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Cynthia Lawrence

(b Mechelen, March 18, 1661; dMechelen, c. 1720).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he learnt the picturesque realism associated with Rubens’s workshop. He collaborated with the Mechelen sculptor Jan van der Steen in London before returning to Flanders and joining the Mechelen guild. Langhemans is best represented in Belgium by the works he executed for the church of St Rombout in Mechelen. The earliest is a naturalistic stone statue of St Libertus (1680) for the monument to Amati de Coriache; a dramatically gesticulating stone figure of St Mary Magdalene from the monument to Jan Baptiste and Bernard Alexander van der Zype (1701) exhibits similar tendencies. Conversely, the oak statue of the Virgin of Victory (1680), carved for the monastery of the Brothers of Charity at Kappelen, Antwerp, has a classicizing appearance, which became more pronounced in his work by c. 1700. In 1698–9 Langhemans collaborated with ...

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Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

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B. M. Kirikov, S. G. Fyodorov and Jeremy Howard

Russian family of artists. The architect (1) Vasily Stasov was an eminent exponent of Neo-classicism. His son (2) Vladimir Stasov became a leading critic with democratic views and a champion of Realism in art.

(b Moscow, Aug 4, 1769; d St Petersburg, Sept 5, 1848).

Architect. One of the last great masters of the St Petersburg Neo-classical school along with Karl Rossi and Auguste Ricard Montferrand (1786–1858), he continued and perfected the traditions of Neo-classical monumentality and plasticity earlier developed by Ivan Starov (1745–1808), Andreyan Zakharov and Thomas-Jean de Thomon. Stasov’s buildings were characterized by strength and austerity, geometrical qualities and striking contrasts between the smoothness of the walls and the spatial, decisive quality of the order. As a rule he modified the forms of the most austere and monumental of the Classical orders: the Greek Doric. In striving for an original interpretation of traditional methods, he examined local urban planning and the natural landscape. Stasov mastered a wide range of styles; he designed both domestic buildings and ceremonial palace interiors, created large-scale buildings and introduced new metal constructions....

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B. M. Kirikov and S. G. Fyodorov

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