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Christiane Andersson

(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd, 1484 or 1485; d Strassburg [now Strasbourg, France], 1545).

German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and stained-glass designer. Such contemporaries as Jean Pélerin (De artificiali perspectiva, 1521) and the Alsatian humanist Beatus Rhenanus in 1526 counted him among the greatest artists of his time. In the opinion of specialists today, Baldung’s work places him only half a step behind Grünewald, Dürer and Hans Holbein the younger. A prodigious and imaginative artist of great originality, versatility and passion, Baldung was fascinated with witchcraft and superstition and possessed a desire for novelty of subjects and interpretation that sometimes borders on the eccentric. The new themes he introduced include the supernatural and the erotic. He was the first to show the erotic nature of the Fall in his chiaroscuro woodcut of Adam and Eve (1511; Hollstein, no. 3) and illustrated the successive stages of mating behaviour of horses in his woodcut series of Wild Horses in the forest (1534; Hollstein, nos 238–40); and he is remembered especially for his images of witches. Dürer influenced him only in an early stage but not lastingly. Baldung had a very different sensibility and lacked Dürer’s sense of decorum. Grünewald, whose monumental ...


(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...


Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...


Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...


(b Murano, c. 1470; d ?Venice, after Aug 21, 1531).

Italian engraver, painter and designer of stained glass. He was born into a family of glass painters, and, although there is no documentary evidence that he worked outside Venice, his early paintings and engravings show the influence of Domenico Morone and of Mantegna and his circle, which would suggest that Mocetto’s training may not have been exclusively Venetian. His artistic evolution is most clearly seen in a comparison of early works still close to Morone, such as a series of three engravings of the Battle between Israel and the Amalekites (see Hind, nos 719–20) or the painting of the Battle (Pavia, Pin. Malaspina), to works of a few years later, such as the two small paintings of the Massacre of the Innocents (London, N.G.) and the engravings of Pagan Sacrifices (h 726–7), the Metamorphosis of Amymone (h 728) and the Calumny of Apelles (h. 727), all datable to ...


[Kristoffel; Stoffel]

(b Zurich, Feb 1558; d Winterthur, March 27, 1614).

Swiss glass painter, woodcut designer, etcher, book illustrator and writer. He was the son and pupil of the glass painter and councillor Jos Murer (1530–80), founder of a family of artists who lived in Zurich in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 he collaborated with his father on a cycle of 13 pairs of panes representing Thirteen Historic Scenes of the Swiss Confederation for the Zisterzienkloster of Wettingen, Aargau. Christoph’s monograms (sm, stm) are on three panes. He probably followed this work with study travels. In 1579 he designed a cycle of panes in Basle for the well-known citizen Leonhard Thurneysser (1531–96), celebrating the adventurous life of this much-travelled goldsmith, alchemist, astrologer and personal physician to the Elector of Brandenburg. Of the original cycle, two paintings, including the Birth of Leonhard Thurneysser of Basle in 1531 (1579; Basle, Öff. Kstsamml.), and two design sketches (?...


(b Amsterdam, 1566; d Amsterdam, c. before 1612).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher. He trained with the stained-glass artist Jacob Lenartz in Amsterdam and from c. 1588–9 to 1590 in Haarlem with Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem; after his apprenticeship he stayed there for a number of years as an independent master. He is one of the first important Dutch painter–etchers before Rembrandt. His work is distinguished by the wavy, exaggerated and contorted style typical of late Mannerism. The composition, style and pastel colours of the Flood (1592; Oldenburg, Landesmus.), his earliest dated painting, clearly show the influence of Cornelis Cornelisz., as do the pen-and-wash drawings Outdoor Party in a Garden (1593; Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.) and Mercury (c. 1594; Rotterdam, Boymans–van Beuningen), the verso of which is addressed to the Utrecht goldsmith Adam van Vianen. He also made six etchings of religious subjects, five of which are dated 1593 and were probably made while he was still in Haarlem. His lines do not vary in thickness in imitation of engraved lines but end abruptly....


Marianne Grivel

(fl 1521–80).

