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Article

Janina Zielińska

(b Tuligłowy, nr Lwów [now Lviv, Ukraine], July 30, 1853; d Habelschwerdt, Silesia [now Bystrzyca Kłodzka, Poland], July 9, 1929).

Polish painter. He studied (1869–71) at the Kraków School of Fine Arts before working as a draughtsman for the archaeologist Stanisław Krzyżanowski (1841–81) on excavations in the Ukraine, then for the architect Feliks G̨siorowski. With the latter’s support, Fałat was able to study architecture in Zurich and Munich, but he gave up his studies to work as a technical draughtsman in Zurich. He continued with his painting studies in Munich (1877–80) under Alexander Strähuber (1814–82) and Georg Raab (1821–85). Fałat’s early work shows the influence of the watercolourists Hubert von Herkomer and Ludwig Passini (1832–1903), and of Eduard Grützner (1846–1925). Fałat’s own watercolour work was soon acclaimed both by the large group of Polish painters in Munich and also by those at home. In 1882–6 Fałat lived in Warsaw painting realistic genre scenes and landscapes and contributing illustrations to Polish and German periodicals, such as the Viennese Secession journal ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman Hamdi; Hamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...

Article

V. A. J. Slowe

(b London, July 28, 1866; d Near Sawrey, Cumbria, Dec 22, 1943).

English painter, draughtsman and writer. A lonely child, she sought solace in botany, zoology, mycology and archaeology, learning to observe and to record. In the 1880s and 1890s she systematically studied fungi, mosses, lichens, fossils and Roman antiquities; her watercolours of these, such as the collection in the National Art Library (London, V&A), combine broad washes with acutely observed detail in elegant compositions. Pets such as rabbits, mice and hedgehogs provided company and inspired stories to entertain her ex-governess’s children. She published The Tale of Peter Rabbit privately in December 1901 (R London, 1902) with her own illustrations. Publication gave her independence from the family wealth. She purchased Hill Top Farm, Near Sawrey (NT), and set her best-loved books in the vicinity (original drawings: Hawkshead, Beatrix Potter Gal.). From 1913 Beatrix Potter was occupied as a sheep farmer.

L. Linder: The Art of Beatrix Potter (London, 1955, rev. 1972)...