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(b Utrecht,?1597–8; d Utrecht, bur Nov 12, 1671).

Dutch painter. He was the son of the Utrecht glass painter Herman Beerntsz. van Bijlert (c. 1566–before 1615). Jan must have trained first with his father but was later apprenticed to the painter Abraham Bloemaert. After his initial training, he visited France and travelled to Italy, as did other artists from Utrecht. Jan stayed mainly in Rome, where he became a member of the Schildersbent; he returned to Utrecht in 1624. In Rome he and the other Utrecht artists had come under the influence of the work of Caravaggio; after their return home, this group of painters, who became known as the Utrecht Caravaggisti, adapted the style of Caravaggio to their own local idiom. The Caravaggesque style, evident in van Bijlert’s early paintings, such as St Sebastian Tended by Irene (1624; Rohrau, Schloss) and The Matchmaker (1626; Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.), is characterized by the use of strong chiaroscuro, the cutting off of the picture plane so that the image is seen close-up and by an attempt to achieve a realistic rather than idealized representation. Van Bijlert continued to paint in this style throughout the 1620s, a particularly productive period....

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(b ’s Hertogenbosch, bapt May 9, 1596; d Antwerp, Dec 31, 1675).

Flemish glass-painter, draughtsman, painter and tapestry designer. His reputation rests primarily on his drawings and oil sketches, of which several hundred survive, intended mainly as designs for stained-glass windows and prints. He was strongly influenced by the work of other important Flemish artists of the late 16th century and early 17th, notably Rubens, whose motifs and stylistic elements he frequently reworked in his own compositions.

He was the son of the glass painter Jan (Roelofsz.) van Diepenbeeck (d 1619) and first acquired the skills of his trade in his father’s workshop in ’s Hertogenbosch. In 1622–3 he became a master glass painter in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp; it is possible that his move from ’s Hertogenbosch in 1621 was related to the war negotiations that were underway that year, which particularly threatened the northern border provinces of the southern Netherlands, where ’s Hertogenbosch was located....

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Franz Adrian Dreier

(bapt Grossalmerode, Dec 17, 1663; d Altmünden, May 13, 1726).

German glass engraver. His father was the glassmaker Franz Gundelach (fl 1660), and from c. 1669 the family lived in Oranienbaum. By 1682 Gondelach must have been in Kassel, where he married Anna Dorothea Trümper in 1689 and acquired citizenship in 1694. From his arrival in Kassel he seems to have worked for Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Kassel. On 18 January 1688 he obtained an official appointment and is documented as ‘court master glassworker’, ‘court glass engraver’ or ‘princely glass engraver’. Gondelach has been accepted as the most important glass engraver of the Baroque period, as he skilfully mastered the techniques of tiefschnitt (deep-relief) and hochschnitt (high-relief) decoration. His most famous works are three jugs: the first (Pommersfelden, Schloss Weissenstein) was a present from the Landgrave to Lothar Franz von Schönborn in 1715, the second (made before 1714) is in Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen, and the third (also made before ...

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[il Cieco da Gambassi]

(b Gambassi, 1603; d Rome c. 1664).

Italian sculptor. The son of a glassmaker, he studied under the sculptor Pietro Tacca in Florence. While in the service of Carlo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, he was trapped in Mantua during the Austrian siege of 1630 and somehow he was blinded. According to Filippo Baldinucci, a contemporary and acquaintance of Gonnelli’s, his blindness was due to the hardships endured during the siege, not to any accident. Deprived of his livelihood, Gonnelli returned home and spent several unproductive years there. According to Baldinucci, his first completed work was a clay bust of Carlo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, begun from life ten years earlier. In time he regained his confidence and began to accept commissions.

Gonnelli’s surviving works include reliefs of the Nativity (Casole, S Maria Assunta) and the Pietà (Borgo di Colle, Santa Croce and S Bernardino all’Osservanza) and a statue of St Stephen (Florence, S Stefano), which was mentioned by Baldinucci. Because of his blindness, Gonnelli’s works were made of malleable materials such as wax and clay and were often covered with a monochrome varnish rather than painted, as was more typical of the 17th century. He is considered to be one of the last of the school of Giovanni della Robbia and to represent the provincial Italian Baroque....

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Camillo Semenzato

(b ?Venice, 1699; d Venice, Feb 21, 1781).

Italian sculptor. His father, Gregorio, was a glassworker from the Alto Adige. Morlaiter’s training as a sculptor may have taken place in Venice, and certainly his style has much in common with that of Venetian sculptors such as Filippo Parodi, Giuseppe Torretti and Francesco Cabianca; it also, however, has markedly Rococo characteristics that would have been more readily assimilated by an artist from outside the Venetian mainstream tradition.

Whatever Morlaiter’s artistic origins, he soon established a high reputation in Venice with a dynamic and precious manner, demonstrated in the Crucifix (c. 1732) he sculpted for S Maria degli Scalzi, which coincided well with contemporary taste. Typical also of his work, with their dynamic outline and luminous, faceted surfaces, are the marble figures of St Benedict and St Scholastica (1735; Fratta Polesine, SS Pietro e Paolo). Between 1735 and 1737 Morlaiter sculpted a marble frame with a Glory of Angels...