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Article

Alan Powers

(Irving Jeffrey)

(b Haiphong, French Indo-China [now Vietnam], Oct 16, 1900; d Rodmersham, Kent, Nov 8, 1979).

English illustrator and author. From 1905 he grew up in England, becoming a professional artist in 1926 after part-time study at the Westminster School of Art, London. He became known as an illustrator of genre scenes in a variety of media, often with a comic Victorian flavour. He was best known for illustrated stories, the first of which, Little Tim and the Brave Sea-captain (Oxford, 1936), was followed by numerous imaginative and popular children’s books and by many other illustrated books. Baggage to the Enemy (London, 1941) reflected his appointment in 1940 as an Official War Artist, recording the German invasion of France, and the North African and Italian campaigns. His freelance career continued after the war with a steady production of illustrative and ephemeral work in an instantly recognizable style that relied on ink line and delicate washes.

The Young Ardizzone: An Autobiographical Fragment (London, 1970) Diary of a War Artist...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Tokyo, Feb 19, 1929).

Japanese graphic designer . He graduated from Hosei University (Tokyo). In 1955 he received an award from the Japan Advertising Artists Club for his poster Give back the Sea, establishing himself as a socially committed designer. He was initially influenced by the American designer Ben Shahn. In 1962 he designed the iron gate for the government office building at the Izumo Grand Shrine (Shimane Prefect.). In 1965, along with many of Japan’s leading designers, he was chosen to take part in the Persona Exhibition, which stressed the personal identities of individual designers. In 1975 Awazu was art director on Shūji Terayama’s film Den’en ni shinu (‘To die in the country’). During the 1960s and 1970s Awazu’s work was influenced by the vernacular design that challenged Japanese modernism. He has designed for many national and international exhibitions, including Expo ’70 (Osaka). Since the late 1980s much of Awazu’s work has been commissioned by national and local government bodies....

Article

Mark H. Sandler

[Shijun]

(b Kyoto, March 3, 1844; d Kyoto, February 20, 1895).

Japanese painter, book illustrator and art educator. Born the fourth son of Yasuda Shirobei, a Kyoto moneylender, the young Bairei was adopted into the Kōno family. In 1852 he began his artistic training under the Maruyama-school painter, Nakajima Raishō (1796–1871). After Raishō’s death, Bairei studied with the Shijō-school master Shiokawa Bunrin (1808–77). He also studied Chinese literature and calligraphy with Confucian scholars. In 1873 his talent was officially recognized when he was included among the painters selected to show at the second Kyoto Exhibition.

In 1878 he and the painter Mochizuki Gyokusen (1834–1913) successfully petitioned the governor of Kyoto Prefecture to establish the Kyoto Prefectural Painting School (Kyōto Fu Gagakkō) in 1880. Bairei was appointed instructor in the Kanō and Tōyō Sesshū styles of ink painting (suibokuga; see Japan §VI 4., (iii)), but in 1881 he resigned his post to open a private art academy. Among his students were ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[ Mori ]

( fl Edo [now Tokyo], 1760–94; d c. 1794).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator . He may have been a pupil of the ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist Ishikawa Yukimoto. He is principally known for prints of the following types: hosōban (‘narrow format’, c. 320×150 mm); yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In its eclecticism, his style resembles that of his contemporaries, Katsukawa Shunshō ( see Katsukawa family, §1 ) and Suzuki Harunobu , who incorporated a lyricism with a naturalistic depiction of the subject. In 1770 Bunchō collaborated with Harunobu and Shunshō to produce Ehon butai ōgi (‘Picture book of stage fans’; untraced), which featured a new type of yakushae, yakusha nigaoe (‘pictures of likenesses of actors’) and challenged the traditional dominance of theatre illustration by the Torii family school. In Ehon butai ōgi, Bunchō depicted onnagata (kabuki actors playing female roles), while Shunshō illustrated kata keyaki (kabuki villains). Bunchō abandoned ...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Nagano, June 22, 1903; d March 26, 1986).

Japanese graphic designer. He graduated from the Tokyo Prefectural School of Technology in 1921 and taught there from 1922 to 1941. During this period he was exposed to the work of overseas avant-garde artists László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer and El Lissitzky. He also established links with Tomoyoshi Murayama and other members of the Sankakai group of painters. These contacts had a great influence on his later designs and led to his emergence as the founder of Japanese modern design. In 1933 he participated in the founding of the Japan Studio (Nihon Kōbō). He designed the photography exhibitions in Junzō Sakakura Japan Pavilions for the Paris World Expositions of 1937 and the New York Exposition of 1939. These exhibits exemplified Hara’s philosophy that the real work of the designer is the organization of graphic elements. His designs for the propaganda magazine Front (published by the Tōhōsha company) during the Pacific War (...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[Suzuki Hozumi; Shikojin, Chōeiken]

(b ?Edo [now Tokyo], ?1725; d Edo, 1770).

