F. Hamilton Hazlehurst
[Anhalt, Duke of]
(b Dessau, Aug 10, 1740; reg 1756–1817; d Dessau, Aug 9, 1817).
German ruler and garden designer. After leaving the Prussian Army in 1757, he devoted himself to governing Dessau, instituting provision for the poor, public health and education. He made four journeys to England (1763–85) with Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff, with whom he also travelled through Italy (1765–6). He studied for six months with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose ‘mimetic theory of the Ancients’ he realized in his garden designs. With Erdmannsdorff and his planters, he created gardens at Luisium (1774) and Sieglitzer Berg (1777) and most notably at Wörlitz (1764–1810), based on such English models as The Leasowes (Worcs), Stowe (Bucks), Kew Gardens (London) and Stourhead (Wilts). He was acquainted with William Chambers, Henry Holland, Sir William Hamilton (i) and possibly also Henry Flitcroft and ‘Capability’ Brown. As well as introducing the English landscape garden and Palladian country house to the Continent, the Prince also transplanted the Gothic Revival. The ‘Country House’ and ‘Gothic House’ at ...
(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).
German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...
Susan B. Taylor
(b Paris, April 12, 1744; d Paris, May 1, 1818).
French architect and landscape designer. He had a distinguished career as a royal architect at the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI. Although his fame rests on his accomplishments as a landscape architect, his mercurial talents are perhaps best characterized in his drawings for interior decoration and court festivals. After studying physics under the Abbé Nollet at the Collège de Navarre, Bélanger attended the Académie Royale d’Architecture in Paris between 1764 and 1766 where he worked under Julien-David Le Roy and Pierre Contant d’Ivry. He was not a successful student and left without achieving the illustrious Prix de Rome. Nevertheless, under Le Roy’s influence he was involved with the circle of Neo-classical artists, including Charles-Louis Clérisseau, who had recently returned from Italy. In 1767 Bélanger became a Dessinateur du Roi at the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs under Charles Michel-Ange Challe. Since the Menus Plaisirs were responsible for the temporary decorations and stage scenery for court festivities, Bélanger was involved with preparations for the marriage celebrations in ...
Ingrid Sattel Bernardini
(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).
German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.
In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...
(d London, July 19, 1738).
English landscape gardener. His origins and education are obscure, but his father may have been gardener to the Harley family at Wimpole Hall, Cambs. Bridgeman is first recorded at Blenheim Palace, Oxon, working for Henry Wise, the Royal Gardener, under the general supervision of John Vanbrugh. A plan of the estate drawn by Bridgeman in 1709 reveals him to have been an accomplished surveyor, and he may well have worked for Wise and his partner George London previously.
Bridgeman’s contribution at Blenheim during this period is unknown, but it may be assumed that Vanbrugh was pleased with his work, for the two men collaborated at Stowe, Bucks, for Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham (from 1716); at Eastbury (destr.), Dorset, for George Bubb Dodington, 1st Baron Melcombe (1691–1762), in 1718; and at Claremont, Surrey, for Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1693–1768), in the 1720s. By the mid-1720s he was established as the most successful, influential and fashionable gardener of his day and had begun a long association with ...
(bapt Kirkharle, Northumb., Aug 30, 1716; d London, Feb 6, 1783).
English landscape gardener and architect.
Following his schooling at the nearby village of Cambo, Brown was first employed c. 1732 by Sir William Loraine of Kirkharle, who was then extending his grounds and remodelling the house. Here Brown learnt the rudiments of building and land management and in time was entrusted with laying out extensions to the garden. At Kirkharle, Loraine rebuilt the village on a new and more distant site and, with Brown’s assistance, laid out extensive lawns, flanking them with massive plantations in which several thousand trees of contrasting foliage were introduced. Scarcely a trace remains of this transformation, but a descendant of Loraine recorded that it was Brown’s ‘first landscape work’ and led to him being consulted on other gardens in the area towards the end of the decade.
In about 1739 Brown decided to make a career for himself further south, and his first known commission (...
(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).
Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...
(b Vincennes, 1730; d Vienna, Nov 2, 1786).
French architect and landscape designer, active in Austria. He trained in Paris under Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, whom he followed to Vienna in 1760. There he worked for the Crown Prince (later Emperor Joseph II (reg 1765–90)), and in 1776 he became Court Architect with responsibility for work in the suburbs of Vienna. Besides numerous architectural monuments, including a triumphal arch (1765) in Innsbruck, Canevale was also commissioned by the Emperor to design several private buildings, as well as summer houses for him in the Prater district of Vienna (1781–4) and on the Laaerberg (1786). Canevale also redesigned the Allgemeines Krankenhaus (the ‘Narrenturm’; 1783), the Josephinum (1783–5), a military medical school founded by the Emperor, and the anatomical theatre in the old university, all in Vienna (see Austria, Federal Republic of §II 4.). Other works included the garden ‘castle’ known as ‘Josephstöckl’ (...
