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(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...

Article

Francesca Petrucci

(b Florence, 1470; d after 1498).

Italian sculptor. He belonged to a family of well-known artisans; his grandfather Agnolo di Lippo di Polo had worked as an assistant on the stained glass for the cupola of Florence Cathedral and took the name de’ Vetri, sometimes also used by his descendants. Agnolo’s father, Polo di Agnolo, made masks and had his workshop on the Ponte Vecchio, Florence, and his brother Domenico engraved precious stones and medals. Vasari said that Agnolo was a pupil of Verrocchio, adding that ‘he worked very well in clay and has filled the city with works from his hands’. Given the artist’s birth date and that Verrocchio left Florence forever in 1483, Agnolo’s apprenticeship would have been very brief; it is probable that he stayed on in the workshop when it was directed by Lorenzo di Credi.

Two of Agnolo’s works are documented. On 16 August 1495 the Ufficiali della Sapienza commissioned a statue of ...

Article

[il Cieco da Gambassi]

(b Gambassi, 1603; d Rome c. 1664).

Italian sculptor. The son of a glassmaker, he studied under the sculptor Pietro Tacca in Florence. While in the service of Carlo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, he was trapped in Mantua during the Austrian siege of 1630 and somehow he was blinded. According to Filippo Baldinucci, a contemporary and acquaintance of Gonnelli’s, his blindness was due to the hardships endured during the siege, not to any accident. Deprived of his livelihood, Gonnelli returned home and spent several unproductive years there. According to Baldinucci, his first completed work was a clay bust of Carlo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, begun from life ten years earlier. In time he regained his confidence and began to accept commissions.

Gonnelli’s surviving works include reliefs of the Nativity (Casole, S Maria Assunta) and the Pietà (Borgo di Colle, Santa Croce and S Bernardino all’Osservanza) and a statue of St Stephen (Florence, S Stefano), which was mentioned by Baldinucci. Because of his blindness, Gonnelli’s works were made of malleable materials such as wax and clay and were often covered with a monochrome varnish rather than painted, as was more typical of the 17th century. He is considered to be one of the last of the school of Giovanni della Robbia and to represent the provincial Italian Baroque....

Article

Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...

Article

Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...

Article

Camillo Semenzato

(b ?Venice, 1699; d Venice, Feb 21, 1781).

Italian sculptor. His father, Gregorio, was a glassworker from the Alto Adige. Morlaiter’s training as a sculptor may have taken place in Venice, and certainly his style has much in common with that of Venetian sculptors such as Filippo Parodi, Giuseppe Torretti and Francesco Cabianca; it also, however, has markedly Rococo characteristics that would have been more readily assimilated by an artist from outside the Venetian mainstream tradition.

Whatever Morlaiter’s artistic origins, he soon established a high reputation in Venice with a dynamic and precious manner, demonstrated in the Crucifix (c. 1732) he sculpted for S Maria degli Scalzi, which coincided well with contemporary taste. Typical also of his work, with their dynamic outline and luminous, faceted surfaces, are the marble figures of St Benedict and St Scholastica (1735; Fratta Polesine, SS Pietro e Paolo). Between 1735 and 1737 Morlaiter sculpted a marble frame with a Glory of Angels...

Article

Stephen K. Scher

(di Giovan Michele de’) [Pastorino da Siena]

(b Castelnuovo della Berardenga, c. 1508; d Florence, Dec 6, 1592).

Italian medallist, glass painter and die engraver. He was one of the most prolific and able medallists of the Italian Renaissance, producing around 200 medals. He held various official positions including several in the mints of Emilian courts: in Ferrara (1554–9), in Bologna (1572), in Novellara (1574) and in Florence (1576). In Florence he was ‘maestro di stucchi’ under Grand Duke Francesco de’ Medici (1541; 1574; 1587). He was also renowned as a portraitist in coloured wax for which he apparently developed new materials and techniques to represent hair and skin.

Pastorini trained as a glass painter under Guillaume de Marcillat, who worked in Arezzo until his death in 1529. He practised this craft through the 1530s and 1540s, first at Siena Cathedral (1531–7) and later in the Sala Regia in the Vatican and in San Marco (...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(fl 1521–80).

French painter, sculptor and engraver. Born at Gray or Pesmes (both in Haute-Saône), he began work in Dijon, on ephemeral decorations for the ceremonial entry of Francis I in 1521. He probably also produced some stained-glass windows with coats of arms at Gray in 1530. Two engravings in the Flemish style, Roman Charity and Venus, are signed with his full name and dated 1546. Pierre-Jean Mariette ascribed to him a series of prints (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.; 4, after Polidoro da Caravaggio, of terms and 12 of architectural details) engraved in Italy, probably in Rome, between 1535 and 1538, bearing the monogram p.s., although Michel de Marolles, writing in 1666, thought this referred to a certain Perjeconter, otherwise unknown. Although they are very different in style to Prévost’s other works, these works may be by him. If he went to Italy, he was back in France before 1550, when he painted the retables of the high altars at Dôle and Gray for ...

Article

[Paolo di Mariani di Tuccio Taccone da Sezze; Paolo da Gualdo; Paolo di Mariano]

(b ?Sezze, nr Velletri; fl 1451; d Rome ?1470).

Italian sculptor. His earliest documented works are three windows for the Palazzo del Campidoglio, Rome, for which he was paid on 1 January 1451 (Corbo, 1966). He worked with his father, Mariani di Tuccio Taccone, a mason, and Piero d’Albino da Castiglione on the construction of two chapels (destr.) dedicated to St Mary Magdalene and the Holy Innocents near the Ponte S Angelo and commissioned by Nicholas V. From 1453 to 1458 he was one of the team of sculptors working on the Arch at Castelnuovo, Naples (see Naples §IV 4.), for King Alfonso I. Several sections have been convincingly attributed to him, including the river god on the left side of the tympanum and the mask beside it, the spandrel reliefs of Victories with putti below and, probably, the free-standing figures of St Anthony and St George. Hersey has argued that Paolo played only a minor role, assisting with the carving of the narrative reliefs, but stylistically the ...

Article

Louise S. Milne

[Jean de Bruxelles]

(fl 1498–1521).

South Netherlandish painter and designer of tapestry cartoons, stained-glass windows, and sculpture. He is first documented in 1498, as a Brother of Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows, and later became court painter at Mechelen and Brussels to Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Spanish Netherlands. Jan’s widely imitated tapestry designs, filled with graceful, melancholic figures set in a mixture of Late Gothic and Renaissance architecture, helped to create a uniform style in Brussels tapestries in the first quarter of the 16th century. The basis for attributing tapestries to Jan, or his workshop, is the documented series of the Story of Herkinbald (Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.), which was made for the Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament at Leuven and for the design for which Jan was paid 2.5 Rhenish guilders and some wine in 1513. His collaborators were the painter ‘Philips’ [Maître Phillipe] and the weaver ‘...