on painting and on learning to perfect his craft. He enrolled at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid and also studied at the studio of Carlos de Haes. Beruete was among the founders of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, and with its members, and with Carlos de Haes, he made several study trips abroad. In Paris he came to know the painting of the Barbizon school, and in Belgium he assimilated the teaching of the generation of landscape artists who had adopted a form of Realism. The fundamental constants of the Spanish pictorial tradition, however, especially the sketching style typical of Velázquez and Francisco de Goya, became the starting-point for Beruete’s own style, enabling him to record his response to landscape, impressions of light and rural settings. Beruete’s achievement was acknowledged by various national and international awards....


(b Bayonne, June 20, 1833; d Monchy-Saint-Eloi, Oise, Sept 8, 1922).

French painter, collector and teacher. He lived in Madrid from 1846 to 1853, where his father owned a bookshop, and there he studied with both José de Madrazo y Agudo and Federico de Madrazo y Küntz. After moving to Paris in 1854, he entered Léon Cogniet’s atelier at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and competed for the Prix de Rome in 1854, 1855 and 1857. He won second prize in 1857 with the Resurrection of Lazarus (Bayonne, Mus. Bonnat), a painting characterized by the jury as frank, firm and powerful, terms applied to his art throughout his career. His early paintings of historical and religious subjects gave way in the late 1860s to the less esteemed field of genre—scenes of Italian life and the Near East—based on sketches made during visits to Italy (1858–60; see fig.) and the Near East and Greece (1868–70).

Bonnat’s final change of career occurred in the mid- to late 1870s, when he became internationally renowned for his portraits, particularly of members of the European and American establishment. His highly realistic technique reflected his frequent use of photographs as models. The portraits, which cost 30,000 francs each, were so desirable that by the 1880s he had to schedule three to four sittings a day to accommodate his long waiting list....


Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...


Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Drottningholm Castle, Aug 1, 1865; d Waldemarsudde, Stockholm, Aug 17, 1947).

Swedish painter and collector. The youngest son of King Oscar II of Sweden, he showed an aptitude for art while still at school. At 21 he decided to become an artist, a decision considered startling for a member of the royal family. In 1887 he became a pupil of Léon Bonnat in Paris. Apart from summer holidays in Sweden he remained in Paris until 1889, also studying under Henri Gervex, Alfred Roll and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, who was an important model for him. Subsequently he worked mainly in Sweden, although he travelled widely, visiting Italy on several occasions. He was primarily a landscape painter.

During his years in Paris Prince Eugen was influenced by French plein-air Realism, producing such pastels as Pont Royal (1887; Stockholm, Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde). His Realist phase of the 1880s came to an end with the highly detailed Spring (1891; Stockholm, Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde). In the 1890s, under the influence of Symbolism, he adopted the National Romantic style that characterized his most famous works (e.g. ...


Gary A. Reynolds

(b Hingham, MA, Jan 22, 1856; d Le Bréau, Dammarie-les-Lys, nr Fontainebleau, July 13, 1937).

American painter and collector, active in France. Gay lived all his adult life in and around Paris. He sailed for France in 1876, after a successful exhibition and sale of his still-life paintings at the Williams and Everett Gallery, Boston, MA, which provided funds for his study abroad. Soon after arriving in Paris, Gay entered the atelier of Léon Bonnat, where he remained for about three years. At Bonnat’s suggestion, Gay made a trip to Spain in 1879 to study the work of Velázquez. These influences combined to form a style of painterly realism that emphasized fluid brushwork and a high-keyed tonal palette. Gay made his professional début in France in the Salon of 1879 with the Fencing Lesson (New York, priv. col.), an 18th-century costume piece in the manner of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal. The painting received favourable attention from French and American critics, encouraging Gay to continue this subject-matter for several years. During the late 1880s his summer trips to Brittany and Barbizon inspired a series of paintings of French peasants. One of the most successful of these, ...


(b Milan, Oct 15, 1851; d Milan, Aug 4, 1920).

Italian painter, dealer, critic and collector of Hungarian origin. Around 1870 he frequented the circle of Scapigliati, Gli and in 1870–71 visited London. Grubicy’s acquaintance with the art galleries there inspired him to start his own gallery in Milan, specializing in the Scapigliati artists, particularly Tranquillo Cremona and later Daniele Ranzoni. After Cremona’s death in 1878, Grubicy extended his interest to younger Lombard artists, primarily Giovanni Segantini (whose Choir of S Antonio impressed him at the 1879 annual exhibition at the Brera, Milan), Emilio Longoni (1859–1932) and later Angelo Morbelli. Grubicy became Segantini’s dealer and they were in close collaboration from this time. Between 1882 and 1885 Grubicy was in the Low Countries and probably informed Segantini of Millet and The Hague school. During his visit Grubicy also began to draw (e.g. Housemaid Washing, 1884; Milan, Castello Sforzesco) and to paint (e.g. The Hague: My First Work, 1884...


