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Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Şeker Ahmet Pasha]

(b Üsküdar, Istanbul, 1841; d Istanbul, 1907).

Turkish painter. In 1859 he became an assistant teacher of painting at the Military Medical High School in Istanbul. In 1864 Sultan Abdülaziz (reg 1861–76) sent him to Paris where, after a preparatory education at a special Ottoman school, he studied painting in the studio of Gustave Boulanger and then under Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Ahmet Ali was also instrumental in the acquisition of paintings from France for the Ottoman court. After nearly eight years of studies in Paris, he stayed in Rome for a year before returning to Istanbul, where he resumed his work at the Military Medical High School. In 1873 he organized in Istanbul the first group exhibition of paintings by Turkish and foreign artists to be held in Turkey. He was later appointed master of ceremonies at the Ottoman court and by the time of his death had risen to the office of intendant of the palace. His paintings were influenced by European art. They include landscapes, such as ...

Article

Frederick N. Bohrer

Style of the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th, inspired by Assyrian artefacts of the 9th to 7th centuries bc. These were first brought to public attention through the excavations by Paul-Emile Botta (1802–70) at Khorsabad and Austen Henry Layard at Nimrud in the 1840s. By 1847 both the Louvre in Paris and the British Museum in London had begun to display these objects, the size and popularity of which were such that the Louvre created a separate Musée des Antiquités Orientales, while the British Museum opened its separate Nineveh Gallery in 1853. The same popularity, fuelled by Layard’s best-selling Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849) and Botta’s elaborate Monument de Ninive (Paris, 1849–50), led to further explorations elsewhere in Mesopotamia.

Assyrian revivalism first appeared in England rather than France, which was then in political turmoil. The earliest forms of emulation can be found in the decorative arts, such as the ‘Assyrian style’ jewellery that was produced in England from as early as ...

Article

W. Ali

(b Ghosta, 1852; d Beirut, 1930).

Lebanese painter. In 1870 he went to Rome and enrolled at the Academia di S Luca, where he trained under Roberto Bompiani (1821–1908), the Italian court painter, and was thus probably the first Arab artist to train abroad. During his five years in Italy, Corm studied the works of Renaissance artists, whose influence was evident throughout his works. He gained official recognition when he was commissioned to paint a portrait of Pope Pius IX (reg 1846–78). On his return to Lebanon in 1875, he painted portraits of many distinguished Arabs including Khedive Abbas II of Egypt (reg 1892–1914) in 1894. Corm was best known as a religious painter, and there are many of his paintings in churches in Lebanon, Syria, Egypt and Palestine. He trained under a number of pioneer artists, including Habib Srour (1860–1938) and Khalil Saleeby (1870–1928). His portraits are a source of information on national costumes of the period....

Article

Sergey Kuznetsov

[Gigo] (Ivanovich)

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Nov 22, 1862; d Tsikhisdziri, Oct 28, 1936).

Georgian painter. He studied at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, where he was influenced by Gotfrid Villeval’de (1818–1903), painter of battle-scenes, and he held his first exhibition in 1891. He was also well acquainted with the Wanderers, and his Three Townsmen (1893; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.) displays his aspirations towards Critical Realism. Seeking new sources of inspiration Gabashvili travelled to Central Asia where studies and sketches similar to the work of Vasily Vereshchagin resulted in Bazaar in Samarkand (1896; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.; another version, 1897), in which a mastery of drawing is combined with commonplace colouring and weak composition. He also travelled to Munich but was not impressed by the modernism of German painters. In 1895, Il’ya Repin received a gold medal for his Zaporozhe Cossacks Write a Letter to the Turkish Sultan (main version 1880–91; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), a painting that greatly influenced Gabashvili, who from ...

Article

Hilary Pyle

[Mary Catherine]

(b Dublin, March 11, 1863; d Dublin, July 16, 1955).

