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Article

Sergey Androssov

(Matveyevich)

(b Vil’no [now Vilnius], Lithuania, Nov 2, 1843; d Bad-Homburg, July 9, 1902).

Russian sculptor of Lithuanian birth. He was the son of an innkeeper of modest means. From 1862 he studied under Nikolay Pimenov (1812–64) as an occasional student at the Academy of Arts (Akademiya Khudozhestv) in St Petersburg. While still a student he produced two high relief sculptures, which attracted attention for their realism and which were awarded silver medals: the Jewish Tailor (wood, 1864) and The Miser (wood and ivory, 1865; both St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). In 1871 Antokol’sky left Russia for health reasons. He worked first in Rome and then, from 1877, in Paris. He gained fame in Europe mainly through a number of monumental statues on subjects drawn from Russian history: Ivan the Terrible (marble, 1875; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), Nestor the Chronicler (marble, 1890) and Yermak (bronze, 1891; both St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), and also on subjects connected with the history of religion and philosophy: ...

Article

Kirk Ambrose

(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....

Article

Gudrun Schmidt

German family of artists. The sculptor Emil Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 19 Nov 1800; d Bad Kreuznach, 4 Aug 1867) studied in Berlin under Christian Daniel Rauch. He taught art at Bonn University. At first he was more interested in painting, but then turned enthusiastically to sculpture. He settled in Bad Kreuznach in 1832. Much of his work comprises small genre scenes and figures taken from fairytales. He also modelled important figures from German history and the Reformation, such as Ulpich von Hutten and Philipp Melancthon, and characters from Shakespeare’s plays. His two sons, Carl Cauer (b Bonn, 14 Feb 1828; d Bad Kreuznach, 17 April 1885) and Robert Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 13 Feb 1831; d Kassel, 2 April 1893), both became successful sculptors. Carl was the most important member of the family. He trained with his father and then with ...

Article

Volkmar Essers

(b Bad Pyrmont, June 23, 1805; d Berlin, April 6, 1882).

German sculptor. He came to Berlin in October 1827 and trained in the studio of Christian Daniel Rauch who influenced him greatly for many years, and at the Königliche Akademie der Künste. In early works such as the marble relief based on Goethe’s Fifth Roman Elegy (1832; Heidelberg, priv. col., see Bloch and Grzimek, p. 141) and the marble and bronze group Nymph Catching a Butterfly (1837–9; Luxembourg, Pal. Grand-Ducal) he shows his preference for themes that connect him with ancient art and the German art of the 16th century. The style of these works is, to a large extent, drawn from works by Rauch, although Drake lent his portrayals a genre character and softened classical strictness with gentler modelling and an emphasis on expression. In the field of architectural sculpture he was content to stay within accepted architectonic limits, for example in the group of eight figures on the Schlossbrücke in Berlin (...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Hamburg, Dec 15, 1826; d Christiania [now Oslo], Dec 12, 1882).

Norwegian architect, sculptor and painter of German birth. He studied at the Hamburgische Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der Künste und nützlichen Gewerben (1840–43), afterwards training, still in Hamburg, as an architect under Alexis de Chateauneuf and then as an architect and sculptor in Cologne (1849–50). In 1850 von Hanno followed de Chateauneuf to Christiania to assist him with the construction of Trinity Church (1850–58). De Chateauneuf returned to Hamburg in 1851 because of failing health; von Hanno completed the building, simplifying de Chateauneuf’s design because of economic, as well as structural, problems. The church presents an unusual combination of a centralized, domed plan and a Gothic Revival style, much drier and heavier in detail than originally intended. Remaining in Norway for the rest of his life, von Hanno became one of Christiania’s leading architects. In collaboration with Heinrich Ernst Schirmer (1814–87), with whom he was in partnership from ...

Article

(b Hegstad, Melhus, bapt Aug 30, 1789; d Christiania [now Oslo], June 20, 1859).

Norwegian sculptor. He joined the army in 1810 but in 1815 obtained a discharge and moved to Stockholm to pursue an artistic career. There he studied at the Konstakademi from 1815 to 1819 under Erik Gustav Göthe and in 1820 moved to Rome, where he worked with the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. In Rome he made copies of antique sculptures, including a marble Head of Bacchus (1820–26; Oslo, N.G.) copied from a work in the Museo Capitolino. This Classical influence was reinforced by Thorvaldsen’s Neo-classicism. After leaving Rome in 1826 he spent a while in Christiania before moving to Stockholm again, where he worked as an assistant to Göthe and Johan Niklas Byström.

In 1833 Michelsen began work on statues of the 12 Apostles for the church at Trondheim, which were finished by 1840. Widely acknowledged as his finest work, the Apostles have a monumentality and grandeur associated with Renaissance sculpture. The year of their completion Michelsen became a member of the Kunstakademi in Christiania and at the same time was given the title of Royal Sculptor. He settled in Christiania in ...

Article

Glenny Alfsen

(b Kongsberg, July 3, 1820; d Christiania [now Oslo], May 5, 1886).

