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Hans Dieter Ölschleger

[Emishi; Ezo; Mishihase]

Peoples who once lived in northern Japan and are now restricted to the islands of Hokkaido (Japan), southern Sakhalin and the Kuril chain. The Ainu live in an area that has been influenced by Chinese, Siberian and especially Japanese culture. Until the 17th century, when the Ainu began to practise small-scale agriculture in south-western Hokkaido, they subsisted by fishing and hunter–gathering. Although the gradual Japanese colonization of Hokkaido had almost eradicated Ainu culture by the early 20th century, the post-war period has witnessed a revival of Ainu culture and language.

Ainu art is characterized by the preponderance of geometric designs. Some have parallels in Japan proper, while others show similarities with motifs found in the art of the Gilyaks, their northern neighbours on Sakhalin, of the Ostyaks and Samoyeds of northern Siberia and even of the peoples of the north-west coast of North America. Human and animal motifs are extremely rare and restricted to the decoration of libation ...



Ian Alsop and Kashinath Tamot

[Chin. Anige; A-ni-ke; A-ni-ko; Nepalese: Arnike]

(b c. 1244; d c. 1306).

Nepalese sculptor, architect, and painter who worked in Tibet and China. A Newar from the Kathmandu Valley, Anige is now honoured in his native land as Nepal’s most famous artist of early times. He left his home at the age of 17 or 18, joining the myriads of wandering Newar artists who served the courts of the great lamas and emperors of Tibet and China. He so impressed his patrons at the court of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) that he eventually rose to a position of prominence as the director of the imperial workshops at the capital of Dadu, now Beijing.

No trace of Anige’s life and works has survived in Nepal, but this is not surprising given the dearth of historical records (as is the case throughout the Indian subcontinent), and the fact that artists were generally anonymous. Further, as Anige left the valley at a young age, his artistic distinction was almost entirely achieved in foreign lands....


Midori Yoshimoto


(b Norwalk, CA, Jan 24, 1926; d San Francisco, CA, Aug 5, 2013).

American sculptor, painter and draftsman. Asawa was born the fourth of seven children to Japanese immigrants and her childhood on a thriving truck farm formed her work ethic. During World War II, the Asawas were separated into different internment camps. At the Rohwer Relocation Center in Arkansas, Ruth was able to learn drawing from interned Japanese–American illustrators. In 1943 a scholarship allowed her to leave the camp to study at Milwaukee State Teachers College. However, when she realized that she could never find a teaching position in Wisconsin because of her Japanese ancestry, she headed to Black Mountain College in North Carolina in 1946. The Black Mountain College community, including illustrious teachers such as Albers family, §1 and R(ichard) Buckminster Fuller, nurtured Asawa’s artistic foundation and philosophy. There she started on looped-wire sculpture after discovering the basket crocheting technique in Mexico in 1947. Upon graduation, she married her classmate, the architect Albert Lanier (...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...


Donald F. McCallum

[Kuratsukuri no Tori; Shiba Kuratsukuribe no Obito Tori]

(fl early 7th century).

Japanese sculptor. He is associated with the inception of Buddhist image production in Japan and is generally considered to be the first great master of Japanese Buddhist sculpture (see also Japan §V 3., (i)). Tori Busshi is believed to have worked on the most important monumental sculpture of the Asuka period (c. 552–710), the bronze Great Buddha (Jap. Daibutsu) enshrined in the Asukadera (Japan’s first fully fledged temple complex, on the Yamato Plain c. 25 km from Nara). In addition, his name is inscribed on the mandorla of the gilt-bronze Shaka Triad of the Golden Hall (Kondō) at Hōryūji in Nara (623). He may, however, have operated primarily as a supervisor rather than a craftsman. Scholars usually associate most Asuka period images with his studio, which produced work modelled on the stone sculpture of Chinese Buddhist cave temples of the Northern Wei period (386–535). This is termed ...


Klaus Ottmann

(b Detroit, MI, May 10, 1932; d Cairo, Egypt, June 23, 1997).

American sculptor, performance artist, and installation artist. Byars spent his formative years in Japan (1958–68) where he learnt to appreciate the ephemeral as a valued quality in art and embrace the ceremonial as a continuing mode in his life and work. He adapted the highly sensual, abstract, and symbolic practices found in Japanese Noh theatre and Shinto rituals to Western science, art, and philosophy. One of his most important works of that period is Untitled Object (Runcible) (1962–4), also known as The Performable Square, a 46 cm cube consisting of 1000 sheets of white flax paper that unfold into a 15×15 m white plane divided by 32 parallel strips connected at the top with paper hinges. It was first exhibited, folded, in 1964 at the National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto, in the centre of the museum floor, placed on a sheet of glass, but not ‘performed’ (i.e. unfolded) until 14 years later, in ...