Kevin Halliwell


(b Selezna, Tambov province, July 16, 1837; d Nizhny Novgorod, July 31, 1906).

Russian photographer, collector, painter and draughtsman. He was born into a peasant family, and he studied briefly as an icon painter before entering the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg in 1857. After graduating in 1864, he stayed in St Petersburg to learn photography, and he opened a portrait studio in Nizhny Novgorod in 1869. Like many of his colleagues at the Academy, he had worked as a retoucher of photographs for the sake of employment, and initially he regarded photography merely as material support. He gradually became more interested in the medium, however, especially in the decade 1875–85, when it supplanted his painting.

Karelin made many photographic portraits and genre studies, and he is important in both the technical and the aesthetic sense. His studio was larger than usual, with numerous windows, top lighting and glazed walls. He disdained the use of painted props, preferring instead to use real domestic furnishings. He was especially concerned to achieve a sharp focus in all fields in the photograph, and to this end he studied optics, independently realizing the connection between the focal length of the lens and the size of the aperture for depth of clarity. To achieve his ends he therefore introduced into portrait photography the use of additional diverging and converging lenses. He also managed, through the use of lenses, to overcome the more common distortions. This technical achievement gained him many gold medals at international photographic exhibitions in the 1870s and 1880s....


Myroslava M. Mudrak

[Krichevsky, Vasily]

(b Vorozhba, Kharkiv province, Jan 12, 1873; d Caracas, Venezuela, Nov 15, 1952).

Ukrainian architect, painter, illustrator and collector. He received no systematic artistic education and first became known because of his interest in Ukrainian folklore. His prizewinning design for the City Council building in Poltava (1900) formed the basis of a new style, founded on traditions of Ukrainian folk art, and initiated a movement in Ukrainian architecture. Among his other buildings are the People’s House in Lokhvitsa (1904) and the Shevchenko Memorial Museum in Kaniv (1931–4). As a painter, he was influenced by the French Impressionists. The pure, harmonious colours of his southern Ukrainian landscapes convey the lyrical atmosphere of his native land, and he took part in the annual exhibitions of the Union of Russian Watercolourists in St Petersburg (1899–1902) and in the exhibitions of Kiev painters (1910–13). Krychevsky was one of the founders of contemporary Ukrainian book design, reviving the technique of the woodcut and producing over 80 cover designs. He produced set and costume designs for 15 plays and operas in the Sadovs’ky Theatre in Kiev (...


Valérie M. C. Bajou

(b Paris, Oct 3, 1848; d Paris, April 22, 1929).

French painter and collector. He was initially a pupil of Louis Lamothe (1822–69) in 1864 but never went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Independent in outlook, he began working in the Louvre, where he met Albert Besnard and Jean-Louis Forain, and made copies after Nicolas Poussin, Veronese and Peter Paul Rubens. He attended the Académie Suisse and exhibited at the Salon from 1868. Having briefly been influenced by Henri Regnault, Lerolle painted works that owed much to the scenes of contemporary life by Jules Bastien-Lepage, Henri Gervex, Alfred Roll and Jean Charles Cazin, who introduced the taste for naturalistic observation, bright colouring and plein-air painting to the official Salons. At the Organ (exh. Salon 1885; New York, Met.) and At the Water’s Edge (1888; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) disseminated in more accessible terms the still controversial innovations of Edouard Manet and the Impressionists. Lerolle’s concern for the structure of his compositions, in which the figures were sometimes off-centre, can be seen in his portraits, such as the ...


Bettina Brand

(b Berlin, July 20, 1847; d Berlin, Feb 8, 1935).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and collector. He dominated the German art world from the 1890s to the 1930s. Although at first a highly controversial figure, after the turn of the century he was showered with honours. His Naturalist and Impressionist works have been consistently admired, despite being banned during the Nazi period. Liebermann’s approach was that of a liberal cosmopolitan, and his work is distinguished by its honesty and commitment to social reform. Influenced by Dutch and French painting, he led the modernist movement in Germany away from the literary art of the 19th century.