Japanese printmaker, book illustrator and painter. A central figure in the development of ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) woodblock printmaking during the mid-Edo (1600–1868) period (see Japan §X 3., (iii)), Harunobu’s most important contribution was the introduction of the first full-colour printing technique to Japan. Stylistically, the new image of feminine beauty that Harunobu created in his bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) single-sheet prints influenced a generation of ukiyoe artists. Like many Edo period ukiyoe masters, Harunobu left few clues to his identity. He was probably born into the chōnin (merchant and artisan) class. An entry referring to Harunobu’s death in the Nishikawaka kakochō (‘Death registry of the Nishikawa family’) indicates that he had a close association with the family of the Kyoto ukiyoe artist Nishikawa Sukenobu. His treatment of trees, shrubs and rocks in his bird-and-flower (kachō) painting on folding screens (...

Article

Masato Naitō

[Iwakubo Kinemon; Kikō; Kyōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1780; d Edo, 1850).

Japanese printmaker and book illustrator. He initially studied painting with Kanō Yōsen (1735–1808), the head of the Kobikichō branch of the Kanō school and okaeshi (official painter) to the Tokugawa shogunate. Together with Teisai Hokuba (1771–1844), Hokkei was one of Katsushika Hokusais best students (see Japan §X 3., (iii), (d)). He made his artistic debut in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) circles c. 1800, producing illustrations for sharebon (comic novels, usually licentious), hanashibon (story books) and kyōkabon (books of ‘crazy verse’). His main period of activity, however, was in the 1820s and 30s. He continued to illustrate kyōka books, but his most outstanding works are kyōka surimono (‘printed objects’; deluxe prints). His representative piece from this period is his illustrated edition of Rokujuen’s [Ishikawa Masamochi] (1753–1830) kokkeibon (humorous tales of urban life), Hokuri jūniji (‘The twelve hours of the northern village’, a euphemism for the Yoshiwara pleasure quarter). Hokkei produced few ...

Article

Josetsu  

Karen L. Brock

(fl c. 1405–23).

Japanese painter and Zen monk. Contemporary biographical information about Josetsu is limited to two references. A brief entry dated 1448 in the diary of the Onryōken, a subtemple of Shōkokuji in Kyoto, mentions that in around 1416 Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi consulted with Josetsu about going to the island of Shikoku in search of stone for the carving of a stele in commemoration of Shōkokuji’s founder, Musō Soseki. The entry makes no mention of Josetsu as a painter, but it suggests his acquaintance with Yoshimochi and an association with Shōkokuji, which was an important centre in the development of ink painting in the Muromachi period (1333–1568) (see Japan §VI 4., (iii)). A colophon by the otherwise unknown Kanjōsō on Josetsu’s Sankyōzu (‘The three doctrines’; Kyoto, Ryōsokuin) states that the painting is by ‘[Jo]Setsu’ (clumsy-like), and that the painter was given this name by Zekkai Chūshin (1336–1405...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Niigata, April 6, 1915; d 1997).

Japanese graphic designer. He studied principles of Constructivism at the Institute of New Architecture and Industrial Arts, Tokyo, a private institute established and run by Renshichiro Kawakita with the aim of introducing Bauhaus design theories in Japan; he graduated in 1935 and in 1938 joined the Nippon Kōbō design studio (now Publishing on Design Inc.). For over a decade from 1937 he worked as art director on a number of Japanese magazines, including Nippon and Commerce Japan. In 1951 he participated in the establishment of the Japan Advertising Arts Club, which secured social recognition for the profession of graphic designer. In 1955 he took part in the ‘Graphic ’55’ exhibition, together with Hiromu Hara, Paul Rand and others. Kamekura received an award from the Japan Advertising Arts Club in 1956 for a poster calling for peaceful use of atomic power. He co-founded the Nippon Design Centre (Tokyo) in 1960 with ...

Article

Frank L. Chance

[Kiichi]

(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1796; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1858).