Mary M. Tinti

(b Houston, TX, 1951).

American sculptor, installation and conceptual artist. His multimedia works investigate the pathology of contemporary culture. Mel Chin was born and raised in Houston, Texas to parents of Chinese birth and received his BA in 1975 from the Peabody College in Nashville, Tennessee. The works in Chin’s oeuvre are diverse in both medium and subject, but a consistent undercurrent of social, political, and environmental responsibility runs throughout. Whether a sculpture, film, video game, installation, public project or earthwork, Chin’s artworks consistently targeted a broad spectrum of pressing cultural and ecological interests and spread their message in subtle, if not viral ways.

In the 1980s, Chin produced a number of sculptures that set the stage for his ever-evocative artistic journey. The Extraction of Plenty from What Remains: 1823 (1988–9) is a frequently referenced piece from this period. It is a symbolic encapsulation of the effects of the Monroe Doctrine, referencing the complicated dealings between the US (represented by truncated replicas of White House columns) and Central America (represented by a cornucopia of mahogany branches, woven banana-tree fiber, and a surface layer of hardened blood, mud, and coffee grinds). From the 1990s, however, Chin moved away from strictly gallery-based installations and began creating works that directly engaged contemporary culture in a variety of physical and theoretical landscapes....


Madeleine Rocher-Jauneau

(b Lyon, Feb 12, 1756; d Lyon, June 20, 1813).

French sculptor. He was the son of a silk merchant and trained under the painter Donat Nonotte at the Ecole Royale de Dessin in Lyon. He then worked with the local sculptor Barthélemy Blaise (1738–1819). In 1772 he assisted Blaise with the restoration of the sculptures on the façade of the Hôtel de Ville. By 1780 he was working independently and received a commission from the canons of St Paul for chalk statues of St Paul, St Sacerdos and the Four Evangelists (all destr. 1793–4). He subsequently made stone statues of St Bruno and St John the Baptist (partially destr.) for the Charterhouse at Selignac, near Bourg-en-Bresse. In 1784, thanks to the patronage of the Lyonnais official Jean-Marie Delafont de Juis, Chinard was able to go to Rome, where he remained until 1787. There he studied the art of antiquity but seems not to have had any contact with Antonio Canova, the most influential Neo-classical sculptor in the city. In ...


Derrick R. Cartwright

(b Shanghai, China, Sept 18, 1933).

American sculptor of Italian and French parentage. He spent his early childhood in the Far East, before his family moved to San Francisco, CA, in 1941. He entered San Francisco City College in 1953 and attended the University of California at Santa Barbara from 1954 to 1955, completing his BA in Philosophy at Berkeley in 1956. It was during these years that he first took seriously his interest in art, and studied sculpture primarily. Moving to New York in 1957, he became aware of the work of the Abstract Expressionists and the associated sculpture of David Smith. A work-related accident in 1960 left his legs and spine permanently impaired and confined him to a wheelchair for nearly two years. Subsequently, the scale of his work shifted dramatically from smaller, ruggedly Expressionistic pieces in cast bronze and unhewn wood to monumental constructions in steel. The resultant sculpture necessarily exceeded the limits of museum and gallery walls, as did his aspiration for its exhibition. His favourite materials became synonymous with those of the modern construction industry: I-Beams, steel cables, wooden ties and scrap metal were used in di Suvero’s work of the mid-1960s....


Norihisa Mizuta

[Ippō; Shiin; San’unsuigetsu Shujin; Ryūkōkaku; Gyokujundō; Seishūken]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1665; d Edo, 1737).

Japanese seal-carver and calligrapher. The Ikenaga were a powerful provincial family in Odawara, Sagami Province (now Kanagawa Prefect.). In 1593 they moved to Edo, where they ran a pharmacy as well as being the head family of their residential district. Dōun was adopted into the Ikenaga family and became its fifth-generation head. He enjoyed learning from an early age and studied with Sakakibara Kōshū (1655–1706); his close friends included such seal-carvers as Hosoi Kōtaku (also a distinguished calligrapher) and Imai Junsai (1658–1718). His seal album Ittō banshō (‘One blade, a myriad images’; 1713; Japan, N. Mizuta priv. col.; see Japan, §XVII, 20) was the forerunner of artistic seal albums in Japan. It is in four volumes, the first two showing 328 seals carved in different styles, based on the Senjimon (the ‘Thousand-character’ Chinese classic); the third is a collection of the impressions of 170 private seals in Dōun’s own collection. Prefaces from major scholars and Koreans and Chinese resident in Japan, as well as Dōun’s own prefatory remarks, are bound together in another volume. Only 100 copies of the ...