The son of a Jewish businessman from Berlin, Liebermann initially studied philosophy, but in 1866 he became a pupil of Carl Steffeck, who had given him occasional drawing tuition. In 1868–72 he studied under Ferdinand Wilhelm Pauwels (1830–1904), Charles Verlat and Paul Thumann (1834–1908) at the Kunsthochschule in Weimar. In 1871...


Christina Lodder


(b Nizhny Novgorod, 1861; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Oct 14, 1934).

Russian painter, patron, musician, writer and publisher. He pursued a highly original line of artistic thought and practice and developed an organic perception of the world, deriving his inspiration from nature rather than machines, unlike many of his Russian Constructivist contemporaries.

Matyushin trained initially as a musician at the Moscow Conservatory (1878–81) and played the violin in the Court orchestra in St Petersburg from 1881 to 1913. In 1889 he began to attend the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St Petersburg, where he studied painting with Yan Tsionglinsky (d 1914). In Tsionglinsky’s studio he met the artist and writer Yelena Guro, whom he married. Later (1906–8) he studied with the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) painters Léon Bakst and Mstislav Dobuzhinsky at the Zvantseva School of Art in St Petersburg.

In 1909 Matyushin briefly joined the circle around Nikolay Kul’bin and the following year he founded the ...


Saskia de Bodt

(b Groningen, Feb 23, 1831; d The Hague, July 10, 1915).

Dutch painter and collector. As a child and while he worked as a clerk in his father’s bank, he took lessons in drawing and painting, first with C. B. Buijs (1808–72) and later with J. H. Egenberger (1822–97), Director of the Academie Minerva in Groningen. It was not until 1866 that Mesdag made painting his profession. That summer he and his wife, Sientje van Houten (1834–1909), worked en plein air near Oosterbeek with the landscape painter J. W. Bilders (1811–90). From the autumn of 1866 to 1869 they lived in Brussels, where Mesdag trained with Willem Roelofs, the first Dutch artist to pay regular visits to Barbizon, and where he came into contact with young Belgian Realist painters, such as Alfred Verwée, Louis Artan and Louis Dubois. In this period Mesdag learnt to render his impressions from nature accurately and directly.

In the summer of ...


Peter W. Guenther

(b Brieg, Germany [now Brzeg, Poland], July 21, 1875; d Berlin, Aug 19, 1947).

German painter and collector. After studying natural science, briefly, he took private drawing and painting lessons from Lovis Corinth and others (1897) in Berlin. From 1898 to 1906 he travelled widely, and in 1907 he moved to Paris. Through contact with the German painter Hans Purrmann and the group of artists centred around the Café du Dôme, he participated in the formation of the Académie Matisse. From then on his rather solid impressionistic style, for example Côte d’Azur (Trier, Städt. Mus.), remained the basis of his work, with only brief experiments with Cubism. After his return to Berlin, he acquired a fine collection of modern French art. By 1914 he had the largest collection of works by Matisse in Germany; it was eventually sold in Berlin.

In 1918 Moll was appointed professor at the academy in Breslau (now Wrocław), where in 1925 he became director. His appointments of the former Bauhaus masters Oskar Schlemmer and Georg Muche, as well as Johannes Molzahn (...


(b Paris, Dec 2, 1859; d Paris, April 25, 1927).

French historian, collector and painter. His grandfather Adolphe Moreau (1800–59), a stockbroker, was a collector of modern paintings and a friend and patron of Eugène Delacroix, Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps and other Romantic artists; his father Adolphe Moreau (1827–82), a Conseiller d’Etat and administrator of the Compagnie des Chemins de Fer de l’Est, married in 1856 the ceramicist Camille Nélaton (1840–97). After studying at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris (1878–81), Moreau-Nélaton decided in 1882 to become an artist and studied informally with Henri-Joseph Harpignies and Albert Maignan, who were friends of the family. He subsequently pursued a career as a painter, exhibiting at the Salon from 1885. He painted in a variety of styles, and was accomplished, if not strikingly original; his best works, influenced by Manet and Berthe Morisot, are intimate scenes of family life from the period 1901–7, such as Reading (...


(b Sept 30, 1849; d London, Jan 25, 1919).

