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Article

Beginning with the Great Exhibition in London in 1851, world’s fairs (often called universal expositions, international exhibitions, or world expos) became mainstays of the modern world. By 1900, dozens of cities around the globe ranging from Paris to Philadelphia to Calcutta (now Kolkata) played host to these spectacles. By 1945 a worldwide audience of about one billion people had attended these events, underscoring their popularity and potential to influence mass audiences on a global scale. World’s fairs put new technologies and consumer products on display, they introduced new forms of entertainment, and they reflected the empire-building ambitions of many nations. World’s fairs can be understood from many perspectives, but fundamental is the recognition that these complex festivals of modernity were, at the core, built environments and cultural landscapes of dazzling complexity that served as laboratories for architects, designers, and urban planners (see also Exhibition architecture).

The first bona fide world’s fair held in the USA took place in Philadelphia in ...

Article

Lillian B. Miller

(b Nassau, May 20, 1846; d Brookline, MA, Sept 22, 1926).

American engineer, patron and collector. He was educated in Providence, RI, in Paris and at the Phillips Academy in Andover, MA. He studied engineering and in 1873 became superintendent of the western division of the Boston waterworks, where he was instrumental in bringing about the sanitation of the water supply.

FitzGerald had studied sculpture in Paris as a young boy, and his love of art manifested itself in the creation of a collection of contemporary works by American, Dutch, Norwegian, Spanish, and in particular, French artists. He was an early friend of Claude Monet and owned numerous works by him, including Mme Monet and Child (1875), Fishing Boats at Etretat, Hills of Vétheuil on the Seine (1880) and Sunset on the Seine: Winter Effect (1880). Other Impressionist artists whose works appeared in his collection included Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Camille Pissarro and Alfred Sisley. FitzGerald was an admirer and friend of the American painter ...

Article

Molly Dorkin

Place where works of art are displayed. In a commercial gallery, works of art are displayed for the purposes of sale (for information on non-commercial art galleries see Display of art and Museum, §I). Historically, artworks were commissioned by patrons directly from an artist and produced in his workshop. In the Netherlands, the economic boom following the conclusion of the Eighty Years’ War with Spain (1648) led to rising demand for art. Patrons began buying from dealers, some of whom produced illustrated catalogues. Antwerp became the centre of the art world. Galleries for the display and viewing of art appeared in paintings by Teniers family, §2 and Bruegel family, §3, although these were private not commercial spaces, or imaginary constructions.

The Paris Salon, which had been organized by the Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture since 1667, was opened to the public for the first time in ...

Article

Peter Boutourline Young

(b Vienna, May 12, 1839; d Baden-Baden, Dec 19, 1909).

Austrian architect, engineer, architectural historian and writer. He studied engineering in Paris and in 1860 entered the Bauakademie, Berlin, where he was a pupil of Friedrich Adler. He made two study trips to Italy in his youth. He devoted himself mainly to historical research, renouncing his practical activities as an architect. Many of his numerous studies are still invaluable reference works for scholars of French and German architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries. Geymueller was profoundly influenced by the Swiss art historian Jacob Burckhardt. His Les Projets primitifs pour la basilique de Saint-Pierre de Rome (1875) was based on the discovery and study of previously unpublished drawings by Bramante and Raphael for St Peter’s in Rome. He collaborated with Karl Martin von Stegmann in writing, and then edited, Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana (1885–1907), a comprehensive work that had originally been the idea of four young German artists who had joined together to form the ...

Article

(b Göttingen, June 26, 1848; d Berlin, May 11, 1904).

German architect. He started his architectural training at the Polytechnikum in Hannover in 1868. After the interruption of the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) he completed his studies under the prominent Gothic Revival architects Conrad Wilhelm Hase in Hannover and Friedrich von Schmidt in Vienna before working (1876–9) under Johannes Otzen, another Gothic Revivalist, on his Bergkirche at Wiesbaden. In 1879 Grisebach embarked on tours of France, Spain and Italy, and on his return to Germany he settled in Berlin and set up his own practice, designing mainly private houses and commercial buildings. He received a number of commissions from the newly rich industrialists, for whom he designed large houses, for example the Villa Springmann (1890–91; destr.) at Elberfeld and the Villa Levin (1899–1900) at Michelstrasse 4, Göttingen. In these buildings he was influenced by English domestic design, the plan of Villa Springmann, for example, being an almost exact copy of an English country-house plan published in ...

Article

Luisa Morozzi

(Percy)

(b London, Feb 18, 1864; d Florence, April 14, 1916).

English collector, art historian, designer and architect. He joined the architectural practice of A(rthur) H(eygate) Mackmurdo as an associate in 1883 and was a partner from 1885 to 1890. Together they were leading members of the Century Guild of Artists (c. 1883–92). At this time he developed his skills as a graphic artist, creating designs for textiles, furniture and objects (e.g. London, William Morris Gal.), as well as decorative initial letters and elegant foliar and zoomorphic motifs that appeared in the Century Guild Hobby Horse magazine. The Horne–Mackmurdo partnership produced plans for Brewhouse Yard at Eton College and also for a series of houses in Uxbridge Road, London (both unexecuted). In 1889 Mrs Russell Gurney commissioned Horne to design the Chapel of the Ascension in Bayswater Road, London, decorated by Frederic Shields (destr. World War II).