French painter, sculptor and engraver. Born at Gray or Pesmes (both in Haute-Saône), he began work in Dijon, on ephemeral decorations for the ceremonial entry of Francis I in 1521. He probably also produced some stained-glass windows with coats of arms at Gray in 1530. Two engravings in the Flemish style, Roman Charity and Venus, are signed with his full name and dated 1546. Pierre-Jean Mariette ascribed to him a series of prints (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.; 4, after Polidoro da Caravaggio, of terms and 12 of architectural details) engraved in Italy, probably in Rome, between 1535 and 1538, bearing the monogram p.s., although Michel de Marolles, writing in 1666, thought this referred to a certain Perjeconter, otherwise unknown. Although they are very different in style to Prévost’s other works, these works may be by him. If he went to Italy, he was back in France before 1550, when he painted the retables of the high altars at Dôle and Gray for ...


J. P. Filedt Kok

(b Utrecht, c. 1455; d Mainz, c. 1490).

German painter, designer and woodcutter of Netherlandish birth. He was probably the son of the painter Hillebrant van Reewijk, who worked for the Buurkerk in Utrecht between 1456 and 1465 and in 1470 was Dean of the Utrecht guild. In 1483 Erhard accompanied Graaf Johann zu Solms-Lich, the Ritter Philipp von Bicken and Bernard von Breydenbach, chamberlain to the Archbishop of Mainz, on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1486 Peregrinationes in terram sanctam, written by Breydenbach and illustrated with woodcuts by Reuwich, was published and became highly popular as a travel guide. The woodcuts, which fold out to show townscapes, including Venice and Jerusalem, made this publication technically as well as artistically an exceptional achievement. The title page, with a richly dressed Venetian lady, and other smaller woodcuts showing inhabitants of the Holy Land, are similar in style to prints by the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I...


Ellen Konowitz

(b Groningen, c. 1500; d ?Antwerp, c. 1560).

North Netherlandish printmaker, painter and designer of stained glass. Van Mander recorded that Swart spent several years in Gouda (probably c. 1522–3), where he was the teacher of Adriaen (Pietersz.) Crabeth (d 1553), brother of the famous stained-glass designers Dirk and Wouter Crabeth. It must have been about this time that Swart executed his signed woodcut of Christ Preaching from a Ship (c. 1522–5; Hollstein, no. 5), which was described by van Mander. From van Mander it is also known that Swart travelled to Italy. He may have gone from Venice to Constantinople, before he designed another work mentioned by van Mander, the Procession of Turkish Riders, a set of five woodcuts (1526; Hollstein, nos 8–11) depicting Sultan Süleyman the Great and his entourage and executed by Willem Liefrinck (1490–1542). Van Mander did not know any paintings by Swart, but he reported that he did paint landscapes and figures, according to him, in the style of Jan van Scorel....


[Theodoricus Iacobi]

(b ?Amsterdam, c. 1480–85; d Antwerp, after Dec 30, 1547).

South Netherlandish stained-glass designer, printmaker and glasspainter. Guicciardini referred to him as one of the three leading glass painters in Flanders, along with Aerdt Ortkens and Theodore Stas. Until 1901, when Glück identified him with the Monogrammist DV, he appeared in the literature as ‘Dirk van Staren’. Glück associated a woodcut device of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, signed with this monogram and dated 1526, with a reference in the guild records stating that Vellert executed a device for the guild the second year he was dean (1526).

Vellert is probably the glazier ‘Theodoricus Iacobi Amstelredamus’ mentioned by Gerardus Geldenhauer in his journal of 1522. It has been suggested that his father was a priest living in Amsterdam named Jacob Vellert. However, Jacob Vellert was apparently dead by 1460, too early to be Dirk’s father, although it is possible that the artist was related to him. It has also been claimed that Dirk Vellert received his early training in Mechelen ...


Peter Strieder

(b Nuremberg, 1434–7; d Nuremberg, Nov 30, 1519).

German painter and woodcutter. The head of a large workshop which produced altarpieces, memorial pictures, portraits, and designs for glass paintings in late 15th-century Nuremberg, he also provided notable innovations in the art of the woodcut. He is famed as the teacher of Dürer family §(1); after Wolgemut’s death in 1519, Dürer added that date to a portrait of his former master done in 1516, but the 82 years mentioned in the inscription could either be Wolgemut’s lifespan or his age when painted.

He was the son of the painter Valentin Wolgemut (fl 1433/6; d 1469–70), who may have been the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I), though the latter’s work does not begin until after mid-century. He was probably first trained in his father’s workshop. Michael Wolgemut is first mentioned as a painter when instituting legal proceedings in Nuremberg in ...