English painter, draughtsman and collector. He came from a poor family and worked for most of his youth in an engineer’s office in London. When he was in his teens he attracted the attention of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Philip Webb and William Morris and became an assistant in the studios of Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and G. F. Watts. He transferred Burne-Jones’s cartoons on to glass for Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.) and executed designs for Christina Rossetti’s Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862) and Morris’s The Earthly Paradise (1868–70). He went to Italy to copy Old Master paintings for Ruskin, who described him as ‘a heaven-born copyist’ (examples, after Carpaccio and Botticelli, Sheffield, Ruskin Gal. Col. Guild of St George). In 1867 he began exhibiting at the Royal Academy, London, and after 1877 at the Grosvenor Gallery, London. His paintings (e.g. ...


M. N. Sokolov


(b Moscow, Aug 1, 1858; d Moscow, July 8, 1929).

Russian painter, collector and museum curator. He was largely self-taught as a painter, although in the 1880s he benefited from the advice of Vasily Polenov, Il’ya Repin and other painters. From 1886 he was a follower of the Wanderers and from 1891 a member. He worked primarily as a landscape painter, following the lyrical ‘landscape of mood’, the leading exponent of which was Isaak Levitan. Although he never attained the profundity of historical–philosophical generalization found in Levitan’s work, his images delight with their lyrically fresh perception of the countryside of central Russia. His best-known painting is Siverko (1890; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), which depicts a majestic river view dominated by the effects of the cold northern wind, the Siverko. Ostroukhov’s work was only marginally influenced by Impressionism; in it Ostroukhov forged a link between the Realist landscapes of the 19th century and those of the Art Nouveau period (e.g. Golden Autumn...


(b New York, Jan 8, 1865; d London, Nov 23, 1943).

American painter, patron and collector, active in France. The daughter of Isaac Merritt Singer, inventor of the sewing machine, and Isabelle Boyer, she was educated in Paris, where she studied painting with Félix Barrias, first exhibiting at the Salon of 1885. Following the annulment of her marriage to Count de Scey-Montbéliard in 1893, she married Prince Edmond de Polignac (d 1901), a musician and composer, whom she had met through their shared interest in Impressionism. She was particularly attracted to the work of Edouard Manet, adapting his style to her own paintings and acquiring his painting Reading (Paris, Mus. d’Orsay) from his widow. Among her many friends and frequent guests were John Singer Sargent, Claude Monet, Paul César Helleu, Jean-Louis Forain and Antonin Proust. She also shared an interest in music with her husband, whose friends included the composers Richard Wagner, Claude Debussy, Charles Camille Saint-Saëns and Gabriel Fauré. At the Princesse’s popular salons at her hôtel in Paris, held in a room decorated by ...


John O’Grady

(b Dún Laoghaire, March 22, 1848; d Dublin, Aug 7, 1943).

Irish painter and patron. She studied in Dublin and briefly in Paris, where she attended the Académie Julian (1878–9), developing a vigorous technique and realist style. She often revisited Paris and knew such artists as Degas and Forain. She befriended the Swiss artist Louise C. Breslau (correspondence in Dublin, N. Lib., Purser MSS) as well as Mariya Bashkirtseva, who described Purser as ‘peintre et philosophe’. From 1872 she exhibited at the Royal Hibernian Academy and in 1879 began to receive favourable reviews for her paintings of peasants and urchins (e.g. the Gardener’s Daughter, c. 1885; Washington, DC, Georgetown U. A. Col.). In 1881 a Parisian friend, the singer Maria Feller, posed for Le Petit déjeuner (Dublin, N.G.), a small picture full of atmosphere and personality. Such works as Lady with a Rattle (1885; Dublin, N.G.) show her lively handling of paint.

Purser’s life-size portrait of Constance and Eva Gore-Booth...


Emmanuel Cooper

(de Sousy)

(b Geneva, Oct 2, 1866; d London, Oct 7, 1931).

English painter, designer, writer and collector. He trained as an illustrator at the City and Guilds Technical Art School, Lambeth, London, where he met and formed a lifelong relationship with Charles Shannon. He identified with the ideals of the Aesthetic Movement, finding inspiration in Renaissance art as well as in the French artists Gustave Moreau and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. In 1888 he took over James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s house, The Vale, in Chelsea and drew together an artists’ colony. Inspired by the work of A. H. Mackmurdo and William Morris, he set up a small press over which he exercised complete control of design and production, producing art journals and books that included Oscar Wilde’s A House of Pomegranates (1891) and The Sphinx (1894). Ricketts later designed founts, initials, borders and illustrations for the Vale Press (1896–1904), blending medieval, Renaissance and contemporary imagery. His crisp woodcut illustrations often incorporated the swirling lines of Art Nouveau and androgynous figures....