Norwegian sculptor. He worked first as an apprentice goldsmith in Christiania, and then studied under Herman Wilhelm Bissen from 1840 to 1851 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. Here he adopted a conservative, late classical style, inspired by the art and literature of Denmark’s golden age. He lived in Rome between 1851 and 1860 and became familiar with the works of Classical and Renaissance masters. This experience increased his self-doubt, and he later became harshly self-critical. A font reflecting his admiration for Berthel Thorvaldsen is Middelthun’s only great work from this period (plaster, 1859; marble, 1865; Oslo, Trefoldighetskirken). He returned to Norway in 1860 and executed a series of busts, which established him as Norway’s leading portrait sculptor. His bust of the poet Johan Sebastian Welhaven (plaster, 1861; Oslo, Ubib.; marble, 1865; Oslo, N.G.), one of the most important examples of Norwegian portrait sculpture, is herm-like in form and, with its sense of classical balance and harmony, embodies the poet’s ideals. Middelthun’s later head-and-shoulders bust of the composer ...

Article

Donald F. McCallum

[Mokujiki Gogyō; Mokujiki Gyōdō; Mokujiki Meiman]

(b Marubatake, Kai Province [now Yamashi Prefecture], 1718; d 1810).

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist monk. He was an ascetic priest of the Shingon sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) during the Edo period (1600–1868) and apparently functioned as an itinerant monk (hijiri) in early adulthood. At the age of 45 he took vows as a ‘wood-eater’ (mokujiki), one who abstained not only from meat, fish and fowl but also from grains, eating only nuts, roots and berries. In 1773, after taking an additional vow to travel throughout Japan, he embarked on a programme of missionary activity that took him from Hokkaido in the north to Kyushu in the south. Mokujiki was already in his early 60s when he began sculpting devotional images for the communities he visited, apparently following the example of his predecessor Enkū. Interestingly, he avoided localities where Enkū had made images. Mokujiki enjoyed excellent health and continued to produce sculptures until he was over 90 years old....

Article

Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...

Article

Andreas Blühm

(b Siegen, Sept 5, 1843; d Agrigento, Oct 15, 1906).

German sculptor and teacher. He received a technically sound training in sculpture at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Berlin from Albert Wolff, a pupil of Christian Daniel Rauch, and was awarded the Michael Beer Prize, enabling him to study in Rome. His early works included the marble group Market Traffic (destr.), formerly on the Belle-Alliance bridge in Berlin, and the allegorical Demon of Steam (destr.), which was erected in a light-well of the Technische Hochschule in Berlin-Charlottenburg. In 1881 he taught at the Kunstakademie in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia); he was appointed a professor in 1883 and later became its Director. Reusch was an exponent of an academic style of sculpture practised in the late 19th century by members of the Hochschule. They erected large and imposing monuments of the ruling Hohenzollern family and of Otto von Bismarck (1815–98), principally in the province of Prussia. There is, however, a restraint in Reusch’s bronze sculptures, bringing his work closer to the Neo-classical style of Louis Tuaillon than to the neo-Baroque of Reinhold Begas, as seen in the equestrian statue of ...

Article

Peter Springer

(Friedrich-August)

(b Pulsnitz, Dec 15, 1804; d Dresden, Feb 21, 1861).

German sculptor. From 1820 onwards, he studied at the Dresden Kunstakademie. In 1826 he moved to Berlin and joined the studio of Christian Daniel Rauch, with whom he was to maintain a lifelong friendship. In 1828, for his relief Penelope and Odysseus, he received a scholarship to visit Italy. He did not begin his journey until 1830, since he was first required to take part in completing Rauch’s monument to Maximilian I Joseph in Munich. In the same period, he produced the figure of a potter (destr.) for the gable decoration of the Munich Glyptothek. After returning from Rome, Rietschel spent almost two years working with Rauch, until taking up an appointment as professor at the Dresden Kunstakademie. His first important commission was the monument to Frederick Augustus I (1831–43; now in front of Japanisches Palais) for the Zwinger in Dresden, in artistic terms a transitional work. He also executed portal and pediment sculptures for the façade of the main building of the old University of Leipzig, and subsequently 12 reliefs on the theme of the cultural history of humanity for the main hall there. He went on to produce two tympana depicting ...

Article

Elizabeth B. Smith

Italian Benedictine abbey in the Abruzzo region. Founded in the 9th century by Emperor Louis the Pious (reg 814–40) and dedicated to St Clement I, whose relics it claimed, the abbey flourished under Abbot Leonate (reg 1155–82), a member of the papal curia. Leonate began an ambitious rebuilding project starting with a new façade, complete with rose window, and a portico for the church, both of which were decorated with monumental stone sculpture carved by masters who were probably not local but rather of French or north Italian origin, perhaps on their way to or from the Holy Land. An elaborately carved pulpit and paschal candelabrum also date to the time of Leonate, as does the Chronicon Casauriense (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 5411), a compilation of documents pertinent to the abbey combined with a history of its existence up to the time of Leonate’s death. Although Leonate died before completing his rebuilding programme, his successor Joel installed the bronze doors still on the central portal of the façade. Construction continued on the church in the early 13th century....

