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Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...


Aya Louisa McDonald

[Mokugo; Mokugyo]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], June 21, 1856; d Kyoto, Dec 16, 1907).

Japanese painter . He was the leading Western-style (Yōga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iv)) landscape painter of the Meiji period (1868–1912) and one of the founder-members of the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society, established 1889; later absorbed into the Taiheiyō Gakai [Pacific Painting Society]), the first association of Western-style painters in Japan. Asai was born into a samurai family retained by the Sakura clan. He was originally trained in Japanese bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) in the literati (Nanga or Bunjinga) style, but turned later to oil painting and at the age of 19 entered the Shōgidō, a private school of Western-style painting. The school had been opened in Tokyo the previous year by the artist Shinkurō Kunisawa (1847–77), who had studied painting under John Wilcolm in London.

When the government-sponsored Kōbu Bijutsu Gakkō (Technical Art School) was opened in Tokyo in ...


Patricia J. Graham

[ Yamamoto Shinryō ; Baiitsu ; Baika ; Gyokuzen ]

(b Nagoya, 1783; d Nagoya, 1856).

Japanese painter . He was the son of a sculptor, who worked for the Owari clan. He probably first studied with Yamamoto Ranei, a minor Kanō school artist, who later switched to painting ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’). Another possible early teacher was Yamada Kyūjō (1747–93), a prominent exponent of literati (Jap. Nanga or Bunjinga) painting in Nagoya, who died when Baiitsu was only ten years old. It is more likely that Baiitsu studied under Chō Gesshō (1770–1832), a Shijō school painter ( see Japan §VI 4., (viii) ) and haiku poet who was a pupil of Kyūjō. Baiitsu also claimed to have been influenced by the Nagoya artist Tanaka Totsugen (1767–1823), founder of the Yamatoe revival (Fukko Yamatoe) movement. The most formative influence on Baiitsu’s approach to painting was that of his mentor, the merchant and collector Kamiya Ten’yū (...


Mark H. Sandler


(b Kyoto, March 3, 1844; d Kyoto, February 20, 1895).

Japanese painter, book illustrator and art educator. Born the fourth son of Yasuda Shirobei, a Kyoto moneylender, the young Bairei was adopted into the Kōno family. In 1852 he began his artistic training under the Maruyama-school painter, Nakajima Raishō (1796–1871). After Raishō’s death, Bairei studied with the Shijō-school master Shiokawa Bunrin (1808–77). He also studied Chinese literature and calligraphy with Confucian scholars. In 1873 his talent was officially recognized when he was included among the painters selected to show at the second Kyoto Exhibition.

In 1878 he and the painter Mochizuki Gyokusen (1834–1913) successfully petitioned the governor of Kyoto Prefecture to establish the Kyoto Prefectural Painting School (Kyōto Fu Gagakkō) in 1880. Bairei was appointed instructor in the Kanō and Tōyō Sesshū styles of ink painting (suibokuga; see Japan §VI 4., (iii)), but in 1881 he resigned his post to open a private art academy. Among his students were ...


Ralph Croizier

[Ch’i Pai-shih; zi Huang; hao Baishi Laoren, Baishi Shanweng]

(b Xiangtan, Hunan Province, 1863; d Beijing, 1957).

Chinese painter. He was probably the most popular painter in 20th-century China, esteemed alike by the conservative scholarly élite, the common citizens of China’s urban centres, foreign collectors and revolutionaries both artistic and political for his traditional paintings of birds, flowers, small animals and insects. The range of his appeal from the 1920s onwards derived from his character, his lifestyle and his image as a traditional, high-minded scholar–artist who remained aloof from corrupt politics and preserved cultural values during the politically and socially unsettled period after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Such an image may seem paradoxical given his humble social origins in rural Hunan Province and his early career as a carpenter; however, lowly beginnings and self-improvement through culture and learning were admirable according to Confucian standards, and by the end of Qi’s life the new Communist government had hailed him as an authentic ‘People’s Artist’....


Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...


