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Marianne Barrucand

[‛Alawī; Filālī]

Islamic dynasty and rulers of Morocco since 1631. Like their predecessors the Sa‛dis, the ‛Alawis are sharīfs (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. From a base in the Tafilalt region of south-east Morocco, the ‛Alawi family was able to overcome the centrifugal forces exerted by the Berber tribes who had destroyed the Sa‛di state in the first half of the 17th century. To restore political authority and territorial integrity, Mawlay Isma‛il (reg 1672–1727) added a new black slave corps to the traditional tribal army. Although royal power was weak during the 19th century and the early 20th, when the French and Spanish established protectorates, the ‛Alawis’ power was fully restored after independence from the French in 1956.

‛Alawi building activities (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) were concentrated in the four cities that have served as their capitals: Fez and Marrakesh at various times from ...


Janet Southorn

(b Darmstadt, April 9, 1850; d London, May 21, 1912).

British industrialist, collector and philanthropist of German birth. He was educated in Frankfurt and in 1871 he went to South Africa, where he worked in the diamond mining industry. With Alfred Beit, elder brother of Sir Otto Beit, he founded what became the Central Mining and Investment Corporation, and he became a British citizen in 1898. Wernher was a generous benefactor of hospitals and educational institutions. He was created baronet in 1905.

In addition to his London home, Bath House (destr. c. 1960) in Piccadilly, Wernher acquired in 1903 Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire, rebuilt in the 1760s by Robert Adam for John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. He commissioned alterations to both houses in the then fashionable French 18th-century style of interior decoration, creating an ornate background for the display of his collection of European art. Of his acquisitions, the pictures alone numbered 250; they included Joshua Reynolds’s portrait of ...