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[Jean-Guillaume]

(b Paris, May 23, 1756; d Paris, March 23, 1822).

French engraver. At baptism he was erroneously registered as Jean-Guillaume instead of Charles-Clément and has consequently been known by two different sets of Christian names, while his assumed surname was taken from his father’s nickname. He received his earliest training in Jean-Baptiste Le Prince’s studio; at the age of 14 he enrolled in the studio of the engraver Jean-Georges Wille, who thought highly of him and of his work, particularly admiring his draughtsmanship. Like his teacher, Bervic worked entirely in burin, which resulted in a severity of style comparable to that of his master. He received numerous prizes and honours. On 24 September 1774 the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris awarded him first prize for drawing from the nude in the quarterly competition for students. On 25 May 1784 he was approved (agréé) as a member by the Académie. In 1792 he won the prize awarded for the encouragement of line-engraving and in ...

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Peter Stasny

(b Vienna, Oct 22, 1878; d Hamburg, July 30, 1960).

Austrian printmaker, painter, decorative artist and writer. He studied painting with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–9). From 1899 to 1900 he renovated the Patronatskirche of Emperor Francis Joseph in Radmer an dem Hasel, decorating it with frescoes. At the same time he received his first illustration commissions from the publishers Gerlach & Wiedling in Vienna. From 1900 he was a member of the Vienna Secession (see Secession, §3). In 1902 he became an assistant tutor in draughtsmanship at the Kunstgewerbeschule (now Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) in Vienna, and in 1905 he took over a class in painting and draughtsmanship, being one of Oskar Kokoschka’s first teachers.

In Autumn 1905 Czeschka joined the Wiener Werkstätte. Under their auspices he produced jewellery, fabrics, wallpaper, enamelled pictures and furniture, and repoussé work and glass windows for the Palais Stoclet, Brussels (...

Article

Ekhart Berckenhagen

(b Berlin, Feb 9, 1738; d Berlin, Feb 28, 1815).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was taught by his father, Ferdinand Helfreich Frisch (1707–58), and by Christian Bernhard Rode (1725–97), supplementing this training by copying pictures in the royal gallery at Sanssouci in Potsdam. He travelled with Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d’Argens (1704–71), to Provence and Rome, where from the spring of 1765 he made studies of antiquities and studies after Raphael, Annibale Carracci and Guido Reni. On his return to Berlin in 1768, he undertook commissions mainly for monumental and historical paintings. He executed wall and ceiling paintings in several Potsdam palaces: the Berliner Schloss (1789), the former Niederländisches Palais (before 1779), the Neues Palais (1768, c. 1795), the Neue Kammern at Sanssouci (1774) and the Marmorpalais (1790), and in the Schloss auf der Pfaueninsel (c. 1796). He also produced easel paintings of mythological and historical subjects primarily relating to Frederick II, King of Prussia, and more than 30 known portraits, among them ...

Article

S. Träger

(b Birkenfeld, Rheinland-Pfalz, April 29, 1789; d Ispringen, nr Pforzheim, Feb 6, 1863).

German painter and printmaker. From 1805 to 1809 he studied under Jakob Becker and the engraver Christian Haldenwang (1770–1831) at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Karlsruhe. In 1809 he went on a study trip to Paris, where Empress Josephine commissioned him to paint a series of 12 landscapes in watercolour. In 1813 he went to Rome on a scholarship, remaining there until 1817 and becoming, with Friedrich Gmelin (1760–1820), part of the Nazarene circle. He also visited Sicily with the architects Friedrich Gärtner and Daniel Ohlmüller. After his return to Karlsruhe he became Professor of Painting and Engraving at the Akademie in 1817. He executed numerous etchings (e.g. Ponto Lupo in Tivoli, 1815), engravings and paintings from his drawings and watercolours of the Italian landscape, and many of these were published in such folios as Arriccia (1820), Tivoli (1822), Ätna...

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Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Bisenz bei Ung Hradisch [now Bzenec], Moravia, Oct 13, 1867; d Vienna, May 9, 1916).

Austrian painter and printmaker. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under the German painter Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) in 1886–8 and the Austrian painter Leopold Carl Müller (1834–92) in 1890–91. He went to Paris to further his studies at the Académie Julian and visited Concarneau in Brittany for the first time in 1893: the Breton people, harbour activity, sunrises and sunsets, sailing ships and the shimmering surface of the water became motifs in his art. In 1894–5 he again studied at the academy in Vienna, this time portrait painting, under the Polish painter Kazimierz Pochwalski (1855–1940). After 1895 he came under the influence of French art (especially plein-air painting, Impressionism and works by Vuillard and Bonnard), which led him to use lighter, brighter colours than before. In 1895 he married Martha Guyot, a Breton woman. Subsequently they spent their summers in Brittany and their winters in Vienna, where in ...