(b Paris, Aug 15, 1717; d Paris, Dec 26, 1806).
French draughtsman, designer and writer. He began his career as tutor to children of nobility, among them those of the Duc de Luynes at the château of Dampierre, where in 1754 he redesigned the park in the English manner. During the Seven Years’ War he worked as a topographical artist for Pons de Saint-Maurice and made portraits and caricatures of the soldiers in his regiment. Pons de Saint-Maurice recommended him to Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), who in 1763 appointed him lecteur to his son Philippe, Duc de Chartres. Carmontelle quickly became involved in all aspects of the ducal household, notably in the theatre; he wrote ‘proverbes’ (playlets illustrating a moral point) for it and supervised their production to his own designs. His texts were published as Proverbes dramatiques between 1768 and 1787, but his illustrations to them remained unpublished until 1933 (original drawings at Chantilly, Mus. Condé). He also recorded the members of the ducal household at the Palais Royal and at Villers-Cotterets in a series of portrait drawings, in pencil and watercolour or gouache. These were made rapidly, often in less than two hours, and almost all show the sitter full-length in profile. They are an invaluable record of both courtiers and distinguished visitors, such as the young ...
(b Paris, May 11, 1698; d Paris, Oct 1, 1777).
French architect. He belonged to a family of gardeners from Ivry, in the inner suburbs of Paris. He did not make the traditional trip to Italy to complete his education and appears to have learnt his trade with Nicolas Dulin.
The career and works of Contant are known chiefly from the praise of his contemporaries and through the publication of his executed buildings and designs, the Oeuvres d’architecture (1769), which includes drawings dating from 1739 onwards. This collection of 71 engravings has no written text, and many of the designs for doors and fountains are difficult to identify or date. The fountains are characterized by the use of a generally Baroque vocabulary: various types of rustication, columns with alternating bands, rockwork etc. The triumphal arches, on the other hand, remain close to the style of the reign of Louis XIV (see Louis XIV style).
Contant worked independently for the first time in ...
(b ?Abbeville, Somme; fl 1714–56).
French sculptor, active in the northern Netherlands. His earliest known works are two signed and very elegant Louis XIV garden vases decorated with allegories of the seasons (1714; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.); they were commissioned by David van Mollem (1670–1746), a silk merchant, who was laying out a fine garden for the country house on his estate of Zijdebalen, near Utrecht. Cressant’s name is first mentioned in Utrecht c. 1730–31 in connection with his statue of Justice for the Stadhuis; it is now in the Paleis van Justitie in Utrecht. The many commissions for garden sculpture that Cressant received from van Mollem probably account for his settling in Utrecht: other artists who made sculptures and vases for these gardens are Jan-Baptiste Xavery, Jan van der Mast (fl c. 1736) and J. Matthijsen. Cressant made for van Mollem, among other things, vases, putti and a wooden Neptune: very little of this work survives....
Patrick A. Snadon
(b New York, July 24, 1803; d Orange, NJ, Jan 14, 1892).
American architect. From the 1830s to the 1850s he was one of the most influential architects in the USA. His work ranges from major government and institutional buildings to ornamental garden structures; his main contribution to American architecture was his introduction of the European Picturesque in his designs for Italianate and Gothic Revival country houses and cottages. With his partner, Ithiel Town, he also refined and popularized the American Greek Revival. He revolutionized American architectural drawing through rendering buildings in romantic landscapes rather than in the analytical, Neo-classical style that preceded him. In 1836 he helped form the American Institution of Architects and advanced professionalism in American architecture through his scrupulous office practices, being, for example, the first American architect to use printed, standardized specifications.
At the age of 16, Davis left school in New York to work as a type compositor in Alexandria, VA. During this time, probably influenced by reading contemporary Gothic novels, he made drawings of prison and castle interiors akin to Piranesi’s engravings of imaginary prisons. In ...
(b Florence, Feb 14, 1778; d Florence, Feb 22, 1843).