Jason C. Kuo

revised by Zaixin Hong

[Huang Pin-hung, ming Zhi, zi Pucun /Po-chun]

(b Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, Jan 27, 1865; d Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Mar 25, 1955).

Chinese scholar, epigraphist, and painter. Huang Binhong was a visionary known for his world view on Chinese art, original art writings, and modern expressionist style. Drawing on a lifelong study of old masters (lingu) and close observation of nature (xiesheng) through extensive travels around the country, he transformed traditional Chinese landscape painting in the 20th century. In 1953, both he and Qi Baishi were honored by the Communist government as the “Excellent Painter of the Chinese People” and the “Artist of the Chinese People” respectively, and from then on referred to as Huang of the South and Qi of the North.

Born into a merchant family from Shexian, Anhui Province, Huang passed the entry level of the civil service examination but ended that career path at the age of 29. While running the family enterprise, he cultivated his passion for landscape painting and ancient seals. By the time he left Shexian for Shanghai in ...


Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...


Frank L. Chance

[Tani Masayasu; Shazanrō]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], Oct 15, 1763; d Edo, Jan 6, 1841).

Japanese painter and book designer (see fig.). He was the son of the poet Tani Rokkoku (1729–1809). As his father and grandfather were retainers of the Tayasu family, descended from the eighth Tokugawa shogun, Bunchō inherited samurai status and received a small stipend to meet the responsibilities this entailed. In his youth he began studying the painting techniques of the Kanō school under Katō Bunrei (1706–82). After Bunrei’s death Bunchō worked with masters of other schools, such as the literati painter Kitayama Kangan (1767–1801), and developed a wide stylistic range that included many Chinese, Japanese, and even European idioms. He is best known for his crisp landscapes in the literati style (Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)), especially those produced in the Kansei era (1789–1801) inspired by such Chinese masters of the Ming period (...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Sodang ]

(b Yong’in, Kyŏnggi Province, 1783; d c. 1839).

Korean painter. He was born into an impoverished noble household and was active in the later Chosŏn period (1392–1910). Because of his father’s early death he became a self-taught professional painter in order to make a living. As a member of the Bureau of Painting and a royal portrait painter, he restored the portrait of King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), founder of the dynasty. In accordance with the practice of appointing court painters to military posts, Yi became a military official near Haeju, Hwanghae Province. Although he was a professional painter from the age of about 20, he associated closely with such middle-class literati painters as Cho Hŭi-ryong and was profoundly influenced by their literary circles. Up to his early thirties he mainly followed the Chinese Southern school but later moved towards the distinctive styles of Yi In-sang and Yun Che-hong. He established his own method of combining to excellent effect a simple structure with the tones of Chinese ink and a light colour. His later style of painting won the praise of the artist and connoisseur ...


Ralph Croizier

revised by Walter Davis

[Wu Ch’ang-shih; Wu Ch’ang-shuo; ming Jun, Junqing]

(b Anji, Zhejiang Province, 1844; d Shanghai, 1927).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and seal-carver. The most prominent figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he rejuvenated the genre of bird-and-flower painting, contributed to the internationalization of the Chinese art world, and helped lead a national revival of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy in the 1910s and 1920s. Although he initially aspired to become a scholar–official and passed the imperial civil service examinations at the county (xiucai) level, he later made his living as a professional artist, developing an international clientele and a reputation as a literati painter and calligrapher that continues to the present.

While pursuing a career in government service, Wu mastered the Confucian classics and studied poetry, epigraphy, and calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii)). Contact with such professional painters as Ren Yi in the cultural and commercial metropolis of Shanghai during the late 19th century opened up to Wu the possibility of a professional artist’s career. After a brief appointment as a county official in ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

(b Seoul, 1750; d Seoul, 1815).