Irish painter. She was educated mainly at home, where she drew, painted and copied the family portraits. Although she exhibited Turkeys at the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1897, family obligations prevented her from studying art until c. 1910; she was taught in Paris by Kees van Dongen and later by Hermenegildo Anglada-Camarasa, and she spent each of the 15 subsequent winters in the city. She joined the French army as a nurse during World War I and received the Croix de Guerre in September 1915. From 1922 to 1925 she worked with André Lhôte, in the latter year holding her first solo exhibition in Paris, which helped to establish her as one of the first Irish artists associated with the Ecole de Paris. In 1925, having absorbed aspects of the work of Matisse, of Cubism and finally of the work of Marie Laurençin and Raoul Dufy, still maintaining Anglada-Camarasa’s rather hot colouring, she achieved a free, decorative manner of her own. She said in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman Hamdi; Hamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...

Article

Fani-Maria Tsigakou

(b Alexandria, May 10, 1878; d Athens, July 1967).

Greek painter of Egyptian birth. He studied in Vienna under the German painter Karl Dieffenbach (b 1851) and first exhibited at the Boehms Künstlerhaus in 1899. His first exhibition in Athens was in 1900. From 1903–7 he lived on the island of Poros where he painted the frescoes for the church of St Nicholas. In 1908 he decorated the church of St George in Cairo. From 1909 to 1911 he lived in Paris, where he participated in the Salon d’Automne. In 1910 he received an award for his painting The Hillside, and in 1911 he won first prize at an exhibition of religious art for his painting of the Annunciation. He returned to Greece in 1912, living in Corfu for five years, before finally settling in Athens in 1917. In 1918 he was commissioned to decorate the church of St Alexander at Paleo Phaliro. In 1920, after a retrospective exhibition of his work at the Záppeion, Athens, he received the art and literature award of the Academy of Athens. In ...

Article

Anthony Parton

[Pirosmani, Nikolay (Aslanovich)]

(b Mirzaani, E. Kiziki region, Kakheti, ?17 May 1862; d Tbilisi, April 7, 1918).

Georgian painter. He was orphaned at an early age and brought up by his father’s employer in Tbilisi. He worked first as a brakesman on the Transcaucasian Railway, then, following a brief and financially unsuccessful foray into business, he became an itinerant painter of signboards, windows and murals, working mainly for the shopkeepers in and around Tbilisi. He had no special schooling and evolved his own naive style based upon the colours, rhythms and spatial concepts of Georgian folk art. His animal paintings and portraits are particularly impressive. His Carousal series (c. 1906; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.) depicts traditional aspects of Georgian life.

In the summer of 1912 Pirosmanashvili was ‘discovered’ by members of the Donkey’s Tail group, for whom he was, as Benedict Livshits wrote, ‘a second [Douanier] Rousseau’. The group members appreciated and collected his work for its spontaneous and naive qualities, and within a year they had propelled the obscure Georgian to fame. In ...

Article

Colette E. Bidon

(b Algiers, March 23, 1861; d Marlotte, Seine-et-Marne, March 1932).

French painter and designer. He began his career painting the Algerian scenes of his youth, rendering Orientalist subjects—such as markets and musicians—with a distinctive, unaffected precision. In 1888 he went to Paris to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Auguste Herst (b 1825) and Fernand Cormon. He exhibited at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1890.

The discovery of Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites, and a visit to Italy in 1894, led Point to model his work on the artists of the Florentine Renaissance. The inspiration of Botticelli and Leonardo can be seen in such works as the Eternal Chimera (c. 1895; London, Piccadilly Gal.). Under the dominating influence of Gustave Moreau, his work was also aligned with Symbolism. He became a disciple of Rosicrucianism and a friend of Sâr Peladan, fastidiously rejecting the modern industrial world and what he considered the excessive realism of Zola or Courbet. He painted magicians, endowed with a pure and ancient beauty, or figures of Greek mythology (e.g. ...

Article

Alkis Charalampidis

(b Tokat, Turkey, 1859; d Athens, 1927).

Greek painter. He studied at the Polytechnic in Athens (1878–80) and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1880–87). He lived and worked in Munich until 1925 but spent the last two years of his life poor and ill in Athens. He painted a wide variety of subjects, including landscapes and religious scenes. Restless by nature, with a constant inclination to experimentation, he moved from academic realism through Impressionism to Expressionism. He relied heavily on colour in his work, while the frequent visits to his own country sustained his Eastern sense of aesthetics. He revealed an interest in philosophy and the theory of art in his unpublished Hemerologio (‘Diary’; Athens, N.G.).