Samuel C. Morse

School of Japanese sculpture that flourished during the 12th century. It was founded by and named after Ensei (d 1134) and was one of the two major schools of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the later Heian period (794–1185), the other being the In school (see also Japan, §V, 3, (iii), (c)). Ensei was a pupil of Chōsei (d 1091), the chief disciple of Jōchō, who had developed a refined, elegant style that satisfied both the secular and spiritual pretensions of the 11th-century aristocracy. Sculptors of both the En and In schools were patronized by the most influential figures of the capital of Heian (now Kyoto), at whose behest they rejected innovation in favour of close replication of the formal qualities of Jōchō’s imagery. They worked mainly in wood. Ensei’s only surviving work is a seated Healing Buddha (Jap. Yakushi, Skt Bhaishajyaguru; 1103...



Donald F. McCallum

(b Mino Province [now Gifu Prefecture], 1632; d 1695).

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist itinerant monk (hijiri). He was active during the early Edo period (1600–1868). He entered the priesthood of the Tendai sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) at an early age, this being one of the few means of advancement within feudal society for individuals of the lower classes. Enkū began sculpting images in the early 1660s for both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in his home province. In the later 1660s he made an important missionary expedition to the Tōhoku region of Honshu and to the northern island of Hokkaido, which had only recently come under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, introducing Buddhism and Buddhist imagery to that still remote island. Thereafter he travelled extensively, carving icons for rural temples and wayside shrines in Honshu, especially in the Kantō and Chūbu regions. He also carved images on living trees on mountain-tops. For more than 300 years his works were little known outside their localities; to local people they were objects of worship, imbued with magical powers to heal and protect....


Bent Nielsen

[ Chang Feng ; zi Dafeng ; hao Shangyuan Laoren , Shengzhou Daoshi ]

(b Shangyuan, Shengzhou (now Nanjing, Jiangsu Province); fl c. 1645–62).

Chinese painter, poet, seal-carver and government official . Like many of his literati colleagues, he remained loyal to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) after it had been overthrown by the Manchus and withdrew from office to live as a Buddhist recluse. He led a life of relative poverty, occasionally enjoying the patronage of the nobility, which allowed him to pursue a variety of scholarly activities. In his paintings he concentrated on landscapes ( see fig. ), flowers and figures. A contemporary of the Eight Masters of Nanjing ( see Nanjing school ), Zhang remained an independent artist in the cultured milieu of the south. Initially, he was influenced by the painters of the Yuan period (1279–1368), notably Huang Gongwang and Ni Zan, and emulated their subjective expressionism and daring brushwork, as for example in Figure between Rocks and a Twisted Tree (1648; Hong Kong, Chin. U.). Around ...


Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....


Y. de la Genardière

(b Bussières, nr Lyon, Sept 22, 1793; d Paris, Nov 19, 1863).

French sculptor. He began his career as a self-taught wood-carver, going on in 1813 to study sculpture in Lyon with Joseph Chinard and then with Joseph-Charles Marin. In 1817 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris as a pupil of François-Frédéric Lemot. He first exhibited at the Salon in 1819 and from 1823 was in Rome for three years, his study of antique sculpture there confirming the stylistic predisposition of his Neo-classical training. In Rome he produced the model for his statue of Spartacus (marble; Paris, Louvre), which, when exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1830, aroused the enthusiasm of critics as well as of the public: the gladiator breaking his chains became the symbol of the revolution of that year. This success gained him many commissions for monumental sculpture, including marble statues of Faith (1830; Paris, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette), Prudence (1834; Paris, Pal.-Bourbon), Cincinnatus (1834; Paris, Jard. Tuileries) and ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, May 25, 1951).

Japanese sculptor. He studied at Tokyo University of Art and Design (1971–5) and Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music (1975–7). In 1986 he was awarded a one-year scholarship, from the Bureau of Cultural Properties, to live and work in London. He represented Japan at the 1988 Venice Biennale. Funakoshi’s figurative wooden sculptures refer to both Japanese and European carving techniques and iconography. He began using camphor wood in 1977 chiefly for its organic associations, warmth and colouring, which he likened to Japanese skin pigmentation. His elongated bust-length figures, cut off beneath the elbows and navel, as well as full-length standing figures, have an atmosphere of expressionless restraint. He once described their metaphoric function in the following terms: ‘If I am able to see the world clearly by looking within myself, then I can make a statement concerning human existence through the depiction of a single person’ (exh. cat. ...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Chūgakugashi; Hyōgaku Sanjin; Kantankyo; Sangaku Dōja]

(b Takanashi or Natori, Kai Prov. [now Yamanashi Prefect.], 1722; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1784).