Japanese painter, poet, and illustrator. The last master of the Rinpa school of decorative painting, he moved to Edo as a youth and became the leading pupil of Sakai Hōitsu, the instigator of the Rinpa revival in the early 19th century. Kiitsu was adopted into the family of Suzuki Reitan (1782–1817), another of Hōitsu’s pupils, and married his sister. When Reitan died, Kiitsu inherited his samurai rank and became a salaried retainer of the Sakai family. By the age of 30 Kiitsu was collaborating with Hōitsu on the compilation of Kōrin hyakuzu (‘One hundred pictures by Kōrin’). From mere imitation of Hōitsu, Kiitsu evolved a more personal style. He adopted the elegant compositions and brilliantly opaque colours of the Rinpa masters (see fig.), as in the exquisite pair of six-panel folding screens Cranes (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.), but was also affected by the decorative naturalism of the Maruyama–Shijō schools (...

Article

Atsushi Tanaka

(b Osaka, Oct 13, 1887; d Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefect., Feb 13, 1931).

Japanese painter and illustrator. He distinguished himself in painting at middle-school. In 1907 he entered the department of Nihonga (Japanese-style) painting at the Tokyo School of Fine Art and later transferred to the department of Yōga (Western-style) painting. After graduating in 1914 he returned to Osaka and continued to paint. In 1919 he entered his first exhibited work in the 6th Nikakai (Second Division Society) show. The painting, the N Family, received the Chogyū Prize. In the Nikakai exhibition of 1920 his portrait of the Young Girl Omme received the Nika Prize.

In 1921–2 Koide made his first trip to the West, travelling to Paris and Berlin and throughout southern France. This led to him abandoning his early style, which had been characterized by rigid compositions and dark tonalities, in favour of a more even, stronger brush style with a lighter palette; his works became lighter in spirit. In 1923...

Article

[Iwase Samuru; Rissai, Seisai, Santō Kyōden]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1761; d Edo, 1816).

Japanese print designer, book illustrator and writer. Together with Kitao Masayoshi (1764–1824) and Kubo Shunman, he was one of Kitao Shigemasa most brilliant students. He made his début in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) in 1778 with his illustrations for the kibyōshi (‘yellow cover books’; comic novels) Kaichō ryaku no meguriai. During the next few years he produced illustrations for popular novels, in the manner of other artists in the Kitao studio. At the same time he began to design single-sheet prints, including yakushae (‘pictures of actors’). In the early 1780s Masanobu illustrated extravagant ehon (‘picture books’) and kyōka (‘crazy verse’) books and also produced nishikie (‘brocade pictures’; full-colour prints) series of bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In 1783 he published his most famous work, Seirō meikun jihitsushū (‘Collection of writings of the wise ruler of the greenhouses’; woodblock-print; London, BM, which consists of 14 tate ōban...

Article

Juliann Wolfgram

[Baiō]

(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...

Article

(b Los Angeles, CA, Sept 2, 1931; d New York, Feb 10, 2012).

American graphic designer. As an American of Japanese descent, Miho was sent to an internment camp in Arizona during World War II, a difficult experience that she chose not to dwell on, but which helped her find other focuses and goals. In high school she received a scholarship for a summer programme at the Minneapolis School of Art (now the Minneapolis College of Art and Design) and was influenced by Modernism during her first visit to New York City, taking in the architecture and artwork of places such as Manhattan’s Museum of Modern Art. After high school she took a part-time job at the Bureau of Engraving in Minneapolis and continued to take classes at the Minneapolis School of Art. She then received a full scholarship to study at the Art Center School in Los Angeles (now the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena), CA. She focused on graphic design and eventually switched to industrial design so she could study packaging design with Mary Sheridan, sometimes assisting in her design office. She graduated with honours in ...

Article

Burglind Jungmann

[cha T’aesu ]

(b 1529).

Korean painter . The few biographical references make it difficult to decide whether he should be considered a court or a literati painter. The art historian An Hwi-jun includes him among the latter on the basis of a passage in which he is listed together with the vice-director of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ) Sin Se-rim (1521–83) as a well-known follower of the scholar–painter Kang Hŭi-an. In earlier texts Yi Pul-hae is also compared to the 15th-century court painter An Kyŏn. Yi Tong-ju sees a stylistic link between his paintings and a scroll (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) carrying the seal Bunsei (Jap.; Kor. Munch’ŏng). These comparisons with Kang Hŭi-an and the landscape painter Munch’ŏng suggest that Yi Pul-hae may have been a follower of a 15th-century Korean tradition influenced by Chinese painting of the Southern Song period (960–1279). An album leaf bearing the seal of Yi Pul-hae (Seoul, N. Mus.; see Kim, Choi and Im, pl. 51) depicts a scholar viewing the scene from a vantage-point. Behind him looms, as if from an unfathomable depth, an immense mountain peak. The composition of the picture as well as the broad, washed-over surface of the mountain, the structure of which is suggested only by the contours, recall the style of Xia Gui, the Chinese court painter of the Southern Song Academy. The trees enveloping the small figure with their branches like ‘crabs’ claws’ are, on the other hand, closer to the tradition of the Chinese painters Li Cheng and Guo Xi of the Northern Song period (...

