(b New York, Jan 13, 1927; d New York, Nov 26, 1973).
American scholar of Gothic architecture. He majored in classics at Yale University and served in the US Army in Europe (1945–6), where he encountered the great monuments of Gothic architecture. He completed his doctoral degree at Yale, also studying medieval architecture and archaeology at the Ecole des Chartes and the Institut d’Art et Archéologie in Paris, and engaging in excavations at Bourges Cathedral (1950–52). His doctoral dissertation on Bourges was directed by Sumner McKnight Crosby.
Branner taught for a year at Yale (1952) before accepting a teaching position at the University of Kansas (1954). Between 1957 and his death he taught in the Department of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University, New York, with a brief spell at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. As a teacher, Robert Branner energized the study of medieval art in a vital and lasting way.
Although he is remembered principally as a most prolific scholar of Gothic architecture, Branner’s considerable list of publications includes topics in medieval manuscript production, architectural drawing, painting, luxury arts, and monumental sculpture. Each of Branner’s three great books on Gothic architecture brought a different approach. ...
(b Feluy, Jan 10, 1849; d Ghent, Jan 11, 1920).
Belgian architect and writer. He trained as a civil engineer under Adolphe Pauli at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. As a student he came into contact with the Belgian Gothic Revival movement centred on Jean-Baptiste Bethune and the St Luke School in Ghent, founded by Bethune in 1862. From 1874 Cloquet worked with the publishers Desclée. His early architectural work was similar to that of Bethune, Joris Helleputte and the first generation of St Luke architects. His most important projects were built around the turn of the century: the University Institutes (1896–1905), Ghent, and the Central Post Office (1897–1908), Ghent, the latter with Etienne Mortier (1857–1934), a pupil of Helleputte. In them Cloquet adopted a more eclectic though still predominantly medieval style, also introducing Renaissance motifs. Between 1904 and 1911 he designed a redevelopment plan for the historic centre of Ghent, between the early 14th-century belfry and the 15th-century church of St Michael, known as the Kuip, which was realized before the Ghent World Fair of ...
(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).
American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.
In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.
Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...
(b Gemona, Udine, Aug 31, 1857; d San Remo, Imperia, May 3, 1932).
Italian architect. The son of a building contractor, at 14 he was working as a mason in Graz, Austria, and attending the local Baukunde where Leopold Theyer taught neo-Gothic and neo-Renaissance architectural design. He returned to Gemona in 1874 and after voluntary military service with the military engineers in Turin, where he learned the techniques of structural work in wood, he attended the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under Giacomo Franco and graduating in 1880.
After a brief period (1881) during which he taught at the Accademia di Carrara, D’Aronco’s career can be divided into three phases: in the first decade he was associated with Giuseppe Sommaruga and Ernesto Basile as one of the leading architects of the Stile Liberty (It.: Art Nouveau); the second, c. ten years either side of 1900, was when much of his work was in Turkey; and the third, after 1908...
Canadian architectural partnership formed in 1895 by Frank Darling (1850–1923) and John (Andrew) Pearson (1867–1940). Frank Darling’s career was founded in the Gothic Revival and conditioned by the ecclesiological inclinations of his father, the first cleric to introduce Anglican high church ritualism and fittings into Toronto. He studied for three years in London in 1870–73, in the offices of G. E. Street and Arthur Blomfield (1829–99), and in 1874 established his practice in Toronto. His most important early works were High Anglican parish churches in Toronto that drew on English Gothic Revival and then American Romanesque Revival sources, especially for the unfinished church of St Mary Magdalene in central Toronto (1886–92). The contacts made through church work led to institutional and commercial commissions, such as Trinity College, Toronto (1877–1905, destr.), and in 1880 Darling won a competition for the Legislative Buildings, Toronto (not executed), for the Province of Ontario. After ...
(b Pomfret, CT, April 28, 1869; d New York, April 23, 1924).
American architect and illustrator. In 1892–1913 he worked in partnership with Ralph Adams Cram, designing a remarkable series of Gothic Revival churches. His later work, in a variety of styles, culminated in the Nebraska State Capitol, a strikingly original design.
In 1884 Goodhue moved to New York, where he entered the office of Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell as an office boy. In 1891 he won a competition to design a proposed cathedral in Dallas but joined the office of Cram & Wentworth in Boston as chief draughtsman and informal partner. The following year Goodhue became a full partner in Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, which, after the death of Charles Wentworth (1861–97) and his replacement by Frank Ferguson (1861–1926), became in 1898 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson.
Before Goodhue’s arrival, Cram & Wentworth had already begun work on All Saints at Ashmont, Boston, their first major work. The final design clearly derives from their earlier proposal of ...
(b Watford, Herts, April 21, 1861; d New York, Jan 27, 1940).
English designer and maker of stained glass, metalwork and enamel. In the mid-1870s he was apprenticed to the London firm of Burlison & Grylls, makers of stained glass in the Gothic Revival style. He later joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, the firm of stained-glass manufacturers and painters founded by his father, Clement Heaton (1824–82), whom he succeeded as a partner in 1882. In 1884 he left London for Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he collaborated with Paul Robert on the decoration of the monumental staircase (in situ) of the Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, experimenting with cloisonné enamel as an enrichment for the pilasters, mouldings and cornices. On his return to England in 1885 Heaton executed enamel designs for A. H. Mackmurdo and provided designs for metalwork and lamps for the Century Guild of Artists. Following a dispute in 1885, Heaton left Heaton, Butler & Bayne and established Heaton’s Cloisonné Mosaics Ltd, which produced plaques, book covers and lamps. After ...
