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Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...

Article

(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...

Article

(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...

Article

Amedeo Bellini

(b Milan, Nov 13, 1854; d Rome, Aug 8, 1933).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. He attended both the Politecnico in Milan and the Accademia di Brera, studying as a pupil of Camillo Boito. He graduated in 1875 and the following year enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he attended Jean-Louis Pascal’s atelier, and came into contact with Charles Garnier, Gabriel-Jean-Antoine Davioud and Théodore Ballu. He also cultivated the interest in engraving that he had acquired under the painter Luigi Conconi and exhibited at the Salon of 1877. In 1880 Beltrami won the competition organized by the municipality of Milan for a monument (unexecuted) to the anti-Austrian uprising of 1848 and was appointed to the chair in architecture at the Accademia di Brera. The following year he also shared first prize with Carlo Ferrario (1833–1907) in a competition organized by the Accademia di Brera for a new façade for the cathedral. Between 1880 and 1886...

Article

Frank Arneil Walker

(b Cologne, Oct 18, 1845; d Zagreb, April 17, 1926).

German architect, active in Croatia. He was educated in Cologne, then continued his architectural studies in Vienna, where he entered the studio of Friedrich von Schmidt, and was later in Rome. Under Schmidt he worked on the restoration of the Stephansdom in Vienna, and in 1876 he was put in charge of similar work in Croatia, implementing Schmidt’s designs (1875–82) for the cathedral at Đakovo and his project (1876–82) to restore St Mark’s, Zagreb. His most notable restorations were at the church of Marija Bistrica (1878–83) and at Zagreb Cathedral (1879–1902), but his rather purist approach often failed to respect the organic accretions of later periods, and he destroyed many provincial Baroque buildings, for example in the Gornji Grad and Kaptol districts of Zagreb (and elsewhere). An earthquake in Zagreb in 1880 gave Bollé his greatest opportunities in terms of both architecture and urban planning. In addition to further restoration work and a number of new neo-Gothic and neo-classical churches he built several urban housing blocks and public buildings in a Renaissance Revival style reminiscent of works in Vienna. Of these the city’s Crafts School (...

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

(Yevgrafovich)

(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Venice, April 25, 1859; d Rome, July 10, 1925).

Italian archaeologist. He was educated in Venice at a time when there was great controversy over the conservation of original works of art, especially in connection with the restorations (1875) in S Marco. In 1888 he moved to Rome, where he became an inspector of monuments and advocated the establishment of a photographic archive and a catalogue of monuments as a basis for restoration programmes. Having collaborated on excavations inside the Pantheon in 1892, from 1895 he superintended new excavations in the Forum Romanum (see Rome, §V, 1); the latter uncovered fundamental evidence concerning the origins of Rome, including the Lapis Niger (1st century bc; in situ), an archaic Latin inscription (c. 500 bc; Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, Academia Litterarum Borussicae, Berlin, 1863–, vi, 36840) and ‘pre-Romulan’ burial grounds. He was influenced by John Ruskin’s philosophy of art and argued that the prime function of restoration is to preserve original materials. In ...

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Caravaggio, Aug 8, 1844; d Milan, Dec 7, 1918).

Italian restorer and painter. He studied painting and restoration under Giuseppe Bertini and Giuseppe Molteni at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, and, after Molteni’s death in 1867, inherited his studio at the Brera and his private clientele. Cavenaghi was closely associated with Giovanni Morelli and his circle, most notably the collectors Gian Giacomo Poldi-Pezzoli in Milan, Sir Austen Henry Layard and Prince Giuseppe Giovanelli in Venice, as well as Morelli’s pupils, Gustavo Frizzoni and Jean Paul Richter. From the early 1870s most of the important pictures from north Italian collections in need of conservation were sent to Cavenaghi. Among his most famous restorations were the frescoes by Francesco Francia and Lorenzo Costa (i) (rest. 1874) in S Cecilia, Bologna, Donato Bramante’s frescoes (Milan, Brera) formerly in the Casa Panigarola, Milan, and Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie; rest. 1908). As revealed in letters between Richter and Morelli, Cavenaghi’s studio became a laboratory for testing restoration techniques and for the re-attribution of paintings and was frequented by the most important international museum directors and connoisseurs. From ...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1845; d Barcelona, 1924).

