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Denis A. Lambin

(b Grenoble, Oct 26, 1817; d Paris, Dec 6, 1891).

French landscape architect and civil engineer. A graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique (1835) and Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (1838), Paris, he was sent to Bordeaux to reorganize the harbour’s access and the forest of the Landes. In 1851 Georges Eugène Haussmann, the newly appointed Préfet de la Gironde, asked Alphand to prepare the festivities in honour of the official visit of the French President, Prince Louis Napoleon. After the Prince became emperor, as Napoleon III, in 1852, he ordered Haussmann to transform Paris into a modern metropolis. In 1854 Haussmann summoned Alphand to redesign the Bois de Boulogne. Alphand arrived from Bordeaux with the horticulturist and landscape architect Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps (1824–75), and together they carried out a vast number of projects, cutting straight avenues through historic, often picturesque, districts. Alphand also designed airy public gardens and parks, in accord with Haussmann’s overall scheme. He laid out the Bois de Vincennes (...

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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

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Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...

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Kathleen Russo

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James D. Kornwolf

(b Ramsgate, Oct 23, 1865; d Brighton, Feb 10, 1945).

English architect, interior designer, garden designer and writer . He was articled to Charles Davis (1827–1902), City Architect of Bath, from 1886 until 1889 but learnt little and was largely self-taught. In 1889 he started his own practice on the Isle of Man, where he built a number of buildings, including his own Red House, Douglas (1893). He was a leading member of the second-generation Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and was among the first to build on the simpler, more abstract and stylized designs of C. F. A. Voysey, a refinement of the ideas of William Morris, Philip Webb, R. Norman Shaw and others from the period 1860–90. From about 1890 until World War I, the Arts and Crafts Movement, as represented by Baillie Scott, Voysey, C. R. Ashbee, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Parker & Unwin and others, became the most important international force in architecture, interior design, landscape and urban planning. The work of these architects influenced Adolf Loos and Josef Hoffmann in Austria, Joseph Maria Olbrich and Peter Behrens in Germany, Eliel Saarinen and others in Scandinavia, and Frank Lloyd Wright, Irving Gill, Greene & Greene in the USA....

Article

Jean-Louis Cohen

(b Vichy, April 1, 1907; d Vichy, May 30, 1989).

French architect, urban planner and writer . Immediately after his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he presented designs for a ‘garden city for intellectuals’ at the Salon d’Automne of 1934. He then entered the Institut d’Urbanisme of the University of Paris, where he was much taken with the teaching of the architectural historian Marcel Poëte (1866–1951). He established a reputation in 1937 with La Rome de Mussolini, in which he unreservedly celebrated il Duce’s urban development policy. He worked with Jacques Gréber, the chief architect of the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne of 1937, and in 1941 he published Problèmes d’urbanisme, in which he set out for the first time a global manifesto linking both spatial and social factors. He was particularly opposed to the planning principles on which Le Corbusier based the sunburst layout of his Ville radieuse, but he commended the functionalist designs of Alexander Klein to a French audience in ...

Article

Susan B. Taylor

(b Paris, April 12, 1744; d Paris, May 1, 1818).

French architect and landscape designer. He had a distinguished career as a royal architect at the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI. Although his fame rests on his accomplishments as a landscape architect, his mercurial talents are perhaps best characterized in his drawings for interior decoration and court festivals. After studying physics under the Abbé Nollet at the Collège de Navarre, Bélanger attended the Académie Royale d’Architecture in Paris between 1764 and 1766 where he worked under Julien-David Le Roy and Pierre Contant d’Ivry. He was not a successful student and left without achieving the illustrious Prix de Rome. Nevertheless, under Le Roy’s influence he was involved with the circle of Neo-classical artists, including Charles-Louis Clérisseau, who had recently returned from Italy. In 1767 Bélanger became a Dessinateur du Roi at the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs under Charles Michel-Ange Challe. Since the Menus Plaisirs were responsible for the temporary decorations and stage scenery for court festivities, Bélanger was involved with preparations for the marriage celebrations in ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

(bapt Kirkharle, Northumb., Aug 30, 1716; d London, Feb 6, 1783).

English landscape gardener and architect.

Following his schooling at the nearby village of Cambo, Brown was first employed c. 1732 by Sir William Loraine of Kirkharle, who was then extending his grounds and remodelling the house. Here Brown learnt the rudiments of building and land management and in time was entrusted with laying out extensions to the garden. At Kirkharle, Loraine rebuilt the village on a new and more distant site and, with Brown’s assistance, laid out extensive lawns, flanking them with massive plantations in which several thousand trees of contrasting foliage were introduced. Scarcely a trace remains of this transformation, but a descendant of Loraine recorded that it was Brown’s ‘first landscape work’ and led to him being consulted on other gardens in the area towards the end of the decade.

In about 1739 Brown decided to make a career for himself further south, and his first known commission (...

Article

Aonghus Mackechnie

(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).

Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...