Janet A. Headley
American sculptors. Henry Hudson Kitson (b Huddersfield, Yorks, 9 April ?1864; d Tyringham, MA, 26 June 1947) moved to the USA where he trained as a sculptor and worked with his brother John William Kitson (1846–88), contributing to the Gothic-inspired Astor Memorial Altar (1877; Trinity Church) and the Fifth Avenue mansion of William K. Vanderbilt (1883; destr.), both in New York. He pursued formal training in Paris, with a Salon success of Music of the Sea (subsequently cast in bronze, 1884; Boston, MA, Mus. F. A.), another in the long line of picturesque ‘Neapolitan’ types by François Rude, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Hiram Powers, and Vincenzo Gemito. Kitson showcased his skill in this work: the anatomy is carefully articulated, the pose a complex spiral.
In 1886 Kitson settled in Boston, where he met aspiring sculptor Theo Alice Ruggles (b Brookline, MA, 1871; d Boston, MA, ...
English cabinetmaking firm in Leeds, prominent in the late 19th century. The company began as Messrs Kendell & Co., which was bought in 1864 by John Marsh and Edward Jones. Their furniture was executed in historical styles, often Gothic Revival, and was sold from both their Leeds workshop and a London showroom. Their distinguished succession of designers included Charles Bevan, Bruce Talbert and (in the 1880s and 1890s) W. R. Lethaby; in the early 20th century they made Art Nouveau furniture, and their designers included Edwin Lutyens in ...
(b Greenwich, nr London, Jan 4, 1852; d Chichester, Aug 19, 1932).
English architect and writer. The son of a barrister, he first attended Harrow School and then Cambridge, where he developed an interest in Gothic architecture that was stimulated by John Ruskin’s writings and by his own sketching tours to the churches of East Anglia. In 1874 he was articled to R. Norman Shaw, acting as clerk of works in 1878–9 at St Margaret’s church and at St John’s, a Shaw house, both Ilkley, W. Yorks. He went on sketching tours in England, Belgium and France, often in the company of fellow pupils and assistants, including W. R. Lethaby and Ernest Newton, with whom he founded St George’s Art Society in 1883. In 1884 he was a founder-member of the Art Workers’ Guild, the central metropolitan organization of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
In 1880 Prior set up his own practice, applying Shaw’s Old English and Queen Anne styles to houses such as High Grove (...
Alexandra Wedgwood and Roderick O’Donnell
English family of artists, of French descent. (1) A. C. Pugin came to England c. 1792 and had a successful and wide-ranging career; however, his son (2) A. W. N. Pugin, the Gothic Revival architect, is the best-known member of the family. The latter’s sons (3) E. W. Pugin, Peter Paul Pugin (1851–1904) and Cuthbert Welby Pugin (1840–1928), and his grandsons Sebastian Pugin Powell (1866–1949) and Charles Henry Cuthbert Purcell (1874–1958), were all architects.A. Wedgwood: The Pugin Family: Catalogue of the Drawings Collection of the RIBA (Farnborough, 1977)A. Wedgwood: A. W. N. Pugin and the Pugin Family: Catalogue of Architectural Drawings in the Victoria & Albert Museum (London, 1985)
(b Paris, 1769; d London, Dec 19, 1832).
Architect, illustrator, painter, draughtsman, designer and teacher. He probably came from an artistic family with claims to nobility, and he settled in England during the French Revolution, although the exact circumstances or date of his arrival are not known. On ...
Margaret Henderson Floyd
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Architectural style popular from the 1870s until the early 20th century in England and the USA. Developing in reaction to the dogma of Gothic Revival, the style borrowed freely from the domestic architecture of the late 17th century and Queen Anne periods in England and the Netherlands. The style is characterized by asymmetrical plans, use of red brick and a combination of medieval and Classical motifs, such as oriel windows and Flemish gables together with pilasters and broken pediments. It was allied to progressive social attitudes and a desire to make good design available to all. The decorative arts were of great importance to the style, and domestic fittings contributed substantially to the desired aesthetic effect. In England the style ended in the hands of speculative builders and in the USA it merged into the Shingle style and the vernacular.
William Morris’s Red House (1858), Bexleyheath, London, designed by ...
(b Edinburgh, May 7, 1831; d London, November 17, 1912).
English architect of Scottish birth. He was one of the most versatile and influential architects of the late Victorian age. He began working in the Gothic Revival style, in which he designed a number of original churches; the prolific output of his maturity is domestic work in the Old English and Queen Anne Revival styles with which his name is most closely associated; and his adoption after about 1890 of an altogether heavier style shows him to be a proponent of the Baroque Revival of the Edwardian age.
Shaw’s mother was Scottish and Presbyterian, his father an Irish Protestant who died in 1833 leaving the family heavily in debt and Shaw to be brought up presumably in impoverished gentility. About 1846 the family moved to London, where Shaw worked in an unknown architect’s office until, in or before 1849, he was articled to William Burn, a fellow Scot who was a competent and successful country house architect. Here Shaw met W. E. Nesfield (...