Article

Harley Preston

English family of painters and printmakers. Frederick Christian Lewis the elder (b London, 14 March 1779; d Enfield, London, 18 Dec 1856) was a student of Joseph Constantine Stadler (fl 1780–1812) and of the Royal Academy Schools, London, who became an eminent reproductive engraver and landscape painter. He made aquatints after Thomas Girtin’s Twenty of the Most Picturesque Views in Paris and its Environs (London, 1803) and produced one plate—Bridge and Goats—for Turner’s Liber Studiorum (London, 1807) before collaboration collapsed after a financial disagreement. He worked extensively in reproducing master drawings in various intaglio techniques, especially for William Young Ottley’s 3-volume The Italian School of Design (London, 1808–23), and was Engraver of Drawings to Princess Charlotte, Prince Leopold, George IV, William IV and Queen Victoria. He executed engravings after many contemporary painters’ works, particularly Thomas Lawrence’s portrait drawings, and, under the patronage of ...

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Rüdiger an der Heiden

(b Strasbourg, Oct 2, 1741; d Munich, Jan 3, 1822).

German painter, lithographer and administrator. He received his first training from his father, Konrad Mannlich (1701–58), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken. In 1758 he was sent to the drawing academy at Mannheim by Christian IV, and in 1762–3 accompanied him to Paris, where he met François Boucher, Carle Vanloo and also Christoph Gluck and Diderot. His work from this period reveals the influence of French Rococo, for example in The Surprise (a scene from ‘Blaise the Shoemaker’, an opera by F.-A. Danican Philidor; Regensburg, Staatsgal.). He studied in Paris under Boucher in 1765–6, at the Académie de France in Rome under Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1767–70 and also visited Naples; on his return journey to Germany he met Anton Raphael Mengs in Florence. During 1770–71 he made a great many copies of paintings, including one after Raphael’s Madonna della sedia and another after Correggio’s Madonna of St Jerome...

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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Maler Müller]

(b Kreuznach, Jan 13, 1749; d Rome, April 23, 1825).

German painter, engraver, draughtsman, poet and Playwright. From about 1765 he was taught by Daniel Hien (1724–73), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, with 17th-century Dutch painting as his model. Müller showed a talent for realistic depiction of animals, especially horses, and landscape, including farm scenes. The Duke gave him an allowance so that, from 1769, he was able to attend the Mannheim Akademie. Müller’s friendship there with Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell (1749–1822) led to a considerable mutual influence in the work of all three. Müller also established himself as a poet at this time, becoming one of the representatives of the late 18th-century German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang. In the course of the 1770s Müller wrote a celebrated series of idylls, the lyric drama Niobe and the first parts of his Fausts Leben dramatisiert, all issued in editions with his own engraved illustrations. Life drawings and etchings from this period are in Mannheim (Städt. Reiss-Mus.), Frankfurt am Main (Goethemus.) and Monaco-Ville (Archvs Pal. Princier). At this time, however, Müller’s work as a poet and dramatist was more widely known and admired than his work as an artist. His study of the famous collection of casts of antique sculptures in the Antikensaal at Mannheim, and of paintings in the picture gallery belonging to the Elector ...

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Eva Börsch-Supan

German family of artists. The draughtsmen, engravers and painters Franz [Friedrich] Riepenhausen (b Göttingen, 1786; d Rome, 3 Jan 1831) and his brother Johannes [Christian] Riepenhausen (b Göttingen, 1788; d Rome, 17 Sept 1860) were both taught by their father, the Göttingen engraver Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen (1765–1840), and first worked in the style of precise, often anecdotal illustration typical of late 18th-century drawing and printmaking. In 1800 they produced engravings of Johann Heinrich Tischbein the elder’s illustrations of the works of Homer, a commission that demanded the use of clear line. Studies in Dresden (from May to October 1804) under Ferdinand Hartmann (1774–1842) reinforced their preference for this style. They were also, however, attracted by Catholicism (they converted in 1804) and to Romanticism. In 1806, they published engravings after Ludwig Tieck’s Genoveva, and they made copies of Hartmann’s studies after old Italian oil paintings....

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Gode Krämer and Roberto Pontual

German family of painters, draughtsmen, and engravers. (1) Georg Philipp Rugendas I, an esteemed painter and graphic artist in Augsburg, established a print publishing house there in 1735. His sons Georg Philipp Rugendas II (1701–74), Christian Rugendas (1708–81), and Jeremias Gottlob Rugendas (1710–72) helped with this business, as did their descendants, including Georg Philipp II’s grandson, the engraver Johann Lorenz Rugendas II (1775–1826). (2) Johann Moritz Rugendas, the son of Johann Lorenz II, was noted particularly for his drawings and paintings of Brazil and other Latin American countries.