Korean calligrapher and painter of the late Chosŏn period (1392–1910). Although he was a descendant of a distinguished family, because he was born out of wedlock his official post remained that of a civil servant. Along with fellow enthusiasts of pukhak (‘Northern [i.e. Chinese] learning’) such as Pak Chi-wŏn and Hong Tae-yong (1731–83), Pak urged that Korea should learn from the civilization of the Chinese Qing period (1644–1911). As a member of an official delegation he visited Beijing in 1790. His contact with the arts and letters, the ideology and scholarship and the literary style of painting of the Qing court enabled him to play a pioneering role in the emergence of the school of Kim Chŏng-hŭi, with its emphasis on innovation and feeling. Through his role as teacher to Kim Chŏng-hŭi, Pak’s influence stretched to later generations.

From childhood he showed a talent for poetry, calligraphy and painting. Whenever he saw a blank space, he is said to have filled it with his art. In calligraphy he excelled in cursive and semi-cursive scripts, and he introduced the format of paired phrases. In his painting he mainly used a neat and fresh literati style. Western painting influences are reflected in his ...


Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Kyŏngdo ; ho Haksan, Ch’anha ]

(b P’ap’yŏng, Kyŏnggi Province, 1764; d after 1840).

Korean painter and scholar . He began his official career brilliantly in 1792 by coming first in the saengwŏn (classics licentiate) examination. Unfortunately his advancement was interrupted twice, first when he was banished to Ch’angwon, South Kyŏngsang Province, in 1806 for political factionalism, the second time when he was released from his post of magistrate because of charges brought against him in 1830 by the amhaeng ŏsa (‘secret inspectors’).

Yun Che-hong’s contemporary Sin Wi, who wrote extensively about painters and their works, only mentions briefly that Yun preferred to paint landscapes. This suggests that, as a result of his turbulent official career, Yun might not have mingled with men of letters and arts of his time. Yun Che-hong’s extant works prove that he was an innovative and unconventional painter. An album of eight leaves containing Yun’s landscape paintings (Seoul, Ho-am A. Mus.) reveals that he experimented with such unusual techniques as using the tip of his finger or a stick. On one of the album leaves—that depicting ...


Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...


Patrick Conner

(b London, Jan 7, 1774; d Macao, May 30, 1852).

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive (London, 1750); his father, William jr, was also a writing master, and exhibited portraits at the Free Society of Artists. George entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1792, and by 1795 had exhibited 20 portraits at the Academy.

In 1796 Chinnery moved to Dublin. There he married his landlord’s daughter, Marianne Vigne, who gave birth to his two legitimate children. He was active in the Royal Dublin Society and in 1798 was Secretary and Treasurer of its Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. He experimented in several styles and media, to considerable critical acclaim; in July 1801 he received a silver palette ‘in Testimony of his Exertions in promoting the Fine Arts in Ireland’ … from ‘the Artists of Dublin’....


Brenda G. Jordan

(fl c. 1780–early 1800s).

Japanese painter and woodblock-print designer. He is thought to have studied under Toriyama Sekien (1712–88), the teacher of Kitagawa Utamaro. Chōki specialized in compositions of beautiful women (bijinga), sometimes with little or no background but more often with atmospheric backgrounds in which there is a limited sense of depth. He was influenced by Utamaro, Torii Kiyonaga (see Torii family §(8)) and Tōshūsai Sharaku, but developed his own style of tall, slender figure. He left a number of superbly printed designs. Chōki was particularly skilful at depicting half-length figures; many of his best designs are compositions of two such half-length figures. Examples include the colour woodblock-print Girl with an Umbrella and a Servant (c. mid-1790s; e.g. Tokyo, N. Mus.), with a background of falling snow and, in the foreground, a girl holding an umbrella and leaning on the back of her manservant as he bends to (presumably) clear the snow from her sandal. In ...


[ho Ch’usa, among others]

(b Yesan, Ch’ungch’ŏng Province, 1786; d Kwach’on, Kyŏnggi Province, 1856).

Korean calligrapher, painter, scholar and poet. He was also a lay Buddhist. Born into a family related by marriage to the imperial household, from an early age he showed his talent for calligraphy, studying with Pak Che-ga. Kim had an extremely successful civil service career before being exiled in 1840 and again in 1848.