The turning-point in Horne’s life and artistic development came when he was commissioned by the London publisher George Bell to write a monograph on Botticelli; for this reason he began making sporadic visits to Florence in ...

Article

Malcolm Gee

(b 1849; d 1927).

German industrialist, collector and patron. He owned a light engineering company in Berlin. In the 1890s he started buying work of the modern Munich school. However, his most active period as a collector occurred between 1907 and 1914, when he played a key role in the promotion of avant-garde art in Germany. This was partly due to a family connection: his niece Elizabeth Gerhardt was married to August Macke. In 1907 Macke came to Berlin and introduced Koehler to modern ideas about painting, including those of Julius Meier-Graefe. Koehler now bought work by the French Impressionists and their German admirers such as Max Liebermann and Max Slevogt. In July 1910, shortly after meeting him, he offered Franz Marc a monthly stipend in return for pictures. This arrangement lasted until Marc’s death in 1914 and led to the acquisition of at least 36 paintings. Koehler was the only buyer at the first ...

Article

Myroslava M. Mudrak

[Krichevsky, Vasily]

(b Vorozhba, Kharkiv province, Jan 12, 1873; d Caracas, Venezuela, Nov 15, 1952).

Ukrainian architect, painter, illustrator and collector. He received no systematic artistic education and first became known because of his interest in Ukrainian folklore. His prizewinning design for the City Council building in Poltava (1900) formed the basis of a new style, founded on traditions of Ukrainian folk art, and initiated a movement in Ukrainian architecture. Among his other buildings are the People’s House in Lokhvitsa (1904) and the Shevchenko Memorial Museum in Kaniv (1931–4). As a painter, he was influenced by the French Impressionists. The pure, harmonious colours of his southern Ukrainian landscapes convey the lyrical atmosphere of his native land, and he took part in the annual exhibitions of the Union of Russian Watercolourists in St Petersburg (1899–1902) and in the exhibitions of Kiev painters (1910–13). Krychevsky was one of the founders of contemporary Ukrainian book design, reviving the technique of the woodcut and producing over 80 cover designs. He produced set and costume designs for 15 plays and operas in the Sadovs’ky Theatre in Kiev (...

Article

Karolina Lanckorońska

[Karl Anton Leo Ludwig]

(b Vienna, Nov 4, 1848; d Vienna, July 15, 1933).

Polish archaeologist, writer, collector and patron, active in Austria. As an archaeologist his main interest lay in the architectural ruins of the late Roman Empire in Anatolia. In 1884 he organized an expedition of which he later published an account, Stadt Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Sketches made by Jacek Malczewski (e.g. Warsaw, Royal Castle; mainly watercolours) are also records of the expedition. Lanckoroński and Malczewski later toured Italy and travelled to Munich together. Other artists patronized by Lanckoroński included Antoni Madeyski (1862–1939), Henryk Rodakowski and Hans Makart. During 1888 and 1889 Lanckoroński made a round-the-world voyage and subsequently published a diary of this trip, entitled Rund um die Erde. He brought back to Vienna various works of art, mainly sculptures and textiles. Between 1890 and 1895 a Baroque Revival palace was built for him in Vienna to designs by Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Hellmer (1849–1919). In it Lanckoroński installed paintings, mainly Dutch and French, that he had inherited and Italian paintings he had purchased (e.g. Masaccio’s ...

Article

(b Sept 30, 1849; d London, Jan 25, 1919).

English painter, draughtsman and collector. He came from a poor family and worked for most of his youth in an engineer’s office in London. When he was in his teens he attracted the attention of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Philip Webb and William Morris and became an assistant in the studios of Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and G. F. Watts. He transferred Burne-Jones’s cartoons on to glass for Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.) and executed designs for Christina Rossetti’s Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862) and Morris’s The Earthly Paradise (1868–70). He went to Italy to copy Old Master paintings for Ruskin, who described him as ‘a heaven-born copyist’ (examples, after Carpaccio and Botticelli, Sheffield, Ruskin Gal. Col. Guild of St George). In 1867 he began exhibiting at the Royal Academy, London, and after 1877 at the Grosvenor Gallery, London. His paintings (e.g. ...

Article

Helen Davies

(b Nottingham, Dec 16, 1824; d Swanage, April 10, 1913).

English museum curator, collector and connoisseur. He began studies in architecture but then turned to painting, working in the 1840s in the studio of Michel-Martin Drolling in Paris, among others. During this time he laid the foundations of his vast knowledge of Western art. On his return to England in 1847 he taught at the School of Design at Hanley and in 1852 was called to London to become a teachers’ training master. His curatorial abilities were noticed, and in the same year he was made Keeper of the new Museum of Ornamental Art at Marlborough House (transferred to South Kensington in 1857 and later named the Victoria and Albert Museum).

He was chiefly responsible for all the important acquisitions made for the museum between 1852 and 1867, excluding those of contemporary art. He built up all the collections, including those of ceramics, metalwork, manuscripts and drawings, but particularly that of Italian Renaissance sculpture, for which he made purchases of 13th- and 14th-century works. Among the acquisitions that he made for the museum were 69 works from the collections of ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...