(b Augsburg, Nov 27, 1666; d Augsburg, May 9, 1742).

His father, a watchmaker, trained him in copper engraving, but after a fistula on his right hand forced him to abandon this he was apprenticed (...

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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Sigmind]

(b Kassel, Dec 10, 1794; d Kassel, March 7, 1887).

German painter, printmaker, illustrator and writer. After having lessons in drawing from his father, the sculptor and printmaker Johann Christian Ruhl (1764–1842), Ruhl studied from 1806 at the Kassel Kunstakademie. In order to gain a more thorough training in history painting, he spent the winter of 1812–13 studying anatomy at the university at Göttingen and then a year at the Akademie in Dresden.

Ruhl achieved his first successes in Kassel with pictures of horses, as Horse Race in Antiquity (1813; Kassel, Neue Gal.). In 1815, after serving in the Hessian cavalry fighting Napoleon, Ruhl continued his artistic studies in Munich and formed a close association with the painter Carl Philipp Fohr. The two shared an enthusiasm for chivalric romances and undertook joint commissions to illustrate them. Examples by Ruhl include drawings for Ludwig Tieck’s Melusine (c. 1815–16; Kassel, Neue Gal.; Frankfurt am Main, Städel. Kstinst. & Städt. Gal.)....

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Sergey Kuznetsov

(b nr Merseburg, Germany, March 12, 1770; d Tartu, Jan 2, 1838).

Estonian painter, engraver and teacher, of German birth. He studied in Leipzig and Dresden c. 1795 under Anton Graff and Christian Leberecht Vogel. In Leipzig he learnt an austere approach to art that was mingled with Lutheranism. He rarely received commissions for portraits and turned to engraving as a more democratic art form, portraying, for example, Estonians in the service of the Russian government, such as Pyotr Wittgenstein (drypoint, 1815; Tartu, Mus. A.). At the centre of Senff’s artistic universe, Germany, the medieval system of relations between man and the world gave way to Sturm und Drang at the turn of the 19th century, but on the fringes art was more conservative and made a smooth transition to the Biedermeier style, whereby portraits, landscapes and still-lifes were painted with equal scrupulousness. Senff’s landscapes are completely purged of feeling, and they focus on the accurate and precise representation of detail, mainly architectural, as in ...

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Tone Skedsmo

(b Christiania [Kristiania from 1877; now Oslo], Nov 29, 1869; d Oslo, June 19, 1935).

Norwegian painter and printmaker. Sohlberg decided to be a painter when young, but his father wished him to follow a thorough training as a craftsman. Sohlberg therefore enrolled at the Royal School of Drawing in Kristiania in 1885 under the interior designer Wilhelm Krogh (1829–1913) and stayed at the school until 1890. Subsequently, he attended night classes under the graphic artist and painter Johan Nordhagen (1856–1956) both in the autumn of 1906 and also from 1911 to 1917, when he concentrated on printmaking. Sohlberg painted his first pictures while staying in the Valdrés region to the north-west of Kristiania in summer 1889. The following summer he painted with Sven Jørgensen (1861–1940) at Slagen near Åsgårdstrand, and in autumn 1891 he was a pupil of Erik Werenskiold and Eilif Peterssen in Kristiania. For some months during the winter of 1891–2 Sohlberg attended Kristian Zahrtmann’s art school in Copenhagen. He also studied for four months in ...

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Leif Østby

( Theodor )

(b Vinger, Feb 11, 1855; d Oslo, Nov 23, 1938).

Norwegian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied in Christiania (later Kristiania, now Oslo) in 1873–5 under Julius Middelthun, who discovered his unusual gift for drawing, and then at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1876–9). Among his early paintings, Female Half-nude (1877; Bergen, Billedgal.) is typical in revealing an interest in individual personality and psychology even in a traditional academic subject. In 1878, while on a visit to Kristiania, Werenskiold met the collector and editor Peter Christien Asbjørnsen (1812–85) and was engaged as an illustrator for his new edition of Norwegian fairy tales (Kristiania, 1879). Together with Theodor Kittelsen, he continued to contribute illustrations to Absjørnsen’s publications. In his drawings for tales such as De Kongsdøtre i berget det blå (‘The three princesses in the mountain-in-the-blue’; Kristiania, 1887), he achieved a striking combination of realistic observation, fantasy and humour, his imaginary creatures being especially successful. During the 1880s Werenskiold was also active as a painter. He left Munich early in ...