Spanish Catalan architect, restorer and teacher. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid and then continued his preparation in Barcelona under Elías Rogent before becoming a professor in the city’s newly created Escuela de Arquitectura (1871), teaching art history and design. With Rogent he specialized in the restoration of such great architectural ensembles as Tarragona Cathedral (1883), frequently using brick and generally adopting a historicist approach influenced by the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc. Other noteworthy achievements include the reinforcement of the cupola of the basilica del Pilar in Saragossa and the construction of the cimborio of Barcelona Cathedral, in a perfect neo-Gothic style. Font i Carreras also built numerous mansions for the aristocracy and wealthy bourgeoisie of Catalonia and was responsible for the Palace of Fine Arts in the Exposició Universal (1888) in Barcelona. In the course of his successful career he also became an associate member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and in Barcelona was elected to membership of the Academia de S Jorge and the Academia de Ciencias y Artes; he was also President of the Asociacíon de Arquitectos de Cataluña and of the Comisión Provincial de Monumentos....

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Boussat, Gironde, July 24, 1845; d Montfermeil, Aug 27, 1926).

French architect. He studied (1865–9) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and had an important career in the Service des Edifices Diocésains, which he joined in 1876. He succeeded Charles Laisné as diocesan architect of Auch in 1879 and subsequently became architect of Meaux, Poitiers and Laval. He finally became inspecteur général adjoint in 1901. At the same time he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques. The various buildings he restored included the ancient abbey of Conques (begun 1878) and, in Poitiers, the churches of Notre-Dame-La-Grande, Ste Radegonde and St Hilaire Le Grand, as well as the Palais de Justice. He helped with the excavation (1881–2) of the ruins of Sanxay and restored the abbey of St-Savin-sur-Gartempe, the castle at Chauvigny (all Vienne) and the church at Poissy (Yvelines). Most of his work in the South of France involved the restoration or conservation of Romano-Gallic remains. He became a member of the Monuments Historiques in ...

Article

Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Iaşi, Dec 12, 1869; d Bucharest, Dec 16, 1943).

Romanian architect, restorer, architectural historian and teacher. He studied engineering (1889–93) at the School of Roads and Bridges, Bucharest, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Victor Laloux, where he obtained a diploma in 1901. After 1906 he was active in the Romanian Historical Monuments Commission, researching the ancient historical architecture of Romania. He was among the promoters of the ‘neo-Romanian’ style, along with Ion Mincu, Petre Antonescu, Constantin Iotzu (1884–1962) and Grigore Cerchez (1850–1927). Ghika-Budeşti’s most significant building is the Museum of National Art (1912–38; now the Romanian Peasant Museum), Bucharest. Built of traditional stone, brick and tiles, it is remarkable both for a compositional balance characteristic of traditional Romanian architecture and for its monumental dimensions. At the same time the human scale is retained by the incorporation of various decorative elements: dogtooth motifs, mouldings, niches, balustrades and ornamental tendrils reminiscent of the Brâncoveanu period (...

Article

Ronald J. Onorato

(Morrison)

(b Hartford, CT, Nov 12, 1864; d Wickford, RI, Jan 1, 1943).

American architect, preservationist, and author. Isham was one of the earliest American architects to specialize in the restoration of colonial American structures. He worked on a large number of 17th- and 18th-century structures in New England, wrote several major works on American architecture, conducted archaeological site work, and also designed new, mostly residential buildings.

Most of his private and professional life was spent in Rhode Island with its large number of existing colonial buildings. The state’s extensive collection of early structures influenced his career, as did other Rhode Island architects who helped generate the Colonial Revival style nationally such as Edmund R. Willson (1856–1906), of the prominent Providence firm of Stone, Carpenter & Willson, with whom Isham trained in the late 1880s. About the same time, he received Bachelor and Master degrees from Brown University, and he married Elizabeth Barbour Ormsbee in 1895.

It is impossible to study colonial American architecture without encountering buildings that Isham restored. While some of his preservation methods and decisions have been superceded by more modern approaches and technologies, he notably produced scores of carefully measured drawings, which are still used by preservationists and historians today. His projects included such significant 17th- and 18th-century structures as Newport’s Colony House, Trinity Church, Redwood Library, and Wanton-Lyman-Allen house (all restored in the 1920s), the Stephen Hopkins House and University Hall at Brown University in Providence, Bishop Berkeley’s Whitehall in Middletown, the Eleazar Arnold House in Lincoln, and the Gilbert Stuart Birthplace in North Kingstown, all Rhode Island. His bibliography encompasses surveys of early Rhode Island and Connecticut homes, scholarly studies on specific buildings, such as the First Baptist Meeting House, Providence, and St Paul’s in Wickford and papers on individual architects such as John Holden Greene....

Article

James Bettley

(b Hampstead, London, Dec 21, 1835; d Wimbledon, London, Nov 7, 1924).