Article

Santos  

James Cordova and Claire Farago

Term that refers to handmade paintings and sculptures of Christian holy figures, crafted by artists from the Hispanic and Lusophone Americas. The term first came into widespread use in early 20th-century New Mexico among English-speaking art collectors to convey a sense of cultural authenticity. Throughout the Americas, the term imagenes occurs most frequently in Spanish historical documents. Santos are usually painted on wood panels (retablos) or carved and painted in the round (bultos). Reredos, or altarpieces, often combine multiple retablos and bultos within a multi-level architectural framework.

European Christian imagery was circulated widely through the Spanish viceroyalties in the form of paintings, sculptures, and prints, the majority of which were produced in metropolitan centres such as Mexico City, Antigua, Lima, and Puebla, where European- and American-born artists established guilds and workshops. These became important sources upon which local artists elsewhere based their own traditions of religious image-making using locally available materials such as buffalo hides, vegetal dyes, mineral pigments, and yucca fibres, commonly employed by native artists long before European contact....

Article

Michael Turner

[Shlomo Zalman Dov]

(b Vrno, Lithuania ?1866; d Denver, CO, March 22, 1932).

Lithuanian sculptor and painter, active in Palestine. Born into a poor, orthodox Jewish family, he attended rabbinical school in Vilna (now Vilnius; 1882–7). During this period he studied art at the local academy and, affected by the anti-Semitism of the period, developed left-wing political interests and the connections to an emancipated Jewish art form. His personal history generated three distinct artistic periods: the early activities in Paris (until 1895), the Bulgarian period (until 1903) and the later Jewish period in Palestine. His first known oil painting, the Dying Will (c. 1886; priv. col., see 1933 exh. cat., no. M16), was typical of late 19th-century romanticism. In 1888 he moved to Warsaw, working intensely on sculptures, reliefs and lithographs. His concept of art for a Jewish national agenda and propaganda was published that year as an article ‘Craftsmanship’ in the Hebrew newspaper Hazfira, forming the basis for his later works. After his marriage (...

Article

Jutta von Simson

(b Berlin, Aug 14, 1776; d Berlin, May 12, 1851).

German sculptor. He was initially apprenticed to Christian Friedrich Heinrich Siegismund Bettkober (1746–1809), while simultaneously attending drawing-classes at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin under Johann Gottfried Schadow, to whose studio he moved in 1794. His brother Ludwig Tieck (1773–1853), the Romantic poet, introduced him to the literary circle of the Romantics. From 1798 he spent three years in Paris, where he entered Louis David’s studio. In 1801, on his return journey, he met Goethe in Weimar and sculpted his portrait bust (Weimar, Goethe-Nmus. Frauenplan). Through Goethe’s mediation, he received the commission for decorative relief panels (e.g. the Prince as Protector of the Arts and Sciences, 1801–5; all in situ) for the Schloss in Weimar. In 1805 he won a scholarship to Rome, where he met Christian Daniel Rauch and they began a friendship that would be decisive for the future direction of Tieck’s life. In Carrara between ...

Article

(b Neustrelitz, Nov 14, 1814; d Berlin, June 20, 1892).

German sculptor . The son of the Neustrelitz sculptor and master builder Christian Philipp Wolff (b 1772), he went to Berlin in 1831 to study at the Akademie and subsequently gained acceptance in the studio of the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch, a friend of his father’s. He worked in Rauch’s studio for 15 years, helping with the execution of the bronze figure group of Polish Princes (1828–41; Poznań, Cathedral), the statues of Victories for Leo von Klenze’s Valhalla in Munich (e.g. Victory Throwing a Garland, marble, 1841; Berlin, Staatl. Museen, N.G.), and the marble sarcophagus for Queen Frederica of Hannover (1841–7; in situ) in the Herrenhausen, Hannover. Among Wolff’s first independent works was a bronze figure of a girl with a lamb, known as Innocence (1836; Berlin, Berlin Mus.). On commission from Count Edward Raczyński, Wolff produced the over life-size seated figure of Countess Constantia Potocka Raczyński as ...

Article

M. Puls

( Julius )

(b Brandenburg an der Havel, June 5, 1804; d Berlin, Jan 21, 1891).

German sculptor . He studied under the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch from November 1823 and at the Akademie in Berlin under Johann Gottfried Schadow. Among his early sculptures are Anatomy (ex-Berlin, Akad. Kst.; destr.) and the Wounded Philoctetes. In 1827 he moved to Rome where he was in close contact with the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen and achieved recognition with his statue of Ganymede as a Shepherd Boy (marble, 1828–30; Potsdam, Schloss Charlottenhof). This nude figure combines classical austerity with the more sentimental and naturalistic approach derived from the Berlin tradition of sculpture; with its soft flesh tints and supple structure, it effectively humanized the accepted sculptural style. Wredow’s approach was similar in Paris Arming Himself for Battle (marble, c. 1833–4) and in Praying Boy (1831–2; both Potsdam, Orangerie) and other classical figures. During the preparation of these works he spent most of his time in Italy (Carrara and Rome) and stayed there until he settled permanently in Berlin in ...