Article

Paulo J. V. Bruna

(b São Paulo, Aug 4, 1909; d nr Rio de Janeiro, June 4, 1994).

Brazilian landscape architect, painter and designer. He studied painting at a private school in Berlin from 1928 to 1929, and during this time he frequently went to the Botanical Gardens at Dahlem to study the collections of plants that were arranged in geographical groupings, providing useful lessons in botany and ecology. He thus learnt to appreciate many examples of Brazilian flora that were rarely used in Brazilian gardens, an experience that had a lasting effect on him. In 1930 he entered the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro to study painting; he also took a course in ecology at the Botanical Gardens in Rio. From 1934 to 1937 he was Director of Parks and Gardens at Recife, leaving when he established his own practice as a landscape architect in Rio de Janeiro. To this period belong the gardens of the Casa do Forte, where aquatic plants predominate, and the gardens he designed for the Praça Euclides da Cunha, where his studies of the ...

Article

Peter Fidler

[Marcell Armand]

(b Vincennes, 1730; d Vienna, Nov 2, 1786).

French architect and landscape designer, active in Austria. He trained in Paris under Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, whom he followed to Vienna in 1760. There he worked for the Crown Prince (later Emperor Joseph II (reg 1765–90)), and in 1776 he became Court Architect with responsibility for work in the suburbs of Vienna. Besides numerous architectural monuments, including a triumphal arch (1765) in Innsbruck, Canevale was also commissioned by the Emperor to design several private buildings, as well as summer houses for him in the Prater district of Vienna (1781–4) and on the Laaerberg (1786). Canevale also redesigned the Allgemeines Krankenhaus (the ‘Narrenturm’; 1783), the Josephinum (1783–5), a military medical school founded by the Emperor, and the anatomical theatre in the old university, all in Vienna (see Austria, Federal Republic of §II 4.). Other works included the garden ‘castle’ known as ‘Josephstöckl’ (...

Article

Richard John

[Carrogis, Louis]

(b Paris, Aug 15, 1717; d Paris, Dec 26, 1806).

French draughtsman, designer and writer. He began his career as tutor to children of nobility, among them those of the Duc de Luynes at the château of Dampierre, where in 1754 he redesigned the park in the English manner. During the Seven Years’ War he worked as a topographical artist for Pons de Saint-Maurice and made portraits and caricatures of the soldiers in his regiment. Pons de Saint-Maurice recommended him to Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), who in 1763 appointed him lecteur to his son Philippe, Duc de Chartres. Carmontelle quickly became involved in all aspects of the ducal household, notably in the theatre; he wrote ‘proverbes’ (playlets illustrating a moral point) for it and supervised their production to his own designs. His texts were published as Proverbes dramatiques between 1768 and 1787, but his illustrations to them remained unpublished until 1933 (original drawings at Chantilly, Mus. Condé). He also recorded the members of the ducal household at the Palais Royal and at Villers-Cotterets in a series of portrait drawings, in pencil and watercolour or gouache. These were made rapidly, often in less than two hours, and almost all show the sitter full-length in profile. They are an invaluable record of both courtiers and distinguished visitors, such as the young ...

Article

Eleanor M. McPeck

(b Lancaster, MA, Dec 16, 1814; d Hinsdale, IL, Dec 5, 1900).

American landscape architect and writer. He was a descendant of Moses Cleveland, who came from Ipswich, England, in 1635, and his father, Richard Jaffry Cleveland, was a sea captain. Cleveland gained early agricultural experience in Cuba while his father served as Vice-Consul in Havana. On his return to the USA after 1833, Horace studied civil engineering in Illinois and Maine, settled afterwards on a farm near Burlington, NJ, and became corresponding secretary of the New Jersey Horticultural Society. In 1854 he moved with his family to the vicinity of Boston, spending three years in Salem and ten years in Danvers. During this early phase of his career he formed a partnership with Robert Morris Copeland (1830–74), a landscape architect of Lexington, MA, and designed several rural cemeteries near Boston, including Oak Grove (1854) in Gloucester, MA, and the celebrated Sleepy Hollow (1855) in Concord, MA. In ...

Article

Sheila Harvey

(b Simla, India, June 8, 1897; d Lechlade, Glos, Jan 27, 1981).

English landscape architect. She attended Swanley Horticultural College, Kent, in 1920, where she came under the influence of the American-trained landscape architect Madeline Agar (c. 1876–1967), with whom she worked on a war memorial garden in Wimbledon from 1921–2. In 1922 Colvin set up her own practice and by 1939 had worked on some 300 gardens, including the Habsburg estate at Zywiec in Poland. A study tour of America was undertaken in 1932 to see the work of such designers as Frederick Law Olmsted (1822–1903). In 1937 she lectured at the Architectural Association and the Regent Street Polytechnic in London. After World War II she resumed practice in a London office shared with Sylvia Crowe but in 1965 moved to Filkins, near Lechlade, taking Hal Moggridge (b1936) as a partner in 1969. Her later work involved a variety of sites, including power stations, reservoirs, universities, hospitals, factories and mineral workings. In ...