Article

Jeremy Howard

[Nadezhda] (Nikolayevna)

(b Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia, Jan 31, 1952; d Moscow, March 6, 1969).

Russian illustrator and graphic designer. The phenomenon of Nadya Rusheva arose as the result of the exploitation of a child talent and the demand for positive achievements that accorded with the Soviet myth. Her death at the age of 17 from a brain haemorrhage acted as a final sad chord in her cultural role. Her first drawings became known in 1964 when the Moscow intellectual elite was seeking an embodiment of Nikita Khrushchov’s political thaw. She exhibited in the offices of the famous opposition periodical Yunost’ (‘Youth’). She produced over 10,000 works in a number of series, most of which were essentially the line illustrations of a gifted, developing child for the classics from world literature. This work, created mostly in ink, felt-tip pen and crayon, was inspired by the amateur illustrations of 19th- and 20th-century writers, most notably Aleksandr Pushkin and Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Typical of her most mature work was her illustration of ...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Oct 1, 1927).

Argentine painter, graphic designer, teacher and critic. After studying in Japan from 1935 to 1951 he returned to Argentina, remaining there until his move to New York in 1963. His paintings from 1952 were in the style of Art informel, with a calligraphic emphasis demonstrating his sympathy with oriental art, but around 1960 he moved towards a more gestural abstraction in works such as Painting No. 20 (1961; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.), using thicker paint and more subdued colours.

In 1964 Sakai began to use more geometric shapes in his pictures, and he continued to do so on moving in 1965 to Mexico, where he remained until 1977. His example opened the way to geometric abstraction in Mexico, where there was no real tradition of such work. In 1976, shortly before returning to New York, he began a series of paintings using the formal repetition of parallel undulating lines of strongly contrasting colour. From ...

Article

James Cahill

revised by Vyvyan Brunst

[Ch’eng Shih-fa; Cheng Tong; Ch’eng T’ung]

(b Songjiang County, Shanghai Municipality, 1921; d Shanghai, Jul 17, 2007).

Chinese painter and illustrator. By his own account Cheng was determined from an early age to become a painter. Although his father died when Cheng was nine, support from relatives enabled him to enter the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts in 1938, where he was trained in the traditional disciplines of landscape and bird-and-flower painting. He also took an interest in the work of modern Chinese masters. Following graduation, he worked briefly in a bank before joining the Shanghai Art Publishing Agency in 1952 as an illustrator. His assignments included New Year paintings and drawings for editions of short stories. Among his first successes was a series of plates for a contemporary edition of the 18th-century satirical classic Rulin waishi (“The scholars”) by Wu Jingzi, which in 1959 won a medal at the Leipzig International Book Exhibition (Eng. trans., Yang Hsien-yi and G. Yang, The Scholars, Beijing, 1957). However, his most impressive early achievement was a set of illustrations for another classic, Lu Xun’s ...

Article

Masato Naitō

[Kitabatake Kanetomo; Karan, Kōsuisai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1739; d Edo, 1820).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator. He was unusual among ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artists because he was self-taught. His family ran a bookshop, and the young Shigemasa probably learnt his skills from studying illustrations in books sold in the family shop. His first works gained recognition during the late 1750s. Extant early works are benizurie (‘pink-printed pictures’; two-colour prints) and yakushae (‘pictures of actors’), but his principal output is in book illustration, which he practised throughout his career and which became the speciality of the Kitao school (see Japan §X 2., (iii)), of which he was the founder.

In 1765 ukiyoe printing was revolutionized by the introduction of nishikie (‘brocade pictures’; full-colour prints) by Suzuki Harunobu and his contemporaries. Shigemasa also produced nishikie, and until the mid-1770s his style showed the influence of the yakushae of Torii Kiyomasa (see Torii family, §2) and the ...