In 1809 he accompanied his father on a mission to China and went to Beijing, where he met such eminent scholars as Wen Fanggang (1733–1818) and Ruan Yuan. The scholarship of the Qing period (1644–1911), in particular the northern stele school of calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (vii), (b)), which chose as its calligraphic models the stelae of the Han (206 bcad 220) and Northern Wei (ad 386–534) dynasties, made a deep impression on Kim. His own style of calligraphy was characterized by vigorous strokes with a strong contrast between thick and thin lines. This style, known as the Ch’usa (i.e. Kim Chŏng-hŭi) style, was highly influential in Korea and well respected in China (...


Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Uksang, Kongnip; ho Shimjŏn, Pulburong, Purija, Purong]

(b Sunhŭng, 1861; d 1919).

Korean painter. He excelled in landscapes, figures, flowers and birds, as well as in many styles of calligraphy, and was among the very last court painters of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ; see Korea §XI 1.) at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910). In 1881 he was sent as a draughtsman to Tianjin in China with a group of men to learn the technique of producing modern weapons. In 1900 he painted the royal portrait of Kojong (reg 1864–1907). Perhaps as a reward for this assignment he was appointed magistrate of the county of Yangch’ŏn and T’ongjin in Kyŏnggi Province. In 1911 he and his contemporary Cho Sŏk-chin were the leading teachers at the Sŏhwa misulwŏn (Academy of Calligraphy and Painting), newly established in Seoul to train artists, among whom were Yi Sang-bŏm, Pyŏn Kwan-sik, No Su-hyŏn (1899–1978) and Kim Ŭn-ho. An and Cho were also closely involved in the Sŏhwa misulhoe (Calligraphy and Painting Arts Group). An thus became a bridge between the late Chosŏn and the modern period....


Martin Postle

(b Camborne, Cornwall, ?1768; d London, Oct 18, 1847).

English painter. He was brought up in Rotherhithe (London), where his father was a sailmaker. He worked initially painting china, first in Aldgate (London) and later in Shropshire, and was expected to become manager of a china works. Instead he chose an artistic career and in 1792 attended the Royal Academy Schools, London. By 1795 he was working as a professional artist. In the 1790s he also attended Dr Monro’s Drawing Academy where he met John and Cornelius Varley. In 1802 and 1803 he sketched in Wales with the Varleys and in 1805 co-founded with them the Society of Painters in Water-colours, where he exhibited regularly for the rest of his life. He was president of the Society in 1816 and 1819 and again between 1821 and 1831. He exhibited a portrait at the Royal Academy in 1803, but thereafter his work consisted mainly of landscapes and figure studies in watercolours as well as numerous pencil and ink sketches. He was also fond of classical subjects, particularly with a pastoral flavour (e.g. ...


Brenda G. Jordan


(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1790; d 1848).

Japanese painter and woodblock-print designer. Having first studied under Kanō Hakkeisei (Jikeisai), he became acquainted c. 1810 with the Kanō-style painter Kikukawa Eiji and his son Kikukawa Eizan (1787–1867), a ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist, at that time producing pictures of beautiful women (bijinga) in the style of Kitagawa Utamaro. Eisen’s early works in this genre show Eizan’s influence. Eisen subsequently specialized in bijinga and shunga (‘spring paintings’, erotic pictures). Eisen’s style depicting women, which began to appear around 1821, is characterized by straight lines varying in thickness, sharp angular lines and fine details. Distinctive facial features such as long, slanting eyes, contracted eyebrows and half-open lips touched with green contribute to a strong-minded and vivacious female image. Examples include a series of half-length portraits (ōkubi-e) from the early 1820s entitled Contest of Contemporary Beauties (Ukiyo fūzoku mime kurabe). Eisen later returned to full-length figures. Works of the later 1820s also employed Western-style techniques, such as the use of fine parallel lines for shading. In this period, Eisen began to design landscapes and courtesan prints using shades of blue, known as the ...