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Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Oakland, CA, 1893; d. Shiraz, Iran, 25 Jan. 1977).

American historian of Iranian art. While studying mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, Ackerman met and eventually married Arthur Upham Pope, with whom she had taken courses in philosophy and aesthetics. In 1926 she and Pope organized the first ever exhibition of Persian art at the Pennsylvania Museum and helped create the First International Congress of Oriental Art. In 1930 Ackerman was stricken with polio but taught herself to walk again. They were instrumental in preparing the 1931 Persian Art Exhibition at Burlington House, London, and the Second International Congress of Iranian Art and Archaeology, as well as the Third Congress in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) in 1935 and the exhibition of Iranian art at the Iranian Institute in New York in 1940. She visited Iran for the first time in 1964, when the shah of Iran invited Pope to revive the Asia Institute; it was associated with Pahlavi University in Shiraz until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1845; d 1908).

American interior decorator and founder of the first tapestry factory in the USA. He worked for Herter Brothers (see Herter, Christian) on the decoration of a series of grand houses, notably William H. Vanderbilt’s house on Fifth Avenue, New York, and William Welsh Harrison’s Grey Towers Castle (now part of Arcadia University) in Philadelphia. When the Vanderbilt house was completed in 1882, Christian Herter returned to Germany and Baumgarten took over the company. In 1891 he started his own company, William Baumgarten and Company, Inc., and in 1893 complemented his interior decoration business with a tapestry factory in his Fifth Avenue premises. He recruited weavers and dyers from the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory (which had closed in 1890), including five weavers from the Foussadier family. The factory’s tapestries include one at Grey Towers (1898).

A Short Résumé of the History of Tapestry Making in the Past and Present...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American metalwork company established in Philadelphia in 1810 by Christian Cornelius, a silversmith who had emigrated from the Netherlands in 1783. He soon turned to the casting of bronze, and by 1825 he had become a lamp manufacturer. The company passed to Cornelius’s son Robert (1809–93), under whose management it became an important lighting business. The company made lamps and chandeliers, often finished in gold lacquer; it also made candlesticks, including the earliest documented American brass candlestick. The best known product of the company was the ...

Article

Mormons  

Paul L. Anderson

[Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints]

Religious sect. Mormonism was founded in 1830 in a farmhouse near Fayette, NY, by Joseph Smith jr (1805–44), who declared that he had been called by God as a modern prophet to restore Christianity in its purity. The name was taken from the Book of Mormon, a companion scripture to the Bible, narrating the religious history of an ancient American people who were visited by the resurrected Christ; this was translated from golden plates and published by Smith in 1830. A central teaching of the Church was that members should gather to the American frontier to build the City of Zion in preparation for Christ’s millennial reign. Attempts to build latter-day Zion aroused violent opposition in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois, culminating in the assassination (1844) of Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum Smith. In 1847 Brigham Young (1801–77), Smith’s successor as president and prophet, founded ...

Article

Thomas A. Kane

[Congregation of St Paul]

Religious order of Catholic priests. The congregation was founded in 1858 by Isaac Thomas Hecker (1819–88) as a community of Catholic priests in mission to North America, with a focus on interpreting the world to the Church and the Church to the world. Its work in ecumenism, reconciliation and evangelism brings its members in touch with a variety of American artists. Some members are associated with communications, including publishing, television and the theatre. Its primary symbols are based on St Paul’s apostleship: the sword and the open book.

The Gothic Revival church of St Paul the Apostle (begun 1876), New York, the mother church of the Paulist Fathers, was designed by Jeremiah O’Rourke (1833–1915). Its basilican plan (86×37 m) has a nave 19.5 m wide spanned by a vault designed by George Deshon (1823–1903), painted with a representation of the midnight sky on ...

Article

Santos  

James Cordova and Claire Farago

Term that refers to handmade paintings and sculptures of Christian holy figures, crafted by artists from the Hispanic and Lusophone Americas. The term first came into widespread use in early 20th-century New Mexico among English-speaking art collectors to convey a sense of cultural authenticity. Throughout the Americas, the term imagenes occurs most frequently in Spanish historical documents. Santos are usually painted on wood panels (retablos) or carved and painted in the round (bultos). Reredos, or altarpieces, often combine multiple retablos and bultos within a multi-level architectural framework.

European Christian imagery was circulated widely through the Spanish viceroyalties in the form of paintings, sculptures, and prints, the majority of which were produced in metropolitan centres such as Mexico City, Antigua, Lima, and Puebla, where European- and American-born artists established guilds and workshops. These became important sources upon which local artists elsewhere based their own traditions of religious image-making using locally available materials such as buffalo hides, vegetal dyes, mineral pigments, and yucca fibres, commonly employed by native artists long before European contact....

Article

Shakers  

Malcolm Jones and Daniel W. Patterson

[The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing]

American religious order founded on the personality and teachings of Ann Lee (1736–84). In 1774 she moved from England to America in search of religious freedom, and by the early 1780s began to attract converts. From 1788 subsequent leaders gathered her followers into a disciplined religious order. Shakers believed in a male and a female godhead and in Ann Lee as the second manifestation of the Christ spirit, and they insisted on celibacy and the confession of sins. The name Shaker derives from their charismatic form of worship, in which they sang, danced, and shook with emotion. They were widely respected for their acts of benevolence and for the success of their communitarian experiment, founded on equality of the sexes, joint ownership of all property, and the consecration of labour. At its peak in the 1840s, the Shakers had a membership estimated at 6000 in 19 communities scattered from Maine to Kentucky....