Japanese seal-carver and scholar. He was the son of a doctor, Yūken; he studied at the private school of the official physician to the Tokugawa shogunate, Takeda Chōshun’in, but eventually abandoned his studies and went to Kyoto to pursue a career in the arts. The name Fuyō is taken from Fuyōhō (Lotus Peak), the sobriquet of Mt Fuji (its shape is said to resemble a lotus bud). His studio name, Kantankyo, also means ‘lotus’. Kō seems to have been an abbreviation of his wife’s clan name, Kondō. In middle age, he apparently changed his name a number of times, possibly because of his indirect connection with the activities of his fellow-villager Yamagata Daini (1725–67), who was executed by the shogunate for his open devotion to the emperor.

During Fuyō’s lifetime, albums of official and private archaic bronze seal impressions dating from the Qin (221–206 bc) and Han (...


Mia Yinxing Liu

(b Harbin, 1957).

Chinese painter, sculptor, and installation artist. Wang Guangyi’s formal education was interrupted by the Cultural Revolution during his teenage years. Afterwards, he attended the China Academy of Art (Zhejiang) and graduated in 1984 with a degree in oil painting.

In the wake of the avant-garde art movement in China in the 1980s, Wang became part of the Northern Art Group and produced a series of paintings whose subjects reflected skepticism towards the philosophies and themes of classical art in the West. The series used a cold, gray palette to illustrate frozen and barren Nordic settings consciously removed from emotion, revealing Wang’s distrust of passion and his faith in reason and rationality at the time, a distrust that was an antidote to the cultic zeal towards Mao and the ideals of revolution in the preceding years.

Wang’s groundbreaking series of Mao portraits in 1988 were a continuation of the conscious move away from emotional manipulation and viewer identification. In these portraits, Wang superimposed a grid over Mao. The grid served as a barrier between the adorer and the object of adoration, drawing attention to the print material of the image, and highlighting Mao as an object of common household use. If in previous decades Mao’s portraits had been used as an icon for fervent adoration and incentive for socialist construction, here in Wang’s paintings the Mao portraits were candidly presented as ready-made and found objects. However, these appropriated Mao pictures were quite ambivalent in meaning. To Wang, they were not an indictment against socialism or Mao, but rather a reaffirmation of the Dadaist spirit of the Cultural Revolution....


Yasuyoshi Saito

(b Asakuma-mura, Mie Prefect., Oct 17, 1897; d Asakuma-mura, Nov 1, 1935).

Japanese sculptor. He went to Tokyo in 1919 and the following year became a pupil of Chōzan Satō (1888–1963), a member of the Japan Art Institute; he lived with the Satō household for six years. In 1922 Hashimoto’s sculpture Cat (wood, h. 350 mm, 1922; Tsu, Mie Prefect. A. Mus.) was accepted for the ninth In-ten exhibition. In 1923 he left Tokyo because of the Great Kantō earthquake and went to live in Nara. In 1926 he returned to his home town in Mie, settling there permanently. In 1927 he exhibited his statue of a Naked Youth (wood, h. 1.54 m, 1927; Tokyo U. A., A. Mus.) at the 14th In-ten exhibition, a work reminiscent of ancient Egyptian sculpture. In the same year he became a member of the Japan Art Institute. In 1930 he exhibited Goddess Playing in a Flower Garden (wood, h. 1.22 m, 1930; Tokyo U. A., A. Mus.) at the 17th In-ten exhibition, a characteristic work: the entire body of the goddess was carved so that the head, torso, arms and legs are like flower petals, and within this, the image of a butterfly can be seen; although representing a young female, the body seems genderless, and her facial expression is reminiscent of Buddhist sculptures. In his later years Hashimoto was deeply impressed by a 17th-century Buddhist statue that he saw in Takayama, Gifu Prefecture; this was done by the monk Enkū. Under Enkū’s influence he produced wooden sculptures with the sharp chisel marks still visible, such as that of the Buddhist monk ...


Yasuyoshi Saito

(b Kyoto, March 27, 1911; d Tokyo, April 13, 2001).

Japanese sculptor. He experimented with Constructivist sculpture in 1927 under the influence of such avant-garde sculptors as Tomoyoshi Murayama (1901–77). In 1928 he entered the sculpture department of the Higher Technical College in Tokyo; in 1929 he was accepted into the Nika-Ten exhibition and left college. At the Nikakai (Second Division Association) he studied under sculptor Yūzō Fujikawa (1883–1935). During World War II he stopped sculpting and learnt French and Latin. In 1950 he became a professor at the City College of Art in Kyoto, holding the post until 1974. From 1954 he began making sculptures from welded steel, creating such works as Five Squares and Five Rectangles (steel, 770 mm, 1955; Tokyo, Met. A. Mus.). In 1957 he exhibited in the fourth São Paulo Biennale. In 1963 he was awarded the sixth Takamura Kōtarō prize. In the same year an exhibition of his work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in Kamakura. In ...