Article

Françoise Hamon

(b Paris, May 11, 1698; d Paris, Oct 1, 1777).

French architect. He belonged to a family of gardeners from Ivry, in the inner suburbs of Paris. He did not make the traditional trip to Italy to complete his education and appears to have learnt his trade with Nicolas Dulin.

The career and works of Contant are known chiefly from the praise of his contemporaries and through the publication of his executed buildings and designs, the Oeuvres d’architecture (1769), which includes drawings dating from 1739 onwards. This collection of 71 engravings has no written text, and many of the designs for doors and fountains are difficult to identify or date. The fountains are characterized by the use of a generally Baroque vocabulary: various types of rustication, columns with alternating bands, rockwork etc. The triumphal arches, on the other hand, remain close to the style of the reign of Louis XIV (see Louis XIV style).

Contant worked independently for the first time in ...

Article

Sheila Harvey

(b Banbury, Oxon, Sept 15, 1901; d June 30, 1997).

English landscape architect and writer. She attended Swanley Horticultural College in 1920–22 to study fruit farming, but after travelling through Italy she was inspired to design gardens. After returning to England in 1926, she became a pupil of the landscape gardener Edward White (1876–1952) and also worked for Cutbush Nurseries, Barnet, in 1939. From 1945 she practised landscape architecture in London with the assistance of Brenda Colvin. Small projects eventually led to her appointment as landscape consultant to the new towns of Harlow and Basildon (1948–58) and the Central Electricity Generating Board (1948–68). In 1964 she became the Forestry Commission’s first landscape consultant, a post she held until 1976 and where her work broke new ground. Crowe regarded aesthetic and ecological principles as inseparable and she believed that forestry planting should relate to land form. As a result of her influence at the Forestry Commission, landscape considerations were taken into account whenever land was acquired, so that natural rather than artificial boundaries would be used. In ...

Article

Jill Lever

English architects and landscape planners. The partnership was formed in 1961 by John (William Charles) Darbourne (b London, 11 Jan 1935; d London, 29 Sept 1991) and Geoffrey Darke (b Evesham, Surrey, 1 Sept 1929). Though their work includes a football stand (for Chelsea Football Club, London, 1972–4), laboratories and offices (e.g. IBM, Hursley Park, Hants, 1979–81) and the landscaping (1976–7) of much of Heathrow Airport, London, it was in housing that Darbourne & Darke made their mark. Lillington Gardens (competition, 1961; built 1964–72), Pimlico, London, broke with the then current use of standard units in standard blocks. The required high density (543 bed spaces per ha) was achieved without high-rise, using traditional materials, an ingenious and complex section and landscaping from the ground to the upper floors. A larger scheme was later built (1966–77) on an equally difficult urban site, at Marquess Road, Islington, London. A stylistic development of the last phase of Lillington Gardens, it continued the idea of family maisonnettes with gardens at ground level and smaller flats above, fronted by wide ‘roof streets’ with space for planting. A linear canal-side park completed the landscaping, which was an integral part of all the firm’s work....

Article

Patrick A. Snadon

(b New York, July 24, 1803; d Orange, NJ, Jan 14, 1892).

American architect. From the 1830s to the 1850s he was one of the most influential architects in the USA. His work ranges from major government and institutional buildings to ornamental garden structures; his main contribution to American architecture was his introduction of the European Picturesque in his designs for Italianate and Gothic Revival country houses and cottages. With his partner, Ithiel Town, he also refined and popularized the American Greek Revival. He revolutionized American architectural drawing through rendering buildings in romantic landscapes rather than in the analytical, Neo-classical style that preceded him. In 1836 he helped form the American Institution of Architects and advanced professionalism in American architecture through his scrupulous office practices, being, for example, the first American architect to use printed, standardized specifications.

At the age of 16, Davis left school in New York to work as a type compositor in Alexandria, VA. During this time, probably influenced by reading contemporary Gothic novels, he made drawings of prison and castle interiors akin to Piranesi’s engravings of imaginary prisons. In ...

Article

Mario Bencivenni

(b Florence, Feb 14, 1778; d Florence, Feb 22, 1843).

Italian architect, landscape designer and teacher. He studied architecture at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence under Gasparo Maria Paoletti, the leader of the Tuscan Neo-classical school, and won prizes for his projects in 1797; in 1801 he became a professor of architecture there and presented a project for a Pantheon of famous men to the Accademia. In 1803 he began to work for the Tuscan state, making important contacts in the Napoleonic period at a time when he is known to have become a freemason. His first important commission, received from the Accademia di Belle Arti, was the remodelling of the famous Cappella di S Luca (1810–13) in SS Annunziata, Florence, as part of a project to transform the convent into the new seat of the French bishop. Following the restoration in 1814 of the House of Lorraine to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, he played a prime role in the reconstruction of the Scrittoio delle Reali Fabbriche, first as Secretary, then Director (...