English architect and writer. Jackson, the son of a solicitor, was educated at Brighton College and Wadham College, Oxford, of which he became a Fellow in 1865. He served his articles (1858–61) in the office of George Gilbert Scott the elder and then set up practice in London in 1861. His early work—including St Peter’s Church (1872–4), Hornblotton, Somerset —attracted little attention, although his book Modern Gothic Architecture (1873) was widely praised: in it Jackson advocated the use of an eclectic English Renaissance style, which he himself used with few exceptions throughout his career.

In 1876 he made his name by winning the competition for the new Examination Schools, Oxford, and went on to work for no fewer than 11 colleges there. He also carried out restoration or other work on practically every university building and designed the new High Schools for Boys and Girls (...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...

Article

Dianne Timmerman and Frank van den Hoek

(b Eemnes, June 11, 1859; d Zeist, Oct 28, 1922).

Dutch architect. He was the son of a Dutch Reformed Minister and studied at Delft Polytechnic, where he was influenced by the Renaissance Revival doctrines of Eugen Gugel. For a long time Posthumus Meyjes himself worked in this style, most notably in his design for the administrative office (1882–4) of the Dutch Iron Railway Company at Droogbak 1A, Amsterdam. In 1882 he became architect to the railway company, in which position he designed the station in Delft, and in 1888 he established himself as an independent architect in Amsterdam, where he was appointed architect of the church buildings of the Dutch Reformed community. In this capacity he built several churches and supervised the restoration over several years of the medieval Nieuwe Kerk on the Dam in Amsterdam. Around 1900 Posthumus Meyjes’s style changed and began to show similarities to the work of H. P. Berlage, for example in the office building (...

Article

Louise Noelle

(b Tepic, Feb 26, 1853; d Mexico City, Jan 3, 1927).

Mexican architect, restorer, and teacher. After studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, he returned to Mexico in 1879 to practise as an architect–engineer and teach in the Escuela de Ingeniería and the Escuela de Arquitectura, Mexico City. As an architect his most notable project is the monument to Independence (1890–1910) on the Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City, on which he collaborated with the sculptor Enrique Alciati. The slender column rises from a carefully worked base that includes sculptures of historical figures associated with the independence movement, topped by a gilded statue of a winged victory. The Teatro Juárez (1892–1903), Guanajuato, which has a Neo-classical exterior and a neo-Moorish interior, is a competently executed example of his eclecticism. Rivas Mercado also designed domestic buildings, including his own house (1898), Calle de Héroes, which has been poorly preserved, and that of the Macías family (...

Article

Catherine Cooke

(Viktorovich)

(b Kishinyov [now Chişinău], Moldova, Sept 26, 1873; d Moscow, May 24, 1949).

Russian architect, urban planner and restorer, of Moldovan birth. Although by nature a historicist, to whom undecorated Modernism was a response to poverty rather than an aim in itself, he came to occupy a central position in the formative years of Soviet Modernist architecture during the 1920s. His own best works, however, date in general from the periods before the Revolution of 1917 and after 1930, when public architectural tastes were closer to his own.

His father was a minor official in Russian provincial administration in Kishinyov. Orphaned while still at school, but a highly talented draughtsman, Shchusev went to St Petersburg and entered the Academy of Arts in 1891 studying, after the reforms of 1894, in the studio of Leonty Benois. His diploma project of 1897 won him the Academy’s gold medal and a 16-month trip to Europe in 1898–9. On his return he worked for Benois until receiving his own first significant commission in ...

Article

Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, July 26, 1826; d Ghent, Feb 24, 1907).

Belgian architect, writer and restorer. He was the son of a carpenter-builder, and his studies at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt, J. Van Hoecke (1803–1862) and Adolphe Pauli were crowned by a first prize in 1855–6. His first works included several designs for houses and a published project for a museum (‘Ontwerp van een Museum van beeldende kunsten’, in Album uitgegeven door hat kunstlievend geselschap der Gentsche Academie (Ghent, 1856)) in the classical taste, as well as work in the Rundbogenstil advocated by his teachers. When Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune settled in Ghent in 1858, Van Assche became his pupil and collaborator, teaching at the St Luke Schools and becoming a member of the archaeological society, the Gilde de St Thomas et de St Luc. Under Bethune’s influence, from c. 1865 he increasingly developed his own practice as a protagonist of the Gothic Revival movement. His personal interpretation of Bethune’s architectural principles, distinguished by a preference for a strong visual impact sometimes resulting in a striking constructional polychromy, are evident in St Joseph’s (...