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Within a half-century of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and Maori chiefs in 1840—the event from which the beginning of New Zealand (Aotearoa) is generally dated (and leaving aside from the present discussion the tribal art of the indigenous Maori and the early art created by European navigators, explorers, surveyors, itinerant artists, soldiers, and the like)—a rudimentary infrastructure of public art galleries, art societies, and some art schools had arisen in the main cities—Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—and the beginnings of a discourse concerning the character and purpose of the visual arts in the new nation emerged. The central question was whether or not such a phenomenon as ‘New Zealand art’ existed or should exist and what characteristics it should aspire to. These matters were vigorously debated for a decade or so either side of 1890 when the infant nation marked its 50th anniversary with a jubilee. The discourse about national identity then largely disappeared for a generation only to emerge again a decade or so either side of ...

Article

Betsy L. Chunko

(b Le Mans, Nov 1, 1908; d Brisbane, Australia, July 7, 1995).

French architectural historian, active also in America. Bony was educated at the Sorbonne, receiving his agregation in geography and history in 1933. In 1935, converted to art history by Henri(-Joseph) Focillon, he travelled to England under a research grant from the Sorbonne, after which time he became Assistant Master in French at Eton College (1937–9 and 1945–6). He returned to France in 1939 as an infantry lieutenant in World War II in the French Army, was taken as a prisoner of war and spent the years 1940–43 in an internment camp in Germany. After the war he returned to England, first to Eton, then as Lecturer in the History of Art at the French Institute in London (1946–61), Visiting Lecturer at the Courtauld Institute of Art (1948–58), and Slade Professor of Fine Art at St John’s College, Cambridge (1958–61). From 1961 to 1962...

Article

Roslyn F. Coleman

(Joseph)

(b London, Feb 25, 1866; d Melbourne, May 16, 1929).

Australian architect, theorist and writer of English birth. He trained as an architect in London from 1881 and then worked in various architectural offices there. He emigrated to Australia in 1889 and worked in various states before settling in Melbourne in 1899. He designed a number of offices, residences, churches and other public buildings, often for other architects. Through this work and his teachings and writings, he influenced many Australian architects by his strong principles of originality and simplicity in design, harmony and balance in composition, and national sentiment. These principles were closely allied with those of English architects working in the Arts and Crafts Movement; however, his use of nature for inspiration and his relaxation of past rules of composition and decoration also place him within the Art Nouveau movement. Haddon’s designs were characterized by plain façades, the careful use of simple ornament and the positioning of elements to produce a distinctive and often delicately balanced composition. Examples of this work include his residence, Anselm (...

Article

Patrick Hutchings

The aesthetic concept of Sublime, the had been extensively discussed and developed in Europe throughout the 18th century, in particular by Edmund Burke in his work A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1756). Burke identified both the Sublime and the Beautiful as emotional responses to the landscape, but whereas the Beautiful was smooth, even, small and regular, the Sublime was vast, awe-inspiring and created a sense of ‘delightful horror’ in the viewer (Burke, Book I, §III; Book II, §VIII), that is a delight in horror that does not threaten the viewer. Obscurity, terror, eternity and infinity are also themes in Burke’s work, all of which can be read as substitutes for the fear of God. The Sublime in Nature is the first essay in The Australian Sketchbook (1838) by James Martin (1820–86) is one of the earliest references to the Sublime in Australia. Although Martin does not seem to have read Burke’s work, he too describes the notion of the ‘sublimity and power of the Creator’ seen everywhere in His works....

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(b London, Aug 29, 1849; d Australia, Aug 18, 1934).

English architect, urban planner, writer and teacher. He studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, where he was a friend of William Morris. Following an apprenticeship to Harry Robert Newton (d 1889), he set up in private practice in 1870 as a partner in Sulman Rhodes, designing several churches, including Congregational churches in Caterham and Croydon, Surrey, and Bromley, Kent, as well as schools and country houses. He also became Vice-President of the Architectural Association, London. In 1885 Sulman moved to Australia, where he became interested in the regulation of Australia’s rapidly growing cities. He continued to practise as an architect in Sydney with J. P Power, important buildings including the Bank of New South Wales (1889) and Mutual Life Association Building (1891; later New Zealand Chambers), both in Sydney, and the AMP Buildings in Melbourne and Brisbane, in which he used a variety of classical styles. However his most important work was in the development of urban planning theories and legislation, and he became an influential writer and government consultant in this field. In his early book ...

Article

(b Richmond, Surrey, ?Oct 4, 1794; d Hobart, Tasmania, Aug 17, 1847).

Australian painter and writer of English birth. He first achieved notice as an art critic and essayist for the London Magazine (1820–23) under a variety of pseudonyms. His circle of acquaintances included Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt and Thomas De Quincey. Between 1821 and 1825 he exhibited six paintings on literary subjects at the Royal Academy, London (and probably drawings, since he preferred to work on paper). A wash drawing of amorous couples in a landscape (early 1820s; London, BM) is reminiscent of Fuseli, whom he described as ‘the God of his worship’.

In his writings and manner, Wainewright affected the style of the dilettante; he was reputed to be a poisoner and embezzler. In 1837 he was tried for forgery and transported to Hobart in Tasmania (then Van Diemen’s Land) where in the next ten years, despite his convict status and poor health, he made an important contribution to the early art of Australia. He was, with ...