S. Lydakes: ‘Symeon Savvidis’, Oi ellenes zographoi [The Greek painters], ed. S. Lykades and A. Karakatsane, 1 (Athens, 1974), pp. 268–301C. Christou: Greek Painting, 1832–1922 (Athens, 1981), pp. 67–70N. Misizli: Elliniki Zographiki, 1805–1905...

Article

Michael Turner

[Shlomo Zalman Dov]

(b Vrno, Lithuania ?1866; d Denver, CO, March 22, 1932).

Lithuanian sculptor and painter, active in Palestine. Born into a poor, orthodox Jewish family, he attended rabbinical school in Vilna (now Vilnius; 1882–7). During this period he studied art at the local academy and, affected by the anti-Semitism of the period, developed left-wing political interests and the connections to an emancipated Jewish art form. His personal history generated three distinct artistic periods: the early activities in Paris (until 1895), the Bulgarian period (until 1903) and the later Jewish period in Palestine. His first known oil painting, the Dying Will (c. 1886; priv. col., see 1933 exh. cat., no. M16), was typical of late 19th-century romanticism. In 1888 he moved to Warsaw, working intensely on sculptures, reliefs and lithographs. His concept of art for a Jewish national agenda and propaganda was published that year as an article ‘Craftsmanship’ in the Hebrew newspaper Hazfira, forming the basis for his later works. After his marriage (...

Article

(b Istanbul, 1842; d Istanbul, 1913).

Turkish painter. After studying at the Military Academy in Istanbul, he was sent by Sultan Abdülaziz (reg 1861–76) to Paris, where he underwent a preparatory education at a special Ottoman school and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In Paris, under Alexandre Cabanel, he developed his talent for meticulous workmanship. On returning to Turkey he was appointed assistant to the painter Osman Nuri Pasha (1839–1906) at the Military Academy, and he taught there for many years. Disappointed at his failure to rise above the rank of major, he also worked as a French teacher at several schools. He contributed articles to newspapers and wrote an unpublished work on perspective. His paintings, which were influenced by European art, included still-lifes, such as Still-life with Hyacinths (1900; Istanbul, Mimar Sinan U., Mus. Ptg & Sculp.), and landscapes, for example Inside the Woods (1900s; Istanbul, Mimar Sinan U., Mus. Ptg & Sculp.). Like the painter Ahmet Ali, he generally avoided figural narrative subjects. Unfortunately many of his paintings, sold posthumously as part of his estate, later deteriorated in private collections....

Article

Michelle Facos

(b Gävle, Sept 23, 1860; d Solna, Jan 8, 1928).

Swedish painter and printmaker. He studied at the Royal Academy of Art in Stockholm from 1879 to 1882. For the next 12 years he lived abroad, travelling to Italy, Spain, France, Germany and North Africa and settling in London in 1886. During this time printmaking became his primary interest and in 1892 he joined the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers in London. In 1895 he returned to Stockholm, where he initiated a printmaking course at the Royal Academy. Among his students were Carl Olof Larsson, Anders Zorn, the Swedish painter Albert Engström (1869–1940) and Ferdinand Boberg. It was largely due to his efforts that printmaking gained widespread popularity among Swedish artists in the 20th century.

Några ord om etsning och andra Konstnärliga gravyrmetoder [Some words on etching and other artistic engraving methods] (Stockholm, 1912) J. Nordling: ‘Axel Tallberg och hans etsarskola’ [Axel Tallberg and his etching school], ...

Article

V. Rakitin

( Bogdanovich )

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 2, 1884; d Erevan, Dec 28, 1928).

Georgian stage designer and painter of Armenian origin, active in Russia . He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1901–3) but was expelled after a disagreement over the teaching methods. Posted to the Far East during military service, he became acquainted with Far Eastern decorative art, which inspired the works he exhibited with the Blue Rose group after his return to Moscow in 1907 (e.g. The Races, 1905; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). His work of this time refers to traditional Chinese and medieval European art refracted through Art Nouveau, in an attempt to create a new decorative style in easel painting. In Moscow he often designed the décor for artistic soirées and balls, creating architecturally decorative compositions whose basic components were painted panels. In 1910 he travelled to Italy and in 1912–13 he worked in Paris, where he became acquainted with Sonia Delaunay and Robert Delaunay. In ...