Italian architect, landscape designer and teacher. He studied architecture at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence under Gasparo Maria Paoletti, the leader of the Tuscan Neo-classical school, and won prizes for his projects in 1797; in 1801 he became a professor of architecture there and presented a project for a Pantheon of famous men to the Accademia. In 1803 he began to work for the Tuscan state, making important contacts in the Napoleonic period at a time when he is known to have become a freemason. His first important commission, received from the Accademia di Belle Arti, was the remodelling of the famous Cappella di S Luca (1810–13) in SS Annunziata, Florence, as part of a project to transform the convent into the new seat of the French bishop. Following the restoration in 1814 of the House of Lorraine to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, he played a prime role in the reconstruction of the Scrittoio delle Reali Fabbriche, first as Secretary, then Director (...
Susan B. Taylor
French family of garden designers. They were related by marriage to André Le Nôtre and, together with the Mollet family, formed a loose grouping of designers and horticulturists that undertook the execution of Le Nôtre’s plans for the most important French formal gardens of the mid- and late 17th century. In 1614 Jean Desgots was responsible for the upkeep of the Tuileries gardens in Paris; in 1624 he was replaced by his brother Pierre, a celebrated draughtsman who in 1616 had married Elizabeth, Le Nôtre’s sister. Pierre Desgots and Le Nôtre collaborated on a number of garden designs, with Pierre often drawing up finished plans based on Le Nôtre’s sketches. He probably served as clerk of works at Chantilly, where, after 1644, Le Nôtre was working for Louis II, Prince de Condé; in 1673 Pierre made two detailed plans of the Chantilly gardens.
Pierre’s son Claude Desgots was sent on a bursary to the Académie de France in Rome in ...
(b Paris, c. 1670; d Paris, April 9, 1751).
French architect. His first known work was the Hôtel d’Etampes (1704; destr.), Paris. The high, narrow building with a mansard roof, Classical orders ornamenting the avant-corps of both the court and garden façades and irrationally low attached side wings differed in its proportions from his later works, lending some credibility to Jacques-François Blondel’s suggestion that it was actually designed by the Sicilian Duke Fornari. More typical of Dulin was his best-known work, the Hôtel Dunoyer (1708; destr. 1847), Paris, commissioned by an arms dealer. The central section of this balanced and elegant two-storey building was emphasized by the high, pitched roof that crowned the avant-corps, contrasting with the flat, balustraded roof of the rest of the corps de logis. The decorative features of this work included two putti shown as lovers, positioned at each end of the roof, and sculpted busts in the wide window piers of the upper storey. This building, called a ...
(bapt Dachau, Feb 4, 1687; d Munich, Feb 23, 1745).
German architect. His family had been gardeners in the service of the Electors of Bavaria for several generations, and Effner also trained as a gardener in Paris from 1706. However, with the permission of Elector Maximilian II Emanuel, then living in exile in France, he soon transferred to architecture and became a pupil of Germain Boffrand. Effner collaborated with Boffrand on the decoration (1713) of the château of St Cloud for Maximilian Emanuel II before returning to Munich with the Elector in 1715. As a court architect and, after the death of Enrico Zuccalli, as Chief Court Architect, Effner controlled architectural projects at the court in Munich. At first he altered and extended existing castles in the Munich area, including the Schloss at Dachau, where he also laid out the court garden, the hunting-lodge at Fürstenried and above all Schloss Nymphenburg (see Munich §IV 3.), which he enlarged considerably. Effner also worked on the plans for the park at Nymphenburg and created three pavilions there: the Pagodenburg (...
(b Heidelberg, Jan 30, 1708; d London, Sept 9, 1770).
German draughtsman and painter, active also in England. While working as a gardener, he used his free time to draw plants, persevering until he abandoned gardening altogether. His lifelong patron, Dr Christoph Jacob Trew (1695–1769) of Nuremberg, instructed him in botany and provided him with good-quality paper. Journeying, mainly on foot, through Switzerland and France, he learnt in Paris the technique of painting on vellum. In Holland he met Linnaeus (1707–78), to whose Hortus Cliffortianus (Amsterdam, 1737–8) he contributed several botanical illustrations and whose system of plant classification he made known by publishing a ‘tabella’ (Leiden, 1736).
In 1736 Ehret settled permanently in England. He first worked with Philip Miller (1691–1771), head of the Chelsea Physic Garden, whose sister-in-law he married, then found patrons among scientists who commissioned him to illustrate their botanical articles and travel books. He published his own engraved and hand-coloured plant-book, ...
(b London, 1728; d Annapolis, MD, 1804),
American silversmith and clockmaker. He was primarily a merchant, but his workshop produced a small number of pieces that can now be identified. His diary is concerned in large part with his passion for gardening, but is also a valuable resource for the American